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Younger Futhark

The Younger Futhark called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries. The reduction, somewhat paradoxically, happened at the same time as phonetic changes that led to a greater number of different phonemes in the spoken language, when Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse. Thus, the language included minimal pairs that were written the same; the Younger Futhark is divided into short-twig runes. The lifetime of the Younger Futhark corresponds to the Viking Age, their use declined after the Christianization of Scandinavia. Usage of the Younger Futhark is found in Scandinavia and Viking Age settlements abroad in use from the 9th century onward. While the Migration Period Elder Futhark had been an actual "secret" known to only a literate elite, with only some 350 surviving inscriptions, literacy in the Younger Futhark became widespread in Scandinavia, as witnessed by the great number of Runestones, sometimes inscribed with casual notes.

During a phase from about 650 to 800, some inscriptions mixed the use of Elder and Younger Futhark runes. Examples of inscriptions considered to be from this period include DR 248 from Snoldelev, DR 357 from Stentoften, DR 358 from Gummarp, DR 359 from Istaby, DR 360 from Björketorp, objects such as the Setre Comb. Ög 136 in Rök, which uses Elder Futhark runes to encrypt part of the text, Ög 43 in Ingelstad, which uses a single Elder Futhark rune as an ideogram, are sometimes included as transitional inscriptions. By the late 8th century, the reduction from 24 to 16 runes was complete; the main change was that the difference between voiced and unvoiced consonants was no longer expressed in writing. Other changes are the consequence of sound changes that separate Old Norse from Proto-Norse and Common Germanic; the first ætt was reduced to fuþąrk, losing the g and w runes. The second ætt lost the p runes; the j rune was rendered superfluous due to Old Norse sound changes, but was kept with the new sound value of a.

The old z rune was kept but moved to the end of the rune row in the only change of letter ordering in Younger Futhark. The third ætt was reduced to four runes, losing the ŋ, o and d runes. In tabular form: The Younger Futhark became known in Europe as the "alphabet of the Norsemen", was studied in the interest of trade and diplomatic contacts, referred to as Abecedarium Nordmannicum in Frankish Fulda and ogam lochlannach "Ogham of the Scandinavians" in the Book of Ballymote; the names of the 16 runes of the Younger futhark are recorded in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems. The names are: ᚠ fé ᚢ úr ᚦ Thurs ᚬ As/Oss ᚱ reið ᚴ kaun ᚼ hagall ᚾ nauðr ᛁ ísa/íss ᛅ ár ᛋ sól ᛏ Týr ᛒ björk/bjarkan/bjarken ᛘ maðr ᛚ lögr ᛦ yr From comparison with Anglo-Saxon and Gothic letter names, most of these names directly continue the names of the Elder Futhark runes; the exceptions to this are: yr. The Younger Futhark is divided into short-twig runes; the difference between the two versions has been a matter of controversy.

A general opinion is that the difference was functional, i.e. the long-branch runes were used for documentation on stone, whereas the short-twig runes were in everyday use for private or official messages on wood. The long-branch runes are the following signs: In the short-twig runes, nine runes appear as simplified variants of the long-branch runes, while the remaining seven have identical shapes: Hälsinge runes are so named because in modern times they were first noticed in the Hälsingland region of Sweden. Other runic inscriptions with the same runes were found in other parts of Sweden, they were used between the 12th centuries. The runes seem to be a simplification of the Swedish-Norwegian runes and lack certain strokes, hence the name "staveless", they cover the same set of staves as the other Younger Futhark alphabets. This variant has no assigned Unicode range. In the Middle Ages, the Younger Futhark in Scandinavia was expanded, so that it once more contained one sign for each phoneme of the old Norse language.

Dotted variants of voiceless signs were introduced to denote the corresponding voiced consonants, or vice versa, voiceless variants of voiced consonants, several new runes appeared for vowel sounds. Inscriptions in medieval Scandinavian runes show a large number of variant rune-forms, some letters, such as s, c and z, were used interchangeably. Medieval runes were in use until the 15th century. Of the total number of Norwegian runic inscriptions preserved today, most are medieval runes. Notably, more than 600 inscriptions using these runes have been discovered in Bergen since the 1950s on wooden sticks (the so-called

House of Alba

The House of Alba de Tormes known as the House of Alba, is a prominent Spanish aristocratic family that descended from 12th-century nobility of post-conquest Toledo. Their claim to Alba de Tormes dates from 1429, when Gutierre Álvarez de Toledo became Lord of Alba de Tormes while serving as Bishop of Palencia. In 1472, García Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Count of Alba de Tormes, was elevated to the title of Duke of Alba de Tormes by King Henry IV of Castile. In 1492, the second Duke of Alba de Tormes signed the capitulation of the city of Granada. During the 16th century, Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, was given the title of governor general of the Spanish Netherlands; the third duke's first cousin was Doña Eleonor de Toledo, who married Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Through her granddaughter Marie de' Medici, Queen of France, she became the ancestor of many crowned heads and heirs apparent of Europe, her descendants include Juan Carlos I of Spain, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.

In 1802, María Cayetana de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba, died without any issue and her titles were inherited by a relative, Carlos Miguel Fitz-James Stuart, 14th Duke of Alba. Thus, the dukedom of Alba passed to the senior branch of the House of FitzJames, which took over the patrimony of the House of Alba; until 20 November 2014, the head of the House of Alba was Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba. She held the Guinness Book of Records title with 57 titles; the current head of the House of Alba is Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 19th Duke of Alba, who succeeded his mother on 20 November 2014. The family owns a significant collection of art and historic documents at the Liria Palace in Madrid. Duke of Alba Duke of Berwick House of FitzJames House of Alba Foundation Origins of the House of Alba The treasures of the House of Alba

Robert Boyd (journalist)

Robert Skinner Boyd was an American journalist who spent most of his career working for the Knight Newspaper Group, spending two decades as the group's Washington bureau chief. He and Clark Hoyt won a Pulitzer Prize in 1973 for uncovering the fact that Senator Thomas Eagleton, George McGovern's choice for vice president, had had severe psychiatric problems and undergone three shock treatments. Instead of publishing their scoop, they disclosed their findings to McGovern's top advisor, Eagleton withdrew as the Democratic nominee. Born in Chicago, Boyd was the son of Mary A. Boyd. Raised as an Episcopalian, he earned a B. A. and M. A. from Harvard University in 1949. At Harvard, he studied ancient languages. After serving in the U. S. Army in 1946–1947 and as a staff member in the U. S. State Department in 1950–53, Boyd worked as a reporter for the Lafayette Louisiana Daily Advertiser between 1953–1954 and as state editor for the Benton Harbor, Michigan News-Palladium in 1954–1957, he joined the Detroit Free Press/Knight Newspaper Group, working as a reporter in 1957–1960, as a correspondent in the group's Washington, D.

C. office in 1960–1967, as the chief of that bureau in 1967–1987, as its chief Washington correspondent beginning in 1987. Boyd toured the Bay of Pigs battlefield with Fidel Castro in 1961, covered the revolution in the Dominican Republic in 1965, toured the USSR in 1967, spent two weeks in North Vietnam in 1970, he was one of five journalists who accompanied President Nixon to China in 1972 and were allowed to stay for a time after Nixon's departure. During his 20 years in charge of the Washington bureau, "Boyd presided over an expansion in which the D. C. team grew from a staff of seven to more than 50." Knight colleague James McCartney said Boyd "was the antithesis of the sort of ego-driven Washington bureau chief who stepped all over his reporters.... He was the best editor I had." The Washington Post reporter David Broder described Boyd as one of the most honest and fair reporters in Washington. "He's independent," Broder said. "I have no idea what his politics may be, I've known him for 30 years."In 1993 he became Knight Ridder's Washington science writer.

"At the age of 71, he found himself spending weeks in Antarctica'talking to scientists and building igloos.'" In 1972, after receiving a tip to the effect that Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern's running mate, Missouri Senator Thomas Eagleton, had had shock treatments and his Knight Newspapers colleague Clark Hoyt did some investigating. Hoyt looked through the files of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch from the 1960s, when Eagleton was state attorney general, found gaps where Eagleton seemed to "disappear", as well as a report of him being treated "for exhaustion." Hoyt tracked down a doctor who been present when Eagleton received a shock treatment, but she refused to talk about it. Nonetheless, it became clear to Hoyt that Eagleton had received shock treatments. Instead of writing an article and Hoyt went to North Dakota to present McGovern and his campaign chairman Frank Mankiewicz with their evidence and give them a chance to respond. "It was the only fair and decent thing to do," Boyd said.

In return, McGovern "double-crossed" them, in the words of a colleague, James McCartney, by holding a press conference on July 25, 1972, at which Eagleton announced that he had been hospitalized three times for "nervous exhaustion and fatigue" and McGovern expressed confidence in Eagleton's current health. "They said'Sorry boys, we're going public,'" Boyd recalled. "It was a frustrating thing for us." By holding the press conference, Mankiewicz blew Hoyt's chances at an exclusive. On July 31, Eagleton withdrew; the incident raised "critical journalistic questions: Had Boyd and Hoyt, in an excess of caution, tossed away a major exclusive by insisting on total confirmation, or had they been rigorously responsible? Was the tip...just another dirty trick by the Nixon crowd? Did that matter, because it turned out to be true? Was it better to have the revelation come against Eagleton the candidate rather than against Eagleton the vice-president? Was the journalistic responsibility to tell the news and let the public decide?

Is that what happened?" Although they had been deprived of their scoop and Hoyt ended up winning the Pulitzer Prize for uncovering the facts about Eagleton's psychiatric history anyway. One account suggests that Boyd was rewarded at least in part for his "touch of compassion," that the Pulitzer board "tipped its hat to him for his judicious restraint." The prize was described by "one Washington cynic" as "the first time anybody won a Pulitzer for a story they didn't write." Boyd and David Kraslow collaborated on a novel, A Certain Little Evil, published in 1964. His book The Decline, but Not Yet the Fall, of the Russia Empire: The Lewis Cass Lectures appeared in 1969. In 1973, Boyd and Clark Hoyt won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting "for their disclosure of United States Senator Thomas Eagleton's history of psychiatric therapy, resulting in his withdrawal as the Democratic Vice Presidential nominee in 1972."He was a John S. Knight Journalism Fellow at Stanford, he married Gloria L. Paulsen in 1949, they had four children.

Boyd died from congestive heart failure at a nursing home in Philadelphia on September 20, 2019. Appearances on C-SPAN

Franco Sosa (footballer, born 1981)

Franco Sebastián Sosa is an Argentine football defender playing for Concepción. Born in Monteros, Tucumán Province, Sosa started his playing career in 2001 with Gimnasia y Esgrima de Jujuy of the Argentine 2nd division, he was part of the team that obtained promotion to the Argentine Primera. Sosa played for Gimnasia until the end of 2006, making over 100 appearances for the club, 43 in the Primera. During the January 2006 transfer window Sosa joined Racing Club establishing himself as a key member of their defence, making appearances in 33 of the clubs 38 matches in 2007, he played for the FC Lorient during the 2009–2010 season. He signed a 3-year contract, on 22 July 2009. On 2011, he returned to Argentina to play with Boca Juniors. Argentine Primera statistics Football-Lineups player profile Franco Sosa at Soccerway

Cheongdam-dong Scandal

Cheongdam-dong Scandal is a 2014 South Korean morning soap opera starring Choi Jung-yoon, Lee Joong-moon, Kang Seong-min, Seo Eun-chae and Lim Seong-eon. It aired on SBS from July 21, 2014 to January 2, 2015 on Mondays to Fridays at 8:30 a.m. for 119 episodes. Despite airing in a morning time slot, Cheongdam-dong Scandal hit a peak rating of 22.1% during its 112th episode on December 24, 2014, had average ratings of 14.8%. Cheongdam-dong is the seat of wealth and prestige in Korean high society, but an ugly rooted scandal shakes it to its core when a woman, determined to get pregnant learns that she is being deceived by the family she was married into, discovering that the building designer that she just befriended was a person she saved when she was a young girl, she is unaware that she is being sought after by her birth mother, now married to a businessman and now has a daughter who happens to be jealous of her because she sees her as a rival for the love of her life. Choi Jung-yoon as Eun Hyun-soo Lee Joong-moon as Jang Seo-joon Kang Seong-min as Bok Soo-ho Seo Eun-chae as Nam Joo-na Lim Seong-eon as Lee Jae-ni Ban Hyo-jung as Jang Hye-im Lee Hye-eun as So-jung Kim Seung-hwan as Joon-gyu Uhm Bo-yong as Cho-won Kim Hye-sun as Kang Bok-hee Kim Jung-woon as Bok Kyung-ho / Kim Young-gyu Yu Ji-in as Choi Se-ran Im Ha-ryong as Nam Jae-bok Lee Sang-sook as Woo Soon-jung / Lee Do-hwa Yang Hae-rim as Park Hye-jung Kim Sung-kyung as Dr. Yoon Seo Yi as Yoon-joo Sa-Hee as Joo Young-in Lee Jung-gil Jang Mi-hee Choi Hyun-soo Ahn So-mi Thailand - Channel 9 MCOT HD Vietnam - VTV3 Singapore - Mediacorp Channel U Philippines - Asianovela Channel Cheongdam-dong Scandal official SBS website Cheongdam-dong Scandal at HanCinema

List of Fresh Pretty Cure! episodes

Fresh Pretty Cure! is the sixth Pretty Cure anime television series produced by Toei Animation. The series focuses on four Cures, Love Momozono, Miki Aono, Inori Yamabuki and Setsuna Higashi, who transform into Cure Peach, Cure Berry, Cure Pine, Cure Passion, respectively, their mission is to defend the parallel worlds from the evil Labyrinth. The series began airing in Japan from February 1, 2009 and January 31, 2010, replacing Yes! Precure 5 GoGo! in its initial timeslot and was succeeded by HeartCatch PreCure!. It has four pieces of theme music: two opening and two ending themes; the opening theme for episodes the first 25 episodes is "Let's! Fresh Pretty Cure" by Mizuki Moie, the ending theme is "You make me happy!" by Momoko Hayashi. For episodes 26–50 the opening theme is "Let's! Fresh Pretty Cure! ~Hybrid Version~" by Mizuki Moie and Momoko Hayashi, the ending theme is "H@ppy Together" by Momoko Hayashi. Fresh Pretty Cure! the Movie: The Toy Kingdom has Lots of Secrets!? - An animated film based on the series.

Pretty Cure All Stars DX: Everyone's Friends☆the Collection of Miracles! - The first film in the Pretty Cure All Stars crossover series, which stars the Fresh Pretty Cure