United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
Vietnamese Pot-bellied is the exonym for the Lon I or I pig, an endangered traditional Vietnamese breed of small domestic pig. The I has short legs and a low-hanging belly, from which the name derives; the I is reared for meat. It is slow-growing, but the meat has good flavour.:25 The I was depicted in the traditional Đông Hồ paintings of Bắc Ninh province as a symbol of happiness and wealth.:616 The I is a traditional Vietnamese breed. It is thought to have originated in the Red River Delta, it was the dominant local pig breed in most provinces of the delta, was distributed in Nam Định province and the neighbouring provinces of Hà Nam, Ninh Bình and Thái Bình, as well as in the province of Thanh Hóa to the south, in the North Central Coast region. Until the 1970s the I was the most numerous pig breed in northern Vietnam, with numbers running into millions.:616 From that time, the more productive Móng Cái began to supplant it. The National Institute of Animal Husbandry of Vietnam started a conservation programme, with subsidies for farmers who reared purebred stock, but this had little benefit – there was some increase in numbers, but at the cost of increased inbreeding.:616 In 1991, the total population of the I was estimated at 675 000, by 2010 the estimated number was 120.
In 2003 the National Institute of Animal Husbandry listed its conservation status as "critical". Within a decade, the I had spread to animal parks in other countries in Europe; the I entered the United States from Canada in the mid-1980s, by the end of the decade the "pot-bellied pig" was being marketed as a pet. Not all of these were purebred, some grew to considerable size; the I is a small pig, with an average weight of 50 kg, an average height of about 36 cm. It is uniformly black, with wrinkled skin, it has a pronounced sway back and a large sagging belly, which in pregnant sows may drag on the ground. The head is small, with an up-turned snout, small ears and eyes, heavy sagging jowls.:616The I is robust and has good resistance to disease and to parasites. It is raised extensively, forages well on the rice straw and water plants of its native area, it is well adapted to the marshy and muddy terrain on which it lives: it has plantigrade feet, with weight borne on all four toes of each foot.:616Two principal types are recognised within the breed: the I-mo or Fatty I is the typical small short-legged pig, with small upward-pointing ears and a short snout.
Genetic diversity and distances of Vietnamese and European pig breeds analysed with microsatellite loci. Aachen: Shaker Verlag. Dissertation
CinemaScore is a market research firm based in Las Vegas. It surveys film audiences to rate their viewing experiences with letter grades, reports the results, forecasts box office receipts based on the data. Ed Mintz founded CinemaScore in 1979 after disliking The Cheap Detective despite being a fan of Neil Simon, hearing another disappointed attendee wanting to hear the opinions of ordinary people instead of critics. A Yom Kippur donation card with tabs inspired the survey cards given to audience members; the company conducts surveys to audiences who have seen a film in theaters, asking them to rate the film and specifying what drew them to the film. Its results are published in Entertainment Weekly. CinemaScore conducts surveys to determine audience interest in renting films on video, breaking the demographic down by age and sex and passing along information to video companies such as Fox Video Corporation. CinemaScore pollster Dede Gilmore reported the trend in 1993, "Most movies get a B-plus.
I think. They have high expectations. They're more lenient with their grades, but as do it more and more, they get to be stronger critics". In 1993, films that were graded with an A included Scent of a Woman, A Few Good Men and Falling Down. Films graded with a B included Untamed Heart. A C-grade film for the year was Body of Evidence. CinemaScore at first reported its findings to consumers, including a newspaper column and a radio show. After 20th Century Fox approached the company in 1989, it began selling the data to studios instead. A website was launched by CinemaScore in 1999, after three years' delay in which the president sought sponsorship from magazines and video companies. Brad Peppard was president of CinemaScore Online from 1999 to 2002; the website included a database of the audiences' reactions to them. Prior to the launch, CinemaScore results had been published in Las Vegas Review-Journal and Reno Gazette-Journal. CinemaScore's expansion to the Internet included a weekly email subscription for cinephiles to keep up with reports of audience reactions.
In 1999, CinemaScore was rating 140 films a year, including 98–99% of major studio releases. For each film, employees polled 400–500 moviegoers in three of CinemaScore's 15 sites, which included the cities Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Atlanta, Tampa and Coral Springs. In the summer of 2002, CinemaScore reported that the season had the biggest collective grade since 1995. In the summer of 2000, 25 out of 32 films received either an B grade. Twenty-six of the summer of 2001's 30 films got similar grades, while 32 of the summer of 2002's 34 films got similar grades, the latter being the highest ratio in a decade. Since July 2014, CinemaScore reports its results on Twitter, from January 16, 2016, it began with Collateral Beauty to use for each of them an image with the movie poster on the left and the grade obtained on the right. Only films that open in more than 1,500 screens are polled and reported on CinemaScore's website and social media; the distributor of a film that opens in fewer screens can optionally contract with CinemaScore for a private survey, whose result would be disclosed only to the client.
CinemaScore describes itself as "the industry leader in measuring movie appeal". Thirty-five to 45 teams of CinemaScore representatives are present in 25 large cities across North America; each Friday, representatives in five randomly chosen cities give opening-day audiences a small survey card. The card asks for age, gender, a grade for the film, whether they would rent or buy the film on DVD or Blu-ray, why they chose the film. CinemaScore receives about 400 cards per film. An overall grade of A+ and F is calculated as the average of the grades given by responders. In this case, grades other than F are qualified with minus or neither; the ratings are divided by age groups. Film studios and other subscribers receive the data at about 11 p.m. Pacific Time. CinemaScore publishes letter grades to the public on social media and, although the detailed data is proprietary, the grades become shared in the media and the industry. Subsequent advertisements for ranked films cite their CinemaScore grades.
As opening-night audiences are more enthusiastic about a film than ordinary patrons, a C grade from them is - according to the Los Angeles Times - "bad news, the equivalent of a failing grade". According to Ed Mintz, "A’s are good, B’s are shaky, C’s are terrible. D’s and F’s, they shouldn’t have made the movie, or they promoted it funny and the absolute wrong crowd got into it". Horror films score lower. CinemaScore's Harold Mintz said that "An F in a horror film is equivalent to a B- in a comedy". An A+ grade from CinemaScore for a film predicts a successful box office. From 1982 to August 2011, only 52 films received the top grade, including seven Academy Award for Best Picture winners. From 2000 to February 2018, there were 44 movies with A+; as of April 5, 2018, 77 films have received A+. From 2004 to 2014, those rated A+ and A had multiples of 4.8 and 3.6 while C-rated films' total revenue was 2.5 times their opening weekend. Ed Mintz cited Leonardo DiCaprio and Tom Cruise as the "two stars, it doesn’t matter how bad the film is, they can pull up".
(DiCaprio's Shutter Island had a 3.1 revenue multiple despite a C+ grade, Cruise's Vanilla Sky had a 4 multiple with a
Dennis William Quaid is an American actor known for a wide variety of dramatic and comedic roles. First gaining widespread attention in the 1980s, some of his notable credits include Breaking Away, Great Balls of Fire!, The Right Stuff, The Big Easy, The Parent Trap, Traffic, The Rookie, The Day After Tomorrow, Vantage Point and Soul Surfer. For his role in Far from Heaven he won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor among other accolades. Dennis William Quaid was born in Houston, the son of Juanita B. "Nita" Quaid, a real estate agent, William Rudy Quaid, an electrician. Quaid has English, Scots-Irish, Cajun ancestry, he attended Paul W. Horn Elementary School in Bellaire, Pershing Middle School in Houston, he studied Mandarin and dance at Bellaire High School in Bellaire, in college, at the University of Houston, under drama coach Cecil Pickett, who had taught at Bellaire High and whose daughter is actress Cindy Pickett. He was raised in the Baptist faith, he is the younger brother of actor Randy Quaid.
Quaid dropped out of the University of Houston before graduating and moved to Hollywood to pursue an acting career. He had trouble finding work but began to gain notice when he appeared in Breaking Away and earned good reviews for his role as astronaut Gordon Cooper in The Right Stuff. Known for his grin, Quaid has appeared in both dramatic roles. Quaid had starring roles in the films Jaws 3-D, Enemy Mine and The Big Easy, he achieved acclaim for his portrayal of Jerry Lee Lewis in Great Balls of Fire!. In 1989, he appeared throughout the Bonnie Raitt music video for the song "Thing Called Love."Quaid's career lost steam in the early 1990s, after he fought anorexia nervosa brought on when he lost 40 pounds to play the tuberculosis-afflicted Doc Holliday in Wyatt Earp and recovered from a cocaine addiction. He continued to garner positive reviews in a variety of films, however. Quaid was the guest star of a season 2 episode of Muppets Tonight, he starred in the lead role in the 1996 adventure film Dragonheart, the remake of The Parent Trap, playing the part of the twins' father, as an aging pro football quarterback in Oliver Stone's Any Given Sunday.
In 1998, he made his debut as a film director with Everything That Rises a television movie western in which he starred. Some of Quaid's more recent film credits include Frequency, The Rookie, Far from Heaven, Cold Creek Manor, The Flight of the Phoenix, The Alamo, In Good Company, The Day After Tomorrow, Yours and Ours, Vantage Point, G. I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, Pandorum. In 2009, Quaid guest starred in an episode of SpongeBob SquarePants, playing Mr. Krabs' grandfather, Captain Redbeard, he portrayed U. S. President Bill Clinton, alongside Michael Sheen as Tony Blair and Hope Davis as Hillary Clinton, in the 2010 film The Special Relationship. In 2012 and 2013, Quaid played Sheriff Ralph Lamb in the CBS TV drama series Vegas. In 2017, he starred in A Dog's Purpose as Ethan Montgomery, billed as "a celebration of the special connection between humans and their dogs". In 2018, Quaid starred in I Can Only Imagine, where he played Arthur Millard, the father of singer and songwriter Bart Millard, Kin, where he plays Hal, the father of the film's two protagonists.
In March 2018, it was confirmed by director Sean McNamara that Quaid would portray President Ronald Reagan in an upcoming biopic, titled Reagan. The film is slated to have a summer 2019 release. Quaid has three children. Quaid and his first wife, actress P. J. Soles, were married on November 25, 1978; the couple divorced in 1983. On February 14, 1991, Quaid married actress Meg Ryan. Quaid and Ryan fell in love during the shooting of their second film together, D. O. A. Quaid and Ryan have Jack Henry Quaid. Quaid and Ryan announced their separation on June 28, 2000, saying they had been separated six weeks by then, their divorce was finalized July 16, 2001. Quaid dated model Shanna Moakler in 2001; the relationship lasted for eight months. Quaid married Texas real-estate agent Kimberly Buffington, on July 4, 2004, at his ranch in Paradise Valley, Montana, they have fraternal twins, Thomas Boone and Zoe Grace, born via a surrogate on November 8, 2007, in Santa Monica, California. On November 18, 2007, hospital staff mistakenly gave Quaid's ten-day-old twins a dosage of heparin, 1,000 times the common dosage for infants.
The babies recovered, but Quaid filed a lawsuit against the drug manufacturer, Baxter Healthcare, claiming that packaging for the two doses of heparin are not different enough. In May 2008, the Quaids testified before the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, asking U. S. Congress not to preempt the right to sue drug manufacturers for negligence under state law; this incident led Quaid to become a patient-safety advocate, producing a series of documentaries on preventable medical errors that aired on the Discovery Channel as well as co-authoring a medical journal article addressing the positive influence of patient stories in motivating change in healthcare. The first documentary, Chasing Zero: Winning the War on Healthcare Harm, aired on the Discovery Channel in 2010, the second documentary, Surfing the Healthcare Tsunami: Bring Your Best Board, aired on the Discovery Channel in 2012. Buffington filed for divorce from Quaid in March 2012. Buffington's attorney withdrew the divorce papers
Christophe Beck is a Canadian television and film score composer. He is a brother of the noted pianist Chilly Gonzales. A native of Montreal, Beck graduated from Crescent School in Toronto, Canada, he studied music at Yale University, where he was the music director of the Spizzwinks of 1989 and 1990 and the Whiffenpoofs of 1991. He studied film scoring at the University of Southern California Thornton School of Music, where he was taught by Jerry Goldsmith among others, he studied and worked under Mike Post for a period, including writing uncredited music on some of Post's series. He won an Emmy Award in 1998 for his work on the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, he has worked on Angel and The Practice. His film credits include Starstruck, Let the Devil Wear Black, Bring It On, American Wedding, Under the Tuscan Sun, Elektra, Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties, School for Scoundrels, The Pink Panther, We Are Marshall, License to Wed, The Seeker, Fred Claus, Charlie Bartlett, Drillbit Taylor, Phoebe in Wonderland, I Love You, Beth Cooper, The Pink Panther 2, The Hangover, Waiting for Superman, Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief, Date Night, Tower Heist, The Muppets, Endless Love, Muppets Most Wanted, Ant-Man, Ant-Man and the Wasp.
He appeared in the documentary Finding Kraftland for his agent Richard Kraft. Beck was the main composer for Buffy the Vampire Slayer during seasons 2-4, he returned to compose for the key episodes "The Gift" and "Once More, with Feeling", though he had signed for the musical earlier before his departure, making him obligated. Notable pieces of Beck's work have appeared on various Buffy soundtrack albums: Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Album "Close Your Eyes", the Buffy/Angel love theme from "Becoming, Part Two", is included on this release. Once More, with Feeling Although Joss Whedon wrote the songs for "Once More, with Feeling", Beck was hired to realise them and provide the score; this album is entirely dedicated to this particular episode, but features three Beck compositions from earlier episodes. Radio Sunnydale The UK and Latin America edition of this album includes "Dead Guys with Bombs", from "The Zeppo". Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Score This release is dedicated to Beck's compositions for the show.
Much of the music is amongst others. Multiple cues are edited down versions of the original pieces heard on promotional CD's leaked years before. Official website Christophe Beck on IMDb Biography
Rene Marie Russo is an American actress and former model. Russo began her career as a fashion model in the 1970s, appearing on several magazine covers such as Vogue and Cosmopolitan, she made her film debut in the 1989 comedy film Major League, rose to international prominence in a number of thrillers and action films throughout the 1990s, including Lethal Weapon 3, In the Line of Fire, Get Shorty, Lethal Weapon 4, The Thomas Crown Affair. After headlining the family comedy Yours and Ours, Russo took a six-year break from acting, she returned to the screen as Frigga, the mother of the titular hero, in the superhero films Thor and Thor: The Dark World. In 2014, Russo starred in the acclaimed crime thriller Nightcrawler, for which she won the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress and was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role, she has since appeared in The Intern, Just Getting Started, Velvet Buzzsaw. Russo was born in Burbank, the daughter of Shirley, a factory worker and barmaid, Nino Russo, a sculptor and car mechanic who left the family when Russo was two.
Her father was of Italian descent, while her mother had Italian and English ancestry. Russo grew up with her mother and her sister and attended Burroughs High School, where her classmates included director Ron Howard, she had to wear a full-torso brace. Her tall height earned her the nickname "Jolly Green Giant" from her classmates. In a 2019 interview with Financial Times, she indeed described herself as a "geek", admitted that the bullying she endured during high school made her drop out in the tenth grade. Growing up, Russo did not have any "ambitions", remarking that she "was too busy just trying to survive, along with my sister and my mom —money was tight, my mom worked two jobs", she began taking a variety of part-time jobs to help her family, including working in an eyeglass factory and as a movie theater cashier. She got scouted for modelling and went to New York City, which she described as a "scary place compared to where I grew up". After being spotted at a 1972 Rolling Stones concert by John Crosby, an agent from International Creative Management, Russo began her career as a model.
With Crosby's encouragement, Russo applied to, was signed by, Ford Modeling Agency. She became one of the top models of the 1970s and early 1980s, appearing on magazine covers for Vogue and Cosmopolitan, as well as advertisements for perfume and cosmetics. Vogue in a 2016 article, wrote: "In the ’70s, Russo stood for a sexiness, both accessible and aspirational: She could vamp it up with the best of them, posing for Francesco Scavullo in decadent furs, or swathed in Versace for Richard Avedon, but Russo wasn’t your average pinup; the poise she brought to her images made her the first choice for editorial shoots that demanded models with tenacity, whether she was bound for the boardroom in a power suit or posing on a beach with Tony Spinelli". As she entered her 30s, demand for her as a model began to dwindle, she did a few more commercials and turned her back on modeling for a period of time. She studied theater and acting, began appearing in theater roles at small theaters in Los Angeles and elsewhere in California.
At one point, she took acting lessons from veteran actor Allan Rich, whom she credits with introducing her to the craft of acting. Russo made her debut in a television series in 1987, with a supporting role in the short-lived ABC production Sable, based on the comic book, Jon Sable: Freelance by Mike Grell, she made her feature film debut as the girlfriend of a former baseball star turned drunk who had spent the last few years playing in the Mexican League in Major League, a comedy written and directed by David S. Ward; the film made US$49.8 million in North America. In 1990, Russo appeared in the fantasy comedy film Mr. Destiny, with James Belushi, playing the wife in what would be an alternate reality of an ordinary guy's life. In 1991, she had her first leading film role in One Good Cop, as the wife of a New York City Police Department detective. In 1992, Russo achieved breakout success with her role as internal affairs detective Lorna Cole, opposite Mel Gibson and Danny Glover, in the action film Lethal Weapon 3.
The film made US$320 million worldwide, becoming the fifth highest-grossing film of 1992 and the highest-grossing film in the Lethal Weapon film series. Her other 1992 film release was the science fiction film Freejack, which despite an overall negative response, earned Russo a nomination for the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress. Throughout the 1990s, Russo took on major roles in a number of commercially and critically successful films. In 1993, she starred with Clint Eastwood in the thriller film In the Line of Fire, directed by Wolfgang Petersen, playing a federal agent involved with the sole active-duty Secret Service agent remaining from the detail guarding John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, at the time of his assassination in 1963; the film made US$176.9 million globally, received three Academy Awards nominations. In 1995, Petersen cast her as a medical doctor, who uncovers a newly discovered Ebola-like virus which came to the United States from Africa in an infected monkey, in the medical disaster film Outbreak, with Dustin Hoffman.
The film grossed over US$189 million worldwide. She starred as a B movie actress, opposite John Travolta, in the crime comedy Get Shorty, directed by Barry Sonnenfeld. Upon its release, Get Shorty opened atop at
VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses; the television industry viewed videocassette recorders as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. VHS won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by 1980 and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
Optical disc formats began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS. The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not adopted. However, after the introduction of the DVD format in 1997, VHS's market share began to decline. By 2008, DVD had replaced VHS as the preferred low-end method of distribution; the last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016. After several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced in 1956 by Ampex Corporation. At a price of US$50,000 in 1956, US$300 for a 90-minute reel of tape, it was intended only for the professional market. Kenjiro Takayanagi, a television broadcasting pioneer working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, at a more affordable price. In 1959, JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, by 1960 a color version for professional broadcasting.
In 1964, JVC released the DV220. In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer; the effort produced the U-matic format in 1971, the first format to become a unified standard. U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications, but due to cost and limited recording time few of the machines were sold for home use. Soon after and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX. JVC released the CR-6060 in 1975, based on the U-matic format. Sony and Matsushita produced U-matic systems of their own. In 1971, JVC engineers Yuma Shiraishi and Shizuo Takano put together a team to develop a consumer-based VTR. By the end of 1971 they created an internal diagram titled "VHS Development Matrix", which established twelve objectives for JVC's new VTR; these included: The system must be compatible with any ordinary television set.
Picture quality must be similar to a normal air broadcast. The tape must have at least a two-hour recording capacity. Tapes must be interchangeable between machines; the overall system should be versatile, meaning it can be scaled and expanded, such as connecting a video camera, or dub between two recorders. Recorders should be affordable, easy to have low maintenance costs. Recorders must be capable of being produced in high volume, their parts must be interchangeable, they must be easy to service. In early 1972, the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit. JVC restructured its video division, shelving the VHS project. However, despite the lack of funding and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By 1973 the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In 1974, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, desiring to avoid consumer confusion, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
Sony had a functional prototype of the Betamax format, was close to releasing a finished product. With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, allow it to license the technology to other companies. JVC believed that an open standard, with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. To prevent the MITI from adopting Betamax, JVC worked to convince other companies, in particular Matsushita, to accept VHS, thereby work against Sony and the MITI. Matsushita agreed out of concern that Sony might become the leader in the field if its proprietary Betamax format was the only one allowed to be manufactured. Matsushita regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. Matsushita's backing of JVC persuaded Hitachi and Sharp to back the VHS standard as well. Sony's release of its Betamax unit to the Japanese market in 1975 placed further pressure on the MITI to side with the company. However, the collaboration of