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Yucatec Maya language

Yucatec Maya, called mayaʼ tʼàan by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize. To native speakers, the proper name is Maya and it is known only as Maya; the qualifier "Yucatec" is a tag. Thus the use of the term Yucatec Maya to refer to the language is scientific nomenclature. In the Mexican states of Yucatán, some parts of Campeche, Tabasco and Quintana Roo, Maya remains many speakers' first language today, with 800,000 speakers. There are 6,000 speakers in Belize. Yucatec Maya forms part of the Yucatecan branch of the Mayan language family; the Yucatecan branch divides into the subgroups Mopan-itza and Yucatec-Lacandon, which in turn split into four languages: Itza, Yucatec Maya, Lacandon. All the languages in the Mayan language family are thought to originate from an ancestral language, spoken some 5,000 years ago, known as Proto-Mayan. Christopher Columbus traded with Maya merchants off the coast of Yucatán in 1502, but never made landfall. Arriving in Yucatán during the decade following Columbus's first contact with the Maya, the first Spanish to set foot on Yucatán soil did so by chance, the survivors of a shipwreck in the Caribbean.

Most of the shipwrecked men were sacrificed. In 1519, one of these men accompanied Hernán Cortez to the Yucatán island of Cozumel taking part in the conquest of central Mexico; the other survivor became a Mexican legend as father of the first Mestizo: by Aguilar's account, Guerrero "went native"- he married native women, wore traditional native apparel, fought against the Spanish. Francisco de Montejo's military incursion of Yucatán took three generations and three wars of heavy fighting that lasted a total of 24 years; the Maya had been in a stable decline when Spanish conquistadors arrived in 1517 AD. From 200 to 800 AD the Maya were thriving and making great technological advances and created a system for recording numerals and hieroglyphs, more complex and efficient than what had come before, they migrated Northward and Eastward to the Yucatán peninsula from Palenque and Bonampak. In the 12th and 13th centuries, a coalition emerged in the Yucatán peninsula between three important centers, Chichen Uitza, Mayapan, where they were able to grow and practice intellectual and artistic achievement during a period of peace, but war broke out and both intellectual and artistic achievements came to end.

By the 15th century Mayan Toltec fell. In the 18th century the Spanish turned the lands to large maize and cattle plantations with luxurious haciendas and exported natural resources; the Maya were subjects of the Spanish Empire from 1542 to 1821. During the colonization of the Yucatán peninsula, the Spanish believed that in order to evangelize and govern the Maya they needed to reform Yucatec Maya and shape it to serve their ends of religious conversion and social control. Spanish missionaries undertook a project of linguistic and social transformation known as reducción, a term not recognized by historians; the linguistic aspect of this process involved the reformulation of Yucatec Maya through the translation of religious texts from Spanish into Yucatec Maya and the creation of neologisms needed to express Catholic religious concepts. The result of the process of reducción was Maya reducido, a semantically transformed version of Yucatec Maya. Along with the attempted eradication of all Maya religious practices and associated written works, the missionaries thus shaped a language, used to convert and govern the Maya population of the Yucatán peninsula.

Notwithstanding, Maya reducido was appropriated by its Maya speakers for their own purposes and served efforts to resist colonial domination. The oldest written records in Maya reducido were written by Maya notaries between 1557 and 1851; these works can be found in the United States and Spain in libraries and archives A characteristic feature of Yucatec Maya, like other Mayan languages, is the use of ejective consonants: /pʼ/, /tʼ/, /kʼ/. Referred to as glottalized consonants, they are produced at the same place of oral articulation as their non-ejective stop counterparts: /p/, /t/, /k/. However, the release of the lingual closure is preceded by a raising of the closed glottis to increase the air pressure in the space between the glottis and the point of closure, resulting in a release with a characteristic popping sound; the sounds are written using an apostrophe after the letter to distinguish them from the plain consonants. The apostrophes indicating the sounds were not common in written Maya until the 20th century but are now becoming more common.

The Mayan b is glottalized, an implosive /ɓ/, is sometimes written bʼ, but, becoming less common. Yucatec Maya is one of only three Mayan languages to have developed tone, the others being Uspantek and one dialect of Tzotzil. Yucatec distinguishes short vowels and long vowels, indicated by single versus double letters, between high- and low-tone long vowels. High-tone vowels begin on a high pitch and fall in phrase-final position but rise elsewhere, sometimes without much vowel length, it is indicated in writing by an acute accent. Low-tone vowels are sustained in length. Yucatec has contrastive laryngealization on long vowels, sometimes r

Telford's Warehouse

Telford's Warehouse is located between Raymond Street and Tower Wharf, Cheshire, alongside the Shropshire Union Canal. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building; the building was constructed in about 1790, designed by Thomas Telford. Part of it is built over the canal to allow boats to be unloaded within the building. In the 1980s it was converted into a public house and restaurant under the direction of the local architect James Brotherhood, it was badly damaged by a fire in 2000, has since been restored. It is built in brown brick with grey slate roofs, it is in two blocks, that facing Raymond Street having two storeys, the block facing Tower Wharf with three storeys. In the smaller block the face overlooking the canal has two arches to allow for the entrance of boats for unloading. On the corresponding face of the larger block are loading bays in each floor, now converted into windows; the windows elsewhere are sashes. Grade II listed buildings in Chester Website of public house

Mark Orval

Mark Orval is a former Australian rules footballer who played with Collingwood in the Victorian Football League. A Hamilton Imperials recruit, Orval appeared for Collingwood in six of the last seven rounds of the 1987 VFL season, he missed one game through suspension, for striking Jim Stynes returned against Essendon at the MCG in the final round and kicked four goals. His next appearance came against Geelong in the last round of the 1988 VFL season and Orval suffered a career-ending injury, fracturing his right foot, he is the father of Dylan Orval, picked up by Adelaide in the 2012 Rookie Draft. Orval resides in Melbourne, has become an unwilling viral internet celebrity under the name'#AngryDad' which to February 2019, has over 1,200,000 Facebook likes and over 200,000 YouTube subscribers, he is the subject of a series of prank videos showing his short temper filmed by his sons Mitchell, 23, Dylan, 26

Radix rubiginosa

Radix rubiginosa is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod in the family Lymnaeidae, the pond snails. This species is sometimes treated as a subspecies of Radix auricularia; this species occurs in its native range in: Indo-China Indonesia Vietnam - it was firstly identified in Vietnam in 2013 in southern Vietnam. It occurs as an introduced "hothouse alien" in: Great Britain Ireland The shape of the shell is elongated and cylindrical; the shell has 5 whorls. The aperture is moderately expanded; the width of the aperture is 4–5 mm. The height of the aperture is 7–11 mm; the width of the shell is 5–8 mm. The height of the shell is 11–20 mm; this species inhabits small canals. Parasites of Radix rubiginosa include: Radix rubiginosa is the first intermediate host for Hypoderaeum conoideum Fasciola gigantica Echninoparyphium dunni and Echinostoma audyi Pleurolophocercous cercariae were recorded from Radix rubiginosa in China; this species is sold in the ornamental pet trade as an item for freshwater aquaria.


Olangchung Gola

Olangchung Gola is a village in ward no. 7 of Phaktanglung rural municipality of Taplejung District of Province No. 1 in Nepal. It is located to the north of Tamor River in the mountainous area in the northwest of Taplejung District bordering Tibet, China; the river flowing next to the village is expanding towards the village posing a serious threat of submerging the village. Olangchung is surrounded by Lelep village to the east and Tibet to the north, Sankhuwasabha District to west and Mikkwakhola rural municipality to south, it was once a strategic place between Tibet and Sikkim. Tipta La the pass connecting the area with Tibet was an important trade route. In addition, Olangchung Gola was the trade hub for surrounding villages such as Yangma, Khangbachey, Lelep. Gola means "market" in the local language. In fact, the name "Olangchung" came from a folklore involving a trader; the Gorkha war between Nepal and Tibet was negotiated in this tiny village. The Chogyal of Sikkim, fearing incarceration by British India, went into hiding here, ready to escape into Tibet, though he was captured later.

In late 2016, China built a road connection on their side to the border at Tiptala Bhanjyang. In June 2017, Chinese construction crew constructed a dirt track from the border to Olangchung Gola; the funding of रू 30,000,000 was provided by local consumers’ committee. There is no road to the village from the south. In 2019, the Chinese government allocated addition funding to upgrade the road. Olangchung Gola is the last village before crossing the Lumbasumba La pass to the west to the remote village of Thudam along the high Great Himalayan Trail system. There is one lodge for trekkers with camping space in Olangchung Gola; the Walung people are the indigenous inhabitants of the region around Olangchung Gola. They are descended from practice Nyingmapa Buddhism. A large monastery, Deki Chholing Gompa, was built 450 years ago sits on top of the village. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 422 people living in 82 individual households. According to 2011 Nepal census 239 people live in 62 individual households.

Steinmann, B. 1988, Les Marches tibétaines du Népal. Etat, chefferie et société traditionnels. Paris, l'Harmattan. UN map of the municipalities of Taplejung District

James Maury (consul)

James Maury was one of the first United States diplomats and one of the first American consuls appointed overseas. In 1790 he was appointed to the Consulate of the United States in Liverpool, one of the first overseas consulates founded by the fledgling United States of America. Maury held the position of consul for 39 years until he was removed from office by President Andrew Jackson in 1829. James Maury was born in February 1746 in Virginia, he was the son of The Reverend James Maury, an educator and Anglican cleric in the American colonies, of Huguenot ancestry. Among The Reverend Maury's notable pupils were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, the First Bishop of Virginia. Young James attended his father's school and was part of a class of five pupils that included Jefferson. Maury accompanied Jefferson to the latter's home on Saturdays when school was not in session Secretary of State Jefferson petitioned the United States President George Washington for an appointment for his former classmate of two years.

The petition was successful, Maury, living and working as a merchant in Liverpool, was appointed consul of the United States at Liverpool in 1790. The Consulate of the United States in Liverpool was one of the first overseas consulates founded by the fledgling United States. Liverpool was at the time an important centre for Transatlantic commerce and a vital trading partner for the former Thirteen Colonies. In 1801 Maury chaired the inaugural meeting of the American Chamber of Commerce in Liverpool, representing Liverpool merchants trading with the United States. Maury was its first President. Maury held the position of consul for 39 years under six U. S. presidents, until 1829, when he was removed from office by President Andrew Jackson. A Silver platter was presented to him by the merchants of Liverpool after his forty years of service; the inscription reads: "Presented by the merchants and other inhabitants of Liverpool to James Maury, Esq. Late Consul of the United States of America in that Town as a mark of general respect on his removal from an Office which he had honourably held for forty years, 1829."Maury's Liverpool residence is identified as number 4 Rodney St.

However he is recorded as occupying nos 37, 38 and 44. His portrait, painted by Gilbert Stuart Newton, still hangs today in the West Reception Room in Liverpool Town Hall. Maury was married twice, firstly to Catherine Armistead, secondly to Margaret Rutson, he and Rutson had five children: James Sifrein Maury. Ann Maury conducted considerable research on her family history and published a substantial genealogical chart of the Maury family, which can be still be obtained from The Fontaine Maury Society library. James Maury is buried in Green-Wood Cemetery. Article at Liverpool Daily Post. Retrieved June 1, 2010 Maury family webpage Retrieved June 1, 2010 Maury family tree Retrieved June 1, 2010 US Embassy, London Retrieved June 1, 2010 Liverpool Athenaeum Retrieved June 1, 2010 Virginia Historical Society Retrieved June 1, 2010