Ystoria Mongalorum is a report, compiled by Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, of his trip to the Mongol Empire. Written in the 1240s, it is the oldest European account of the Mongols. Carpine was the first European to try to chronicle Mongol history. Carpine recorded the information he collected in a work, variously entitled in the manuscripts, Ystoria Mongalorum quos nos Tartaros appellamus, Liber Tartarorum, or Liber Tatarorum; this treatise has nine chapters. The first eight describe the Tartar's country, manners, character, history and tactics, on the best way to oppose them; the ninth chapter describes regions. The title is significant. In fact, the author points out that Mongols were quite offended by such a label: they vanquished Tatars in several campaigns around 1206, after which the Tartars ceased to exist as an independent ethnic group; the report gives a narrative of his journey, what he had learned about Mongol history, as well as Mongol customs of the time. Carpine, as the first European at the time to have visited Mongolia and returned to talk about it, became somewhat of a celebrity upon returning to Europe.
He gave. Two redactions of the Ystoria Mongalorum are known to exist: Carpine's own and another. An abridgement of the First Redaction can be found in the Turin National Library; the "Tartar Relation" is an expanded version of the Second Redaction. The standard scholarly edition of Ystoria is in Sinica Franciscana, vol. 1, pp. 3–130.. Like some other famous medieval itineraries, it shows an absence of a traveler's or author's egotism, contains in the last chapter, scarcely any personal narrative. Joannes was not only an old man when he went on this mission, but was, according to accidental evidence in the annals of his order, a fat and heavy man, insomuch that, contrary to Franciscan precedent, he rode a donkey between his preachings in Germany. In his narrative, however, he never complains, his book, as to personal and geographical detail, is inferior to one a few years by a younger brother of the same order, William of Rubruck or Rubruquis—who was Louis IX's most noteworthy envoy to the Mongols.
In spite of these defects—and the credulity he shows in the Oriental tales, sometimes childishly absurd—Friar Joannes' Ystoria is, in many ways, the chief literary memorial of European overland expansion before Marco Polo. Among his innovative recommendations was development of light cavalry to combat Mongol tactics, it first revealed the Mongol world to Catholic Christendom. The account of Tatar manners and history is the best treatment of the subject by any Christian writer of the Middle Ages, he provided four lists: of nations conquered by the Mongols, nations that had resisted, the Mongol princes, witnesses to his narrative, including various Kiev merchants. All these catalogues, unrivaled in Western medieval literature, are of great historical value; the Prologue identifies the main audience of John of Plano Carpini's account as "all the faithful of Christ." The Prologue explains that John of Plano Carpini has been sent to the land of the Tartars by the Pope so "if by chance they made a sudden attack they would not find the Christian people unprepared."
John traveled "during a year and four months and more" with Friar Benedict the Pole "who was our companion in our tribulations and our interpreter." Chapter I The Land of the Tartars, its Position, Physical Features and ClimateChapter II Of their Persons, their Clothes, their Dwelling-Places and MarriageChapter III Of their Worship of God, those things which they Consider to be Sins and Purifications, Funeral Rites, etc. Chapter IV Of their Character and Bad, their Customs, etc. Chapter V The Beginning of the Empire of the Tartars and their Chief Men, the Dominion Exercised by the Emperor and the PrincesChapter VI Of War, their Battle Array, their Cunning in Engagements, Cruelty to Captives, Assault on Fortifications, their Bad Faith with those who Surrender to them, etc. Chapter VII How they Make Peace, the Names of the Countries they have Conquered, the Tyranny they Exercise over the Inhabitants, the Countries which have Manfully Resisted themChapter VIII How to Wage War against the Tartars.
This Tartar Relation describes Joannes's journey, including details that did not make it into his own written account. The manuscript is most known because it was bound with a manuscript of Vincent of Beauvais' popular encyclopedia Speculum historiale and a spurious map on vellum, the notorious "Vinland map"- no such map is included with a second, older Hystoria/Speculum manuscript volume found more recently. Another theory of the origin of Historia Tartarorum proposes that it was a record made by a Polish friar from an oral account by Joannes' companion Benedykt Polak during final stages of the journey.
Marcel Adams is a Canadian real estate investor and Holocaust survivor. Marcel Abramovich was born to a Jewish family in Romania in 1920, his father was a tanner. During World War II he was forced to work in Nazi labor camps, he escaped and fled first to Turkey and to Mandate Palestine where he fought for the independence of Israel. In 1951, he immigrated to Canada. In 1955, he began investing in real estate making a 70% profit on his first building. In 1958, he founded Iberville Developments and in 1959, he opened his first mall. Adams is retired and his son, Sylvan Adams, now operates the company; as of 2017, Iberville owns and manages a diverse portfolio of over 100 properties consisting of 8 million square feet. In 1953, he married Annie Adams, his son Julian is a biochemist. Annie died in November 1997. Guy Mercier, Frédérik Leclerq, François Roy, Marcel Adams à Quebec. Les destins croisés d'un homme et d'une ville, en Pierre Anctil, Simon Jacobs dir.: Les Juifs de Québec. Quatre cents ans d’histoire.
Presses de l'Université du Québec PUQ, Québec 2015, pp 195 – 220
In mathematics, a Loewy ring or semi-Artinian ring is a ring in which every non-zero module has a non-zero socle, or equivalently if the Loewy length of every module is defined. The concepts are named after Alfred Loewy; the Loewy length and Loewy series were introduced by Emil Artin, Cecil J. Nesbitt, Robert M. Thrall If M is a module define the Loewy series Mα for ordinals α by M0 = 0, Mα+1/Mα = socle M/Mα, Mα = ∪λ<α Mλ if α is a limit ordinal. The Loewy length of M is defined to be the smallest α with M = Mα. R M is a semiartinian module if, for all M → N epimorphism, where N ≠ 0, the socle of N is essential in N. Note that if R M is an artinian module R M is a semiartinian module. 0 is semiartinian. Let 0 → M ′ → M → M ″ → 0 be exact M ′ and M ″ are semiartinian if and only if M is semiartinian. Consider i ∈ I family of R -modules ⊕ i ∈ I M i is semiartinian if and only if M j is semiartinian for all j ∈ I. R is called left semiartinian if R R is semiartinian, that is, R is left semiartinian if for any left ideal I, R / I contains a simple submodule.
Note that R left semiartinian does not imply R left artinian. Assem, Ibrahim. Vol. 1: Techniques of representation theory, London Mathematical Society Student Texts, 65, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-58631-3, Zbl 1092.16001 Artin, Emil.