Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Per Jimmie Åkesson is a Swedish politician who has served as Leader of the Sweden Democrats since May 2005. He has been a Member of the Riksdag for Jönköping County since September 2010, he served as Leader of the Sweden Democratic Youth from 2000 to 2005. Jimmie Åkesson grew up in Sölvesborg, Blekinge County, he was a member of the Moderate Youth League, the youth wing of the Moderate Party, but left the Moderates to join the old Sweden Democratic Youth Association in 1995. The same year he co-founded a local chapter of the Sweden Democratic Youth Association. In 1997, he was elected as a deputy member of the party board; the party's policies that he claims he was most attracted to at first were its view on the European Union, its policy on immigration. Prior to working full-time in politics, Åkesson worked as a web designer at the company BMJ Aktiv, which he co-founded with, among others, Björn Söder, the former party secretary of the Sweden Democrats, he studied political science, economics, human geography and philosophy at Lund University, although he never completed a degree.
Of the 307.5 ECTS worth of coursework he commenced, he completed 220.5 ECTS. In 1998, at the age of 19, Åkesson was elected to public office as a councilman in Sölvesborg Municipality; the same year, he became deputy chairman of the newly established Sweden Democratic Youth, from 2000 to 2005, was chairman of the organization. In 2005, he defeated party leader Mikael Jansson in a party election to become the party leader of the Sweden Democrats. In the 2010 general election, the SD for the first time crossed the election threshold and entered the Riksdag, with 5.70% of the votes, gaining 20 seats. Åkesson, placed first on the party's national ballot, was elected as a Member of the Riksdag together with 19 of his fellow party members. In September 2014, Sveriges Radio reported that Åkesson had spent upwards of 500,000 kronor in 2014 alone on online betting; the sum is more than the politician would have earned all year, after tax, reported SR. The revelation caused an uproar, both among people who view Åkesson as unreliable and those who opposed SR's decision to publish the information.
Among the latter were former Green Party Spokesperson Maria Wetterstrand and Foreign Minister Carl Bildt. Åkesson himself called SR's actions an attempt at character assassination. Following the 2014 election, Åkesson announced. In early 2015, Åkesson was named Sweden's most important opinion leader for the calendar year 2014 by the Swedish magazine DSM in their annual rankings. On 27 March 2015, Åkesson publicly announced that he would return to his duties as party leader for the SD, albeit in a somewhat reduced role, on the SVT program Skavlan, as well as in an open letter on his Facebook page. On 9 September 2018, the SD got 17.6 % of the votes, after the Social Democratic Party and the Moderate Party. SD will have 62 of 349 seats in the next Riksdag. Åkesson is engaged to Louise Erixon, the mayor of Sölvesborg, one of the first Sweden Democrats to hold a local mayorship. They have a son, Nils Åkesson.: 20 röster om 20 år. Sverigedemokraterna 1988–2008 ISBN 978-91-977376-0-9: Åkesson om... Vecka 40–52 2008 ISBN 978-91-977376-1-6: Satis polito.
ISBN 9198116207: Det moderna folkhemmet. ISBN 9789198116243 Media related to Jimmie Åkesson at Wikimedia Commons Official website Jimmie Åkesson at the Sweden Democrats' website Jimmie Åkesson's political blog Jimmie Åkesson at the Swedish parliament's website
Nationalism is a political and economic ideology and movement characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference, that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, that the nation is the only rightful source of political power, it further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, religion and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture, cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements, it encourages pride in national achievements, is linked to patriotism. Nationalism is combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism or socialism for example. Nationalism as an ideology is modern. Throughout history, people have had an attachment to their kin group and traditions, to territorial authorities and to their homeland, but nationalism did not become a widely-recognized concept until the 18th century.
There are three paradigms for understanding the origins and basis of nationalism. Primordialism proposes that there have always been nations and that nationalism is a natural phenomenon. Ethnosymbolism explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon and stresses the importance of symbols and traditions in the development of nations and nationalism. Modernism proposes that nationalism is a recent social phenomenon that needs the socio-economic structures of modern society to exist. There are various definitions of a "nation", which leads to different strands of nationalism. Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared ethnicity and culture, while civic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared citizenship and institutions, is linked to constitutional patriotism; the adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has been a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to mismatch between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in an anomie that nationalists seek to resolve.
This anomie results in a society reinterpreting identity, retaining elements deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities foreign powers that are controlling them. National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are important in nationalism. In practice, nationalism can be seen as positive or negative depending on context and individual outlook. Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, the Zionist movement that created modern Israel, the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Conversely, radical nationalism combined with racial hatred was a key factor in the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany. More nationalism was an important driver of the controversial annexation of Crimea by Russia.
The terminological use of'nations','sovereignty' and associated concepts was refined with the writing by Hugo Grotius of De Jure Belli ac Pacis in the early 17th century. Living in the times of the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands and the Thirty Years' War between Catholic and Protestant European nations, it is not surprising that Grotius was concerned with matters of conflicts between nations in the context of oppositions stemming from religious differences; the word nation was usefully applied before 1800 in Europe to refer to the inhabitants of a country as well as to collective identities that could include shared history, language, political rights and traditions, in a sense more akin to the modern conception. Nationalism as derived from the noun designating'nations' is a newer word, it became important in the 19th century. The term became negative in its connotations after 1914. Glenda Sluga notes that "The twentieth century, a time of profound disillusionment with nationalism, was the great age of globalism."
Nationalism has been a recurring facet of civilizations since ancient times, though the modern sense of national political autonomy and self-determination was formalized in the late 18th century. Examples of nationalist movements can be found throughout history, from the Jewish revolts of the 1st and 2nd centuries, to the re-emergence of Persian culture during the Sasanid period of Persia, to the re-emergence of Latin culture in the Western Roman Empire during the 4th and 5th centuries, as well as many others. In modern times, examples can be seen in the emergence of German nationalism as a reaction against Napoleonic control of Germany as the Confederation of the Rhine around 1805–14. Linda Colley in Britons, Forging the Nation 1707–1837 explores how the role of nationalism emerged about 1700 and developed in Britain reaching full form in the 1830s. Historians of nationalism in Europe begin with the French Revolution, not only for its impact on French nationalism but more for its impact on Germans and Italians and on Eu
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w
A crossbow is a type of elastic ranged weapon in similar principle to a bow, consisting of a bow-like assembly called a prod, mounted horizontally on a main frame called a tiller, handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a long gun. It shoots arrow-like projectiles called quarrels; the medieval European crossbow was called by many other names including crossbow itself, most of which were derived from the word ballista, an ancient Greek torsion siege engine similar in appearance. Although having the same launch principle, crossbows differ from bows in that a bow's draw must be maintained manually by the archer pulling the bowstring with fingers and back muscles and holding that same form in order to aim, while a crossbow uses a locking mechanism to maintain the draw, limiting the shooter's exertion to only pulling the string into lock and release the shot via depressing a lever/trigger; this not only enables a crossbowman to handle stronger draw weight, but hold for longer with significant less physical strain, thus capable of better precision.
Crossbows played a significant role in the warfare of East Asia and Medieval Europe. The earliest crossbows in the world were invented in ancient China and caused a major shift in the role of projectile weaponry; the traditional bow and arrow had long been a specialized weapon that required considerable training, physical strength and expertise to operate with any degree of practical efficiency. In many cultures, archers were considered a separate and superior warrior caste, despite being drawn from the common class, as their archery skill-set was trained and strengthened from birth and was impossible to reproduce outside a pre-established cultural tradition, which many nations lacked. In contrast, the crossbow was the first ranged weapon to be simple and physically undemanding enough to be operated by large numbers of untrained conscript soldiers, thus enabling any nation to field a potent force of crossbowmen with little expense beyond the cost of the weapons themselves. In modern times, like bows, have been supplanted by the more powerful and accurate firearms in most weapon roles, but are still used for competitive shooting sports and scenarios when shooting with relative silence is important.
A crossbowman or crossbow-maker is sometimes called an arbalest. Arrow and quarrel are all suitable terms for crossbow projectiles; the lath called the prod, is the bow of the crossbow. According to W. F. Peterson, the prod came into usage in the 19th century as a result of mistranslating rodd in a 16th century list of crossbow effects; the stock is the wooden body on which the bow is mounted, although the medieval tiller is used. The lock refers to the release mechanism, including the string, trigger lever, housing. A crossbow is a bow mounted on an elongated frame with a built-in mechanism that holds the drawn bow string, as well as a trigger mechanism that allows the string to be released; the Chinese trigger mechanism was a vertical lever composed of four bronze pieces secured together by two bronze rods. The nu is so called, its stock is like the arm of a man, therefore. That which hooks the bowstring is called ya, for indeed it is like teeth; the part round about the teeth is called the'outer wall'.
Within there is the ` hanging knife' so called. The whole assembly is called ji; the earliest European designs featured a transverse slot in the top surface of the frame, down into which the string was placed. To shoot this design, a vertical rod is thrust up through a hole in the bottom of the notch, forcing the string out; this rod is attached perpendicular to a rear-facing lever called a tickler. A design implemented a rolling cylindrical pawl called a nut to retain the string; this nut has a perpendicular centre slot for the bolt, an intersecting axial slot for the string, along with a lower face or slot against which the internal trigger sits. They also have some form of strengthening internal sear or trigger face of metal; these roller nuts were either free-floating in their close-fitting hole across the stock, tied in with a binding of sinew or other strong cording. Removable or integral plates of wood, ivory, or metal on the sides of the stock kept the nut in place laterally. Nuts were made of bone, or metal.
Bows could be kept taut and ready to shoot for some time with little physical straining, allowing crossbowmen to aim better without fatiguing. Chinese crossbow bows were made of composite material from the start. European crossbows from the 10th to 12th centuries used wood for the bow called the prod or lath, which tended to be ash or yew. Composite bows started appearing in Europe during the 13th century and could be made from layers of different material wood and sinew glued together and bound with animal tendon; these composite bows made of several layers are much stronger and more efficient in releasing energy than simple wooden bows. As steel became more available in Europe around the 14th century, steel prods came into use. Traditionally, the prod was lashed to the stock with rope, whipcord, or other strong cording; this cording is called the bridle. The Chinese used winches for large mounted crossbows. Winches may have been used for hand held crossbows during the
Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation
The Swedish Anarcho-Syndicalist Youth Federation, is a youth-based group in Sweden that supports independent working class struggle. The federation was founded in 1993, in part rooted in the militant autonomous youth movement that had begun to grow throughout Scandinavia in the early 1990s. Inspiration came from the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden. From just three groups in 1993 it grew and today it is a nationwide federation made up of around 25 local groups, located throughout the entire country. Aside from the Samordningsgruppen, SOG. Since the early 1990s, the SUF published a magazine called Direkt Aktion. SUF is, in contrast to its anarcho-syndicalist beliefs, not a union, their idea of anarcho-syndicalism expands beyond the daily labour union activity, claims that in a global community where capitalist relations have expanded into all parts of society, a broader movement and a broader definition of class struggle is needed. Thus, they believe it is necessary to confront capitalism not only in workplaces, but in schools, local communities, etc.
The network Planka.nu was initiated as a campaign by SUF in 2001. The campaign dealt with public transportation, seeking a shift from soaring prices to a tax-financed model; the campaign got a lot of attention because of the unorthodox methods. Nu jävlar är det nog, was a nationwide anti-racist campaign initiated by SUF on August 24, 2004 and ended February 1, 2005, it claimed to be different from other anti-racist campaigns in that it took in account factors such as social class. Klasskampen tar inte semester - "There is no vacation for the class struggle" - was SUF's nationwide campaign about summer jobs, it lasted for five months, from May 1 to October 1, 2005. It was criticized for encouraging people to commit illegal acts; the nationwide campaign Osynliga partiet was initiated by SUF. The campaign first received media attention when winner of the political reality show Toppkandidaterna, Petter Nilsson, donated part of his prize to SUF for financing part of the campaign, criticized after the offices of the Centre Party were vandalized following their announcement of their intention to dismantle the Employment Security Act, with the logo of the campaign found at the site.
In addition to this, a few offices of the Christian Democrats were attacked. Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden, Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation Invisible Party, Osynliga Partiet - a campaign initiated by SUF Direkt Aktion Official website A short introduction to SUF
Young Left (Sweden)
Young Left is a socialist and feminist youth organisation. It is the official youth wing of the Swedish Left Party; the organisation calls themselves a"revolutionary youth organisation with roots in the communist part of the labour movement". Young Left is a socialist and feminist political youth organisation committed to organising young people to work for social change that evolved out of the labour movement, with influences from environmentalism, the peace movement, the feminist movement. Young Left works for social justice and a society characterised by equality, generous welfare provisions for all citizens, generous immigration policies, respect for the environment; as its mother party, the Left Party, as well as the Social Democratic Party, Young Left is a strong supporter of the Swedish labour unions and the Swedish model, with conditions of work such as wages being regulated in branch-level collective agreements between the unions and the employers, rather than on individual basis. Ung Vänster has had various names and political alignments over the years, but is continuously characterised by the issues that have been at the centre of its history, such as antifascism, social justice and justice.
During the past years, the main focus of the organisation has been the struggle against growing xenophobia in Sweden and criticism of the right government, in particular on its privatisations of welfare services and priorities of tax reductions, rather than increased public spending on welfare and investments in infrastructure and renewable energy. In difference of the Left Party, the Young Left are a revolutionary socialist organisation, not reformist; that means that they want to change the society by a revolution, not with reforms. Young Left work together with and support the Left Party and Vänsterns Studentförbund, but makes on the basis of its own analyses independent decisions regarding organisational and political issues. Young Left was founded in 1903 as Socialdemokratiska Ungdomsförbundet. However, the youth league has attached itself to the left-wing within the Social Democratic Party. At the outbreak of the First World War, the tensions within the party aggravated. In May 1917, the youth league together with the left-wing faction within the party took the initiative to form a new party, Sverges socialdemokratiska vänsterparti.
SDUF became the youth wing of the new party. SSV joined the Communist International in 1919, was renamed to Sveriges kommunistiska parti. Following that, SDUF was renamed to Sveriges Kommunistiska Ungdomförbund, became the Swedish section of the Communist Youth International. In 1952, Democratic Youth was founded on the initiative of the party, in order to be a broader youth movement; until 1958, SKU and DU existed as parallel organisations. In 1958, the two organisations merged and took the name DU. In 1967, ultra-left elements took over the organisation, broke away to form Marxist-leninistiska kampförbundet. Reconstruction work started rapidly. In 1970, the organisation was re-baptised as Kommunistisk Ungdom. By 1973, there was a national organisation in function, and, by 1975, an ordinary congress was held. Young Left have published the youth magazine Röd Press since 1982, when Young Left lost the rights of its magazine Stormklockan to the Maoist MLK in a trial. In Sweden, Young Left was one of the many forces behind the large 15 February 2003 anti-war protest.
Under the years of the 2010s, different members of the Young Left have been excluded because of strong couplings to the Revolutionary Front and the AFA. The national executive board have been doing both official cut-offs in these cases; this is because these groups are not deemed compatible with the democratic socialism and anti-racism fight that the Young Left are driving. The party board of the Left Party has been advising for hard consequences in these situations. After having had a stable membership of between 1,500 – 2,800 for a number of years, the membership of the youth organisation had declined to 964 in 2016 according to the Swedish Agency for Youth and Civil Society. 2017- Henrik Malmrot 2015-2017 Hanna Cederin 2011-2015 Stefan Lindborg 2005-2011 Ida Gabrielsson 2004-2005 Tove Fraurud 2001-2004 Ali Esbati 1996-2001 Jenny Lindahl Persson 1993-1996 Jenny Jederlund 1989-1993 Magnus Blomgren 1980-1989 Stellan Hermansson 1975-1980 Lars Johansson 1973-1975 Bengt Karlsson 1970-1973 Spokespersons: Bengt Karlsson, Urban Herlitz 1967-1970 Anders Carlberg 1964-1967 Kjell E Johansson 1962-1964 Rolf Hagel 1957-1962 Rolf Utberg 1951-1958 Urban Karlsson 19??-1951 Axel Jansson?
1935-1939 Filip Forsberg? 1921-1924 Nils Flyg 191?-1921 Zeth Höglund 1908-1909 Per Albin Hansson 190?-190? Fabian Månsson 1903- 1903 Socialdemokratiska Ungdomsförbund 1921 Sveriges Kommunistiska Ungdomsförbund 1958 Demokratisk Ungdom 1967 Vänsterns Ungdomsförbund 1970 Kommunistisk Ungdom 1991 Ung Vänster Official website