The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, southern Albania, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age; until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, the Balkans and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization; the cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Alexandria and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of Cyprus.
The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church. Greeks have influenced and contributed to culture, exploration, philosophy, architecture, mathematics and technology, business and sports, both and contemporarily; the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people"; the Proto-Greeks arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries and are therefore subject to some uncertainties.
There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC, the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse. An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period, i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic. Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC. In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.
The Mycenaeans penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus. Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is the main attack was made by seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC; the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth; the Homeric Epics were and accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism that scholars began to question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of antiquity.
The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was a matter of common culture; the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period; the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in eras; the Classical period is described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and
Broadcast Music, Inc.
Broadcast Music, Inc. is one of four United States performing rights organizations, along with ASCAP, SESAC and Global Music Rights. It collects license fees on behalf of songwriters and music publishers and distributes them as royalties to those members whose works have been performed. In FY 2018, BMI collected $1.199 billion in licensing fees and distributed $1.12 billion in royalties. BMI's repertoire includes over 900,000 14 million compositions. BMI songwriters create music in many genres, ranging from mainstream pop and country to death metal and hip hop. BMI represents artists such as Patti LaBelle, Demi Lovato, Fifth Harmony, Lil Wayne, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift, Rihanna, Shakira, Ed Sheeran, Sam Cooke, Willie Nelson, Fats Domino and Dolly Parton. BMI represents Michael Jackson's music catalog, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, which features the late artist's music as well as the largest repertoire of any catalog in history. In the 1930s, radio was coming to prominence as a source of musical entertainment that threatened to weaken record sales and opportunities for "live" acts.
The Great Depression was draining artist revenues from recordings and live performances. ASCAP, the pre-eminent royalty/licensing agency for more than two decades, required radio stations to subscribe to "blanket" licenses granting ASCAP a fixed percentage of each station's revenue, regardless of how much music the station played from ASCAP's repertoire. In 1939, ASCAP announced a substantial increase in the revenue share licensees would be required to pay. BMI was founded by the National Association of Broadcasters to provide a lower-cost alternative to ASCAP; as such, BMI created competition in the field of performing rights, providing an alternative source of licensing for all music users. The vast majority of U. S. radio stations and all three radio networks refused to renew their ASCAP licenses for 1941, choosing to forgo playing ASCAP music and relying on the BMI repertoire. In February 1941, BMI and the Department of Justice entered into a consent decree, requiring certain changes to BMI's business model, including giving licensees the option of paying only for the music they use instead of buying a blanket license.
The U. S. District Court in Milwaukee was chosen by the Justice Department to supervise the decree for both BMI and ASCAP. Competing against the established ASCAP, BMI sought out artists that ASCAP tended to overlook or ignore. BMI purchased the rights to numerous catalogs held by independent publishers or whose ASCAP contracts were about to expire. To attract newer writers, BMI proposed to compensate songwriters and publishers on the basis of a fixed fee per performance, as opposed to ASCAP's two-tier system which discriminated against less-established songwriters. Thus, despite its original motivation regarding radio station royalties and its focus on radio station revenues vs artist revenues, BMI became the first performing rights organization in the United States to represent songwriters of blues, jazz and blues, country, Latin, and—ultimately—rock and roll. During the 1940s and 1950s, BMI was the primary licensing organization for Country artists and R&B artists, while ASCAP centered on more established Pop artists.
During this time, BMI expanded its repertoire of classical music, now represents the majority of the members of the prestigious American Academy of Arts and Letters and the winners of 31 Pulitzer Prizes for Music. In July 2017, BMI renewed long-term partnership with C3 Presents, world's largest music festival producers. BMI's practice of selling only "blanket licenses", rather than licenses for individual artists, led to a major antitrust law dispute between BMI and CBS that resulted in the 1979 case Broadcast Music, Inc. v. CBS, Inc. in which the U. S. Supreme Court held that the Sherman Act's prohibition of "price fixing" was not literal, should be interpreted in light of economic efficiencies an agreement brings. BMI issues licenses to users of music, including: Television and radio stations and networks New media, including the Internet and mobile technologies such as podcasts and ringbacks Satellite audio services, such as XM and Sirius Nightclubs, hotels and restaurants Symphony orchestras, concert bands, classical chamber music ensembles Digital jukeboxes Live concertsBMI tracks public performances for more than 14 million works, collects and distributes licensing revenues for those performances as royalties to over 900,000 songwriters and music publishers it represents.
BMI has offices in Atlanta, Los Angeles, Nashville, New York, Puerto Rico. BMI annually hosts award shows that honor the songwriters and music publishers of the year's most-performed songs in the BMI catalogue. BMI Award shows include the BMI Latin Awards, BMI Pop Awards, BMI Film/TV Awards, BMI R&B/Hip-Hop Awards, BMI London Awards, BMI Country Awards, BMI Christian Awards, the BMI Trailblazers of Gospel Music Honors. CISAC ASCAP BMI Foundation Copyright collective Recording Academy David Sanjek Choquette, Frederic, "The Returned Value of PROs", Music Business Journal, Berklee College of Music, May 2011
Acoustic music is music that or uses instruments that produce sound through acoustic means, as opposed to electric or electronic means. While all music was once acoustic, the retronym "acoustic music" appeared after the advent of electric instruments, such as the electric guitar, electric violin, electric organ and synthesizer. Acoustic string instrumentations had long been a subset of popular music in folk, it stood in contrast to various other types of music in various eras, including big band music in the pre-rock era, electric music in the rock era. Writing for Splendid, music reviewer Craig Conley suggests, "When music is labeled acoustic, unplugged, or unwired, the assumption seems to be that other types of music are cluttered by technology and overproduction and therefore aren't as pure". Acoustic instruments can be split further into three groups: string instruments, wind instruments, percussion. String instruments have a stretched string, when set in motion creates energy at harmonically related frequencies.
Wind instruments are in the shape of a pipe and energy is supplied as a stream into the pipe. Percussion instruments are anything. A term, meaning ‘not electric’, used in this special sense to designate a recording cut with a stylus activated directly by sound waves rather than by electronic impulses, or, as in ‘acoustic guitar’, an instrument not amplified electronically, it was first applied to recordings in the early 1930s, to instruments in the mid-1960s, in response to the widespread use in commercial folk and pop music of electric guitars and other electronically amplified instruments. Used of a room, it indicates that room’s acoustical characteristics; the first noted acoustic instrument is believed to be the lute, with the oldest known pictorial representation of this instrument dating back to 300 B. C; the lute is believed to have originated in Egypt, the concept of the stringed instrument was passed to the Greeks and the Romans. The Moors brought the oud into Europe during the Moorish invasion of Spain, with these two instruments rapid developments in the acoustic instrument realm occurred throughout the Renaissance in Europe.
By 1800, the most popular acoustic instruments resembled the modern day guitar, but with a smaller body. As the century continued, a luthier Antonio de Torres Jurado from Spain took these smaller instruments and adjusted the bodies to make them into what the guitar is today; the guitars use and popularity throughout the 19th century led to more acoustic instruments being established, such as the acoustic bass guitar. As the rise of electric instruments took hold during the 20th century, many stringed instruments became redefined as acoustic. Instruments which utilize the strings being struck or vibrated, such as the violin, viola and double bass, fall under the acoustic category; the violin became a popular instrument during the 16th and 17th centuries, due in large part to the technological advancements in building the, brought on by luthiers such as Antonio Stradivari and Andrea Amati. The modern version of the instrument developed from older European acoustic stringed instruments such as the lira.
Randel, Don Michael. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01163-2. Safire, William. "On Language: Retronym". New York Times Magazine: 18. International Acoustic Music Awards
Kallithea is the 8th largest municipality in Greece and the 4th biggest in the Athens urban area. Additionally, it is the 2nd most densely populated municipality in Greece, with 21,192 inhabitants / km2; the municipality has an area of 4.749 km2. Actual the community reports a number of close to 200.000 inhabitants. The center of Kallithea lies at a distance of 3 km to the south of the Athens city center and 3 km to the north-east of the Piraeus. Kallithea extends from the Sikelia hills in the north to Phaleron Bay in the south; the site on which the city was developed covers the biggest part of the area to the south of Athens city center, protected in ancient times by the Long Walls to the west and the Phalerum Wall to the east. Somewhere within this area the ancient town of Xypete lay; the town and its citizens are mentioned, in Plato's Dialogs. The plans for the establishment of the new city of Kallithea were approved in December 1884. On the longitudinal axis of the town, the Athens to Phaleron tramway once ran, from the beginning to and the end of its operations.
Near the center of the town the Shooting Range was built to house events of the first modern Olympic Games, the 1896 Summer Olympics, these first modern games took place in three venues: the refurbished ancient stadium of Athens 2 km NE of Kallithea, the Neo Phaliron Velodrome 2 km SW of Kallithea, the Kallithea Shooting Range. Events of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games were sited in the district of Kallithea, notably handball and Taekwondo in the new Sports Pavilion by the bottom of Syngrou Avenue, beach volleyball in the Olympic Beach Volleyball Center on Kallithea Bay. Between the first modern games and the recent Olympic Games in the city, Kallithea grew significantly; the tramway depot and workshop were built here in 1910, followed by the Harokopios Graduate School and the Panteios Graduate School of Political Sciences. In the 1920s the town was flooded by thousands of refugees following the Greco-Turkish War, the Asia Minor Catastrophe, the Treaty of Lausanne; these refugees arrived in Kallithea from the south Black Sea, from ancient Greek cities such as Sinope, Kerasus, Trapezous-Trebizond, Tripolis and other remnants of the late Byzantine Empire.
A few had arrived earlier from the north and east coasts of the Black Sea, from places such as Odessos and elsewhere, after the failed attempt of the western allies against the young Bolshevik state during the Russian Civil War. Black Sea immigrants of Greek origin settled in Kallithea in the 1930s, as a result of the change of Soviet policy toward ethnic groups, their origins were in the east coast of the Black Sea The first refugees settled near the site of the first Olympic shooting range, until they were transferred to new dwellings. After its evacuation the building bound with the shooting range served as a school, until the Nazi Occupation of 1941, when it was converted to a prison; the prison of Kallithea was demolished in 1966. In the 1990s, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a new wave of Greek immigrants arrived in Kallithea from the east coast of the Black Sea, from the Caucasus highlands in Georgia, as well as from distant Greek settlements in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan where their Black Sea Greek ancestors were expelled during Joseph Stalin's regime in the 1930s.
South Kallithea, is associated with the development of Greek folk music rebetiko and laïkó. Popular composers and singers once performed here. Kallithea houses two universities. An more notable school in Kallithea is Sivitanidios School, one of the oldest technical school in Greece; until 2004, south Kallithea housed the only horse track in Greece, which moved to Markopoulon, near Eleftherios Venizelos Airport. Kallithea houses numerous cultural associations and several sport clubs, the most well known of which are Kallithea FC, Esperos and Ikaros Kallitheas, a multisport club founded in 1991 as Ikaros Nea Smyrni. Kallithea had Esperides Kallithea with many titles in women basketball; this club merged to Ikaros Kallithea in 2012. The main roads of Kallithea are Andrea Syngrou Avenue towards eastern Athens and Poseidonos Avenue towards Piraeus and the southern suburbs. Kallithea is served by Metro line 1 stations Kallithea and Tavros, by the tram stations Kallithea and Tzitzif
Psyri or Psiri or Psyrri or Psirri is a gentrified neighbourhood in Athens, today known for its restaurants, live music tavernas, small number of hotels. Until the early 1990s, one of the oldest quarters of Athens, had an ill reputation, but it has now become one of the most fashionable and trendy choices in the centre of Athens for accommodation and food hospitality; the central square of Psyri is called "Heroes square", because the streets leading to it carry names of heroes of the Greek War of Independence. In the era of the'old Athens', the nickname "plateia of Heroes" was a derisive reference to koutsavakides, who used it as their hangout. Lord Byron was accommodated in the neighbourhood during his stay in Athens and here is where he wrote the poem "Maid of Athens"; the most famous Greek inhabitant of Psyri was Alexandros Papadiamantis who lived in the area for more than two decades. Καιροφύλας, Γιάννης. Η ιστορία της συνοικίας του Ψυρή, ed. Φιλιππότη, Athens, 2000 Στασινόπουλος, Επαμεινώνδας.
Η Αθήνα του περασμένου αιώνα, Athens, 1963 Μπίρης, Κωνσταντίνος. Αι τοπωνυμίαι της πόλεως και των περιχώρων των Αθηνών, ed. Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού:Ταμείο Αρχαιολογικών Πόρων και Απαλλοτριώσεων, 2006
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records Inc. is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group and headquartered in Burbank, California. It was founded in 1958 as the recorded music division of the American film studio Warner Bros. and was one of a group of labels owned and operated by larger parent corporations for much of its existence. The sequence of companies that controlled Warner Bros. and its allied labels evolved through a convoluted series of corporate mergers and acquisitions from the early 1960s to the early 2000s. Over this period, Warner Bros. Records grew from a struggling minor player in the music industry to one of the top record labels in the world. In 2004, these music assets were divested by their owner Time Warner and purchased by a private equity group; this independent company traded as the Warner Music Group and was the world's last publicly traded major music company before being bought and privatized by Access Industries in 2011. Warner Music Group is the smallest of the three major international music conglomerates that include Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment.
Max Lousada oversees recorded music operations of the company. Notable artists signed to Warner Bros. Records have included Prince, Kylie Minogue, Goo Goo Dolls, Sheryl Crow, Lil Pump, Green Day, Adam Lambert, Bette Midler, Duran Duran, Fleetwood Mac, Liam Gallagher, Fleet Foxes, Jason Derulo, Lily Allen and Sara, Dua Lipa, Linkin Park, Nile Rodgers, Red Hot Chili Peppers, the Black Keys, My Chemical Romance, Mr. Bungle, Regina Spektor, Van Halen. At the end of the silent movie period, Warner Bros. Pictures decided to expand into publishing and recording so that it could access low-cost music content for its films. In 1928, the studio acquired several smaller music publishing firms which included M. Witmark & Sons, Harms Inc. and a partial interest in New World Music Corp. and merged them to form the Music Publishers Holding Company. This new group controlled valuable copyrights on standards by George and Ira Gershwin and Jerome Kern and the new division was soon earning solid profits of up to US$2 million every year.
In 1930, MPHC paid US$28 million to acquire Brunswick Records, whose roster included Duke Ellington, Red Nichols, Nick Lucas, Al Jolson, Earl Burtnett, Ethel Waters, Abe Lyman, Leroy Carr, Tampa Red and Memphis Minnie, soon after the sale to Warner Bros. the label signed rising radio and recording stars Bing Crosby, Mills Brothers, Boswell Sisters. For Warner Bros. the dual impact of the Great Depression and the introduction of broadcast radio harmed the recording industry—sales crashed, dropping by around 90% from more than 100 million records in 1927 to fewer than 10 million by 1932 and major companies were forced to halve the price of records from 75c to 35c. In December 1931, Warner Bros. offloaded Brunswick to the American Record Corporation for a fraction of its former value, in a lease arrangement which did not include Brunswick's pressing plants. Technically, Warner maintained actual ownership of Brunswick, which with the sale of ARC to CBS in 1939 and their decision to discontinue Brunswick in favor of reviving the Columbia label, reverted to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. sold Brunswick a second time, this time along with the old Brunswick pressing plants Warner owned, to Decca Records in exchange for a financial interest in Decca. The studio stayed out of the record business for more than 25 years, during this period it licensed its film music to other companies for release as soundtrack albums. Warner Bros. returned to the record business in 1958 with the establishment of its own recording division, Warner Bros. Records. By this time, the established Hollywood studios were reeling from multiple challenges to their former dominance—the most notable being the introduction of television in the late 1940s. Legal changes had a major impact on their business—lawsuits brought by major stars had overthrown the old studio contract system by the late 1940s. Pictures sold off much of its film library in 1948 and, beginning in 1949, anti-trust suits brought by the US government forced the five major studios to divest their cinema chains. In 1956, Harry Warner and Albert Warner sold their interest in the studio and the board was joined by new members who favoured a renewed expansion into the music business—Charles Allen of the investment bank Charles Allen & Company, Serge Semenenko of the First National Bank of Boston and investor David Baird.
Semenenko in particular had a strong professional interest in the entertainment business and he began to push Jack Warner on the issue of setting up an'in-house' record label. With the record business booming - sales had topped US$500 million by 1958 - Semnenko argued that it was foolish for Warner Bros. to make deals with other companies to release its soundtracks when, for less than the cost of one motion picture, they could establish their own label, creating a new income stream that could continue indefinitely and provide an additional means of exploiting and promoting its contract actors. Another impetus for the label's creation was the brief music career of Warner Bros. actor Tab Hunter. Although Hunter was signed to an exclusive acting contract with the studio, it did not prevent him from signing a recording contract, which he did with Dot Records, owned at the time by Paramount Pictures. Hunter scored several hits for Dot, including the US #1 single, "Young Love", to Warner Bros.' chagrin, reporters were asking about the hit record, rather than