The Yugoslav People's Army called the Yugoslav National Army, was the military of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1992. The origins of the JNA can be found in the Yugoslav Partisans of World War II; as part of the anti-fascist People's Liberation War of Yugoslavia, the People's Liberation Army of Yugoslavia, a predecessor of the JNA, was formed in the Bosnian town of Rudo on 22 December 1941. After the Yugoslav Partisans liberated the country from the Axis Powers, that date was celebrated as the "Day of the Army" in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In March 1945, the NOVJ was renamed the "Yugoslav Army" and, on its 10th anniversary, on 22 December 1951, received the adjective "People's". In middle 1980s, plans were made under formal top secret strategic and operational plan "Jedinstvo"; because of internal and external security changes during that time "Jedinstvo" was modeled in 3 parts "Jedinstvo 1" "Jedinstvo 2" and "Jedinstvo 3" starting from 1987. for the YPA to start major reform. Plans were modeled to be realized under many covert strategic and operational moves so enemies could not know all and exact changes.
During course of time between 1986-1990 major YPA exercise "Romanija" was conducted every year in order to reform YPA and get strategic perspective for high military leadership how and what should be done and how it is done. Most of scenarios in exercise included defense from NATO invasion including Albania and Austria with last exercise from series "Romanija 90" was done during 1990. With task of performing offensive at end of war scenario while units were reformed. A first part of YPA major overhaul under "Jedinstvo 1" had its basic force structure nearly completed in 1989. Manpower was planned to be reduced to about 1 million in war time while in peace time it would be 299.057 personnel including officers and civilians that worked in army. Equipment purchase was not realized in full; the JNA organization and structure after "Jedinstvo 1" consisted of the Ground Forces, Air Force and Navy. Under reforms through "Jedinstvo" plan it was planned to reorganize from army's structure into four major army area called "Vojna oblast" under command of SSNO - "Vojna oblast" or military regions were further divided into corps and smaller districts and sectors that were responsible for administrative tasks such as draft registration and construction and maintenance of military facilities.
The regions were: First military region with headquarters in Belgrade Second military region with headquarters in Zagreb Third military region with headquarters in Skopje Military-naval region "Vojnopomorska oblast" with headquarters in Split. Military-Naval Region included parts of Croatia and Herzegovina and Montenegro - all Yugoslavia coastline, it had subdivision on three sectors including one corps. Directly under SSNO were Guards school centers, 3 SIGNAL regiments. Light anti-aircraft artillery regiment and a few independent battalions and divisions. In "Jedinstvo 1" reforms YPA eliminated most of its old divisional infantry organization and established the brigade and corps structure with some independent units under direct command of SSNO. Territorial defense changed and laws and constitution was amended to address those changes; the Ground Forces converted ten of twelve infantry divisions into twenty-nine tank and mountain infantry brigades with integral artillery, air defense and anti-tank regiments under corps structure.
One airborne brigade was organized before 1990. The shift to brigade-level organization provided greater operational flexibility, tactical initiative and reduced the possibility that large army units would be destroyed in set piece engagements with an aggressor; the change created many senior field command positions that would develop young and talented officers. In 1989. Five independent divisions under general staff command and 25 partisans divisions under corps command were formed including many other battalions and batteries under different commands. In 1989. Plan "Jedinstvo 2" has started and border battalions were transferred under corps command including some divisions that have remained before under others commands. Brigades got some artillery and antiaircraft batteries under their direct command that helped them to gain more independence in war time from higher levels. Defense of all major cities was until planned with separate units but under "Jedinstvo 2" only Belgrade and Zagreb retained separated units for defense of cities - command for defense of city of Belgrade and command for defense of city of Zagreb.
There were three classes of brigades and battalions: A. class B. class and R. class. A. Class brigades and battalions were more than 60 to up to 100% manned, B. class units had 15-60% manpower. R. class units where reserve with about 15-20% and was manned in their logistic units and commands. Battalions with A. class status were 100% manned and equipped. A. class brigade had 4 battalions and B class brigade had 2-3 battalions. "Jedinstvo 3" plan started in 1990. When for military leadership of YPA was obvious that USSR was moving to defense of its internal borders and only superpowe
The 1967–68 Montreal Canadiens season was the club's 59th season of play. The Canadiens won their 15th Stanley Cup in club history; the 1967 NHL Expansion Draft was held on June 6, 1967, in the ballroom of the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal. The Canadiens lost 18 players in the NHL Expansion Draft. General manager Sam Pollock helped Clarence Campbell draw up the rules for the draft; the most notable players lost were Jean-Guy Talbot, Dave Balon and Jim Roberts. On March 3, 1968, Jean Beliveau joined Gordie Howe as the only players to have 1000 career points; this was the first Stanley Cup after the 1967 expansion. Montreal defeated Chicago to advance to the finals as the East Division champion. St. Louis would defeat Philadelphia and Minnesota to advance to the finals as the West Division champion. Montreal wins the series 4–0. ScoringGoaltending ScoringGoaltending Prince of Wales Trophy. Jean Beliveau, runner-up, Hart Trophy. Claude Provost, Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy. J. C. Tremblay, defence, NHL Second Team All-Star.
J. C. Tremblay, runner-up, Norris Trophy. Rogie Vachon and Gump Worsley, Vezina Trophy. Gump Worsley, goaltender, NHL First Team All-Star. Montreal's draft picks at the 1967 NHL Amateur Draft held at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, Quebec. 1967–68 NHL season List of Stanley Cup champions National Hockey League Official Guide and Record Book 2006, Dan Diamond & Associates, Ontario, ISBN 0-920445-98-5. Canadiens on Hockey Database Canadiens on NHL Reference
Patrick Michael McGrady was an Irish-American journalist. He is known for his anti-fascist writings in the Jewish Daily Bulletin in the 1930s and from 1947 as science editor for the American Cancer Society. Patrick McGrady was born in 1908 in Montana, to James and Mary McGrady, he married Grace H. Robinson in New York in 1937. In the early 1930s, McGrady was a reporter for the China Press, he was a staff writer for the Associated Press in New York. He was known for his anti-fascist writings his 1934 series "This Fascist Racket" for New York's Jewish Telegraphic Agency paper, the Jewish Daily Bulletin, his survey of fascist organizations in the United States, Fascism in America, was the result of a year's study in Germany and America. He covered the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Lindbergh Trial in 1935. During the Second World War, McGrady was an air combat intelligence officer with the U. S. Marine Corps. From 1949 to 1973 McGrady was science editor for the American Cancer Society, he wrote The Savage Cell: A report on cancer and cancer research, published in 1964, in 1973 The Persecuted Drug: The Story of DMSO which the U.
S. government tried to supress. McGrady died in 1979. Fascism in America. Jewish Daily Bulletin, New York, 1934. "This Fascist Racket" - series in Jewish Daily Bulletin, 1934. The Savage Cell: A report on cancer and cancer research. Basic Books, New York, 1964; the Persecuted Drug: The Story of DMSO. Doubleday, New York, 1973. ISBN 0385089317 Arthur Derounian https://www.ncahf.org/articles/c-d/dmso.html
Mikisew Cree First Nation is an Indigenous First Nations government of Woodland Cree people in northeastern Alberta and in Northwest Territories, Canada. Most Mikisew Cree First Nation members live in Fort McMurray and Fort Chipewyan in Alberta and in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories; the Mikisew Cree First Nation is one of the five Athabasca Tribal Council Nations. The group signed a treaty in 1986 with Canada establishing several reserves; the Mikisew Cree won a case in the Supreme Court of Canada in 2005 over title interests to areas of the Wood Buffalo National Park. Mikisew Cree First Nation website
Eucalyptus orthostemon is a species of mallee, endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It has smooth coppery and greyish bark, linear adult leaves, oval to spindle-shaped buds in groups of seven, creamy white flowers and conical to cup-shaped fruit. Eucalyptus orthostemon is an upright, spreading mallee that grows to a height of 5 m and forms a lignotuber, it has smooth greyish to silvery bark. Adult leaves are the same shade of green on both sides, linear, 30–55 mm long and 2–5 mm wide on a petiole 1–4 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of five or seven a flattened, unbranched peduncle 3–10 mm long, the individual buds on pedicels 2–6 mm long. Mature buds are oval to spindle-shaped, 9–14 mm long and 3–5 mm wide with a horn-shaped to conical operculum, two or three times longer than the flower cup. Flowering occurs from January to February and the flowers are creamy white; the fruit is a woody, conical to cup-shaped capsule, 5–8 mm long and 5–7 mm wide with the valves near rim level.
Eucalyptus orthostemon was first formally described in 2012 by Dean Nicolle and Ian Brooker from a specimen they collected between Yealering and Kulin in 2000. This eucalypt grows in saline saltbush flats between Moora and Wongan Hills in the Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Jarrah Forest and Mallee biogeographic regions. Eucalyptus orthostemon is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. List of Eucalyptus species
The Apse of Santa María d'Àneu is a romanesque apse of the church of Santa Maria, Àneu, the transferred frescos from which are now exhibited at Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, in Barcelona. The decoration of the apse of the church of Santa María d’Àneu combines themes and motifs from the Old and New Testaments. Painted at the Church of Santa María d’Àneu The church of Santa María d'Àneu is located in the upper valley of the Noguera Pallaresa, Pyrenees mountain region; the building once belonged to a Benedictine Monastery, it is divided into a nave and aisles by six pairs of piers, taking the shape of a cross. The east end concludes in three semicircular apses, the central apse was decorated with frescoes. Santa Maria in Àneu was the most important church in the Àneu Valley and belonged to the cathedral chapter of Urgell. From the stylistic circle of Pedret, of Lombardic influence, the decoration of the apse reveals the existence of an elaborate iconographic and theological programme setting off the prophetic hopes of the Old Testament—that is, hope in the coming of a Messiah, to redeem humanity—against fulfillment of the prophecies—that is, the coming of the Messiah announced by the prophets.
Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya dates the original work at the end of 11th century – beginning of 12th century. However, there is speculation that the paintings were completed at the beginning of the 13th century at the time when Romanesque styles were breaking down and Gothic Art was coming of age; the iconography of the painting is suggestive of the Old Testament through the presence of the prophets in reverential attitudes. In the vault portion of the apse, the Epiphany or Adoration of the Magi is represented, with Mary and the three eastern kings baring gifts. Wheels of fire from Jehovah’s chariot are depicted in the lower register, conforming to Ezekiel’s vision. To the right and left are the archangels Michael and Gabriel holding banners and scrolls with the inscription PETICIVS and POSTVLATIVS. Bordering the central window of the lower zones are two six-winged seraphim, in their hands they hold live coals with tongs which they place in the mouths of two crouching figures. In the left lower zone, there are two tonsured figures who might be Saints Benedict and Bernard or one of them might be a portrait of a local deacon on account of the realism in the face of the figure.
The theory that these figures are patrons of the church is strengthened by the discovery of similar figures in related frescoes at the monastery of Saint Peter of Berga. The third archangel, does not appear with the others in the semidome but in the lower section. At the bottom is the announcement, the biblical prophecy, represented by means of combined images of the visions of Isaiah and Ezequiel. In keeping with the first, two magnificent seraphim with three pairs of wings each purify the mouth of the prophets with glowing embers which they are holding with tongs. Next to them are the prophets, represented with their hands together in an attitude of reverence. At the same time, the seraphim intone the Trisagion, or song of praise to the Lord, represented by the letters SCS, SCS, SCS, which mean ‘holy, holy’. From this moment, the word of the prophets will be the word of God. Beneath the central window are the wheels of fire of Yahweh’s chariot, described in Ezequiel’s vision, which symbolise the presence of the Lord.
On the vault was the Virgin and Child, representing the accomplishment of the prophecies, in the scene from Epiphany, with two archangels and Gabriel, patrons of sinners, in a representation similar to that in the apse from Santa Maria in Cap d'Aran. A third archangel, Raphael, is represented on the right of the semicylinder as the introducer of the two donor clergymen who appear on the left of the apse; the frescoes are attributed to the Circle of the Master of Pedret. The Master of Pedret was the first significant painter of the Catalon Romanesque period and is named for the wall paintings at the church of San Quirze de Pedret in Berga; the Apse at Aneu represents the end of a tradition, during this time the painter might have felt himself at liberty to relax old rules and abandon strict division into zones, therefore filling the bottom section not with lines of Apostles, but with less rigid elements of the prophetic vision. The Àneu frescos make a complete break with the normal Catalan artistic scheme.
The lower zone is unique and unrelated to the upper portion of the apse. The Byzantine influence appears to be strong in the style of the frescos, the seraphim have been noted to resemble those in the crypt at the cathedral of Anagni, near Rome. In addition there are touches of pure realism, this is seen in the details such as the unshaven face of the figure at the left of the lower register and the thin and wrinkled face of Magus; the painting could represent direct borrowings from Byzantium or importations from Byzantine Art via Lombardy, Italy. This influence is shown in the costume of the Wise Men, representative of the eastern court. Other features linking the artwork to Italy are the decorative border, simulated drapery, the geometrical border is similar to the one in the Roman church of San Carlo in Prugiasco. Castiñeiras, Manuel. Romanesque art in the MNAC collections. MNAC. ISBN 978-84-8043-196-5. Retrieved 3 September 2012. Museu Nacional D'Art de Catalunya. MNAC. 1 March 2009. ISBN 978-84-8043-200-9.
Retrieved 3 September 2012. Carbonell, Eduard. Romanesque Art Guide: Museu Nacional D'Art de Catalunya. Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. Retrieved 3 September 2012. Carbonell, Edua