Bathsheba at Her Bath (Rembrandt)
Bathsheba at Her Bath is an oil painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt finished in 1654. A depiction that is both sensual and empathetic, it shows a moment from the Old Testament story in which King David sees Bathsheba bathing and, entranced and impregnates her. In order to marry Bathsheba and conceal his sin, David sends her husband into battle and orders his generals to abandon him, the painting hangs in The Louvre, it is one of 583 works donated by Dr. Louis La Caze in 1869. For Kenneth Clark, the canvas is Rembrandts greatest painting of the nude and its insight into Bathshebas moral dilemma has been described as one of the great achievements of western painting. The Second Book of Samuel gives the account of King David who saw a woman bathing from his palace roof, when he asked after her, he was told that she was Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David had his messengers retrieve her, and after they slept together she became pregnant with his child, David was able to marry Bathsheba by sending Uriah into battle where he was killed.
Prior to Bathsheba at Her Bath, the treatment had been to show Bathsheba bathing out of doors—thus accounting for her visibility to David—and accompanied by maidservants. A tower could usually be seen in the distance, and perhaps a small figure of David, such was the design Rembrandts earlier The Toilet of Bathsheba, dated 1643. As a result, the theme of previous treatments of the subject is replaced by a direct eroticism in which the viewer supplants David as voyeur. The work is painted as life sized and in a shallow space and it is not known whether Rembrandt painted Bathsheba for his own reasons, or to satisfy a commission. Presumably in response to Rembrandts painting, his ex-pupil and close associate Willem Drost painted Bathsheba with Davids Letter the same year, apart from the lack of anecdotal devices, the painting is unusual in other ways. Bathsheba is presented in a space that is difficult to read, the dark background is suggestive of night, while a massive column implies a large architectural structure.
Behind her lies a passage of richly painted drapery composed of browns, around her rests a thickly painted background of white chemise, set against this her naked flesh stands out for its solid form and the sumptuous application of paint. The paint used to describe her figure is richly nuanced, its broad brushstrokes and strong highlights impart a vibrant tactile quality to the body, Bathsheba at Her Bath is a reinterpretation of two antique reliefs familiar to Rembrandt through engravings. A print by Tobias Stimmer may have been influential, as it includes the pillar and it was begun around 1647 and altered and repainted until its completion in 1654. Originally the canvas may have larger and of a vertical format. X-radiographs show that at some point late in the process, he lowered Bathshebas head from its initial more upward angle. There was no letter in her hand in the conception, and it is possible that her lap, thighs
The Storm on the Sea of Galilee
The painting depicts the miracle of Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee, as depicted in the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The museum still displays the paintings empty frames in their original locations, on March 18,2013, the FBI announced they knew who was responsible for the crime. Criminal analysis has suggested that the heist was committed by a crime group. There have been no conclusions made public as the investigation is ongoing, in The Blacklist episode Gina Zanetakos, Raymond Reddington has possession of The Storm on the Sea of Galilee and is arranging its sale to a buyer for the buyers wedding. In the Complete First Season DVD, it is disc 2, Gina Zanetakos,5, the painting is the cover of a book called, Against the Gods, The Remarkable Story of Risk by Peter L. Bernstein. The painting is used as the artwork for The Struggle. Limb explains the Rembrandt is not only a painting but cheaper for the footage. The painting is displayed hanging without its frame in Episode 3 of Batman, the painting is displayed in Episode 2/ Season 1 of Iron Fist in the penthouse of the supposedly dead Harold Meachum.
The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, A Companion Guide and History
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. A prolific and versatile master across three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art. Having achieved youthful success as a painter, Rembrandts years were marked by personal tragedy. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, Rembrandts portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime, and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called one of the great prophets of civilization.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic and he was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck. His family was quite well-to-do, his father was a miller, religion is a central theme in Rembrandts paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest. His mother was Roman Catholic, and his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church, unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime. He opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend, in 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, Saskia came from a good family, her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden.
When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandts relatives. In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and he acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck. In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat, in 1639 they moved to a prominent newly built house in the upscale Breestraat, today known as Jodenbreestraat in what was becoming the Jewish quarter, a young upcoming neighborhood. The mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a cause for financial difficulties. Rembrandt should easily have been able to pay the house off with his income, but it appears his spending always kept pace with his income. It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes, in 1640, they had a second daughter, named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month
The Raising of Lazarus (Rembrandt)
The work depicts the Raising of Lazarus as told in the Gospel of John, Chapter 11. It is in the collection of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the painting shows the moment Lazarus re-awakens from death and rises from his tomb as Christ calls him. Lazarus is in the half of the painting while the figures at left are far more illuminated than he. Mary and those assembled look on in amazement as Lazarus comes to life, the painting depicts a parable of spiritual life, the miracle of the hardened sinner receiving first grace. Rembrandt used chiaroscuro in painting, with the dark interior of the burial cave. This is one of few religious subjects from the New Testament that Rembrandt painted. Rembrandt painted The Raising of Lazarus early in his career, while he was still in Leiden, Rembrandt made two etchings on the same subject but with differing compositions, one in approximately 1632 and another in 1642. The 1632 etching shows a different point of view while the 1642 etching shows different figures in the cave, the 1642 etching depicts Christ as more of a healer, rather than the enchanter of this work.
The subject of this painting may draw on an undated Jan Lievens etching of the same name and Rembrandt were friends and probably worked together. The composition of the painting may derive from a drawing by Rembrandt from the time as the Burial of Christ. Rembrandt would most closely imitate Raising of Lazarus with his 1635/1639 painting The Resurrection, the placement of the figures is similar and a study of drawings indicates that the latter was developed from the former. Raising of Lazarus was owned by Rembrandt for most of his life and it was inventoried as being hung in Rembrandt’s anteroom. The painting passed through various owners in Europe until it was bought by Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. in 1959, Los Angeles County Museum of Art collection page
Self-Portrait (Rembrandt, Vienna)
Self Portrait is an oil on canvas painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt. Painted in 1652, it is one of over 40 painted self-portraits by Rembrandt, in composition it is different from his previous self-portraits, depicting the painter in a direct frontal pose, hands on his hips, and with an air of self-confidence. It was painted the year that his financial difficulties began, Art historian Christopher White has called it one of the most magisterial and sombre of these pictures. It is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the freely painted clothing includes a brown robe that was most likely casual working attire, secured with a sash, over a black doublet with an upturned collar. A drawing from c.1650 shows Rembrandt in much the same pose and attire, in the drawing Rembrandt is seen wearing a top hat, while in the painting he wears a black beret derivative of artists portraits of the 16th century. As in other portraits and self-portraits by Rembrandt, a painted underlayer shows through in areas of shadow, here particularly in the eye sockets.
Microscopic analysis has revealed that this is not the ground layer, which is a similar gray color. This local imprimatura, used in preparation for specific areas of the painting, was practiced by Vermeer. A strong similarity has been noted to the self-portrait of c,1655, in the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum. The work shares the frontal angle and informal attire of the larger painting, a painting of Rembrandt son Titus van Rijn, by another artist in the style of Rembrandt, duplicates the pose and positioning of the figure in the Self Portrait. The Kunsthistorisches Museum, the paintings, Volume 2,2004, van de Wetering, Rembrandt, The Painter at Work, Amsterdam University Press,2000. ISBN 0-520-22668-2 White, Christopher, et al, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Rembrandts Son Titus, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Art Gallery of Ontario
The Art Gallery of Ontario is an art museum in Toronto, Canada. Its collection includes more than 80,000 works spanning the first century to the present day, the gallery has 45,000 square metres of physical space, making it one of the largest galleries in North America. The photography collection is a part of the collection, as well as an extensive drawing. During the AGOs history, it has hosted and organized some of the worlds most renowned and significant exhibitions, and continues to do so, to this day. Since 1974, the gallery has four major expansions and renovations, typically considered a high number and unseen by most galleries of the world. The most recent are the Weston Family Learning Centre, which opened in October 2011, and the David Milne Research Centre, both projects were designed by Hariri Pontarini Architects. Earlier major renovations were designed by noted architects John C, Barton Myers and KPMB Architects, and most recently, Frank Gehry. The gallery is located in the Downtown Grange Park district, on Dundas Street West between McCaul and Beverley Streets, the Art Gallery of Ontario is the second most visited art museum in Toronto after the Royal Ontario Museum in 2014.
The museum was founded in 1900 by a group of citizens, members of the Ontario Society of Artists. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario subsequently enacted An Act respecting the Art Museum of Toronto in 1903, the museum was renamed the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919, and subsequently the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1966. The current location of the AGO dates to 1910, when Goldwin Smith bequeathed his historic 1817 Georgian manor, in 1911, the museum leased lands to the south of the manor to the City of Toronto in perpetuity so as to create Grange Park. In 1920, the museum allowed the Ontario College of Art to construct a building on the grounds. The museums first formal exhibitions opened in the Grange in 1913, in 1916, the museum drafted plans to construct a small portion of a new gallery building. Designed by Pearson and Darling in the Beaux-Arts style, excavation of the new facility began in 1916, expansion throughout the 20th century added various galleries, culminating in 1993, which left the AGO with 38,400 square metres of interior space.
The AGO was and continues to be a supporter of local arts, which have included shows for the Group of Seven, Betty Goodwin, David Milne. As the institution and its collections grew, major benefactors included Henry Moore, Betty Goodwin, David Blackwood, Joey Tanenbaum, George Weston, Frank Porter Wood, Edward Rogers Wood, Ayala Zacks, Ken Thomson, the Massey family, and the Eaton family. Under the direction of its CEO Matthew Teitelbaum, the AGO embarked on a $254 million redevelopment plan by architect Frank Gehry in 2004, the new addition would require demolition of the 1992 Post-Modernist wing by Barton Myers and Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects. Although Gehry was born in Toronto, and as a child had lived in the neighbourhood as the AGO
Head of Christ (Rembrandt)
The Head of Christ is a 1648 painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt, based on a Jewish model and thus marking a turning-point in the artists work. It is now in the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin, there are multiple versions of Rembrandts Head of Christ which compose an international collection of paintings in the possession of a number of different cultural institutions and individuals. In 2004, dendrochronological analysis determined that the source of the oak panel—both the original from the seventeenth century—and the main one came from the Baltic/Polish regions, the analysis yielded a probable creation date of 1628 or later. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 2006, ISBN 3-499-50691-2, duMont Literatur und Kunst, Köln 2006, ISBN 3-8321-7694-2