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Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians is a designation, designed to refer to a united South Slavic people. It has been used in two connotations, the first in an ethnic or supra-ethnic connotation, the second as a term for citizens of the former Yugoslavia. Cultural and political advocates of Yugoslav identity have ascribed the identity to be applicable to all people of South Slav heritage, including those of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Slovenia. Attempts at uniting Bulgaria into Yugoslavia were however unsuccessful and therefore Bulgarians were not included in the panethnic identification. Since the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the establishment of South Slavic nation states, the term ethnic Yugoslavs has been used to refer to those who view themselves as Yugoslavs with no other ethnic self-identification, many of these being of mixed ancestry. In late 19th and early 20th century, influential public intellectuals Jovan Cvijić and Vladimir Dvorniković advocated that Yugoslavs, as a supra-ethnic nation, had "many tribal ethnicities, such as Croats and others within it".

In the former Yugoslavia, the official designation for those who declared themselves as Yugoslav was with quotation marks, "Yugoslavs". The quotation marks were meant to distinguish Yugoslav ethnicity from Yugoslav citizenship –, written without quotation marks; the majority of those who had once identified as ethnic "Yugoslavs" reverted to or adopted traditional ethnic and national identities. Some decided to turn to sub-national regional identifications in multi-ethnic historical regions like Istria, Vojvodina, or Bosnia; the Yugoslav designation, continues to be used by many by the descendants of Yugoslav migrants in the United States and Australia while the country still existed. Since the late 18th century, when traditional European ethnic affiliations started to mature into modern ethnic identities, there have been numerous attempts to define a common South Slavic ethnic identity; the word Yugoslav, meaning "South Slavic", was first used by Josip Juraj Strossmayer in 1849. The first modern iteration of Yugoslavism was the Illyrian movement in Habsburg Croatia.

It identified South Slavs with ancient Illyrians and sought to construct a common language based on the Shtokavian dialect. The movement was led by Ljudevit Gaj, whose script became one of two official scripts used for the Serbo-Croatian language. Among notable supporters of Yugoslavism and a Yugoslav identity active at the beginning of the 20th century were famous sculptor Ivan Meštrović, who called Serbian folk hero Prince Marko "our Yugoslav people with its gigantic and noble heart" and wrote poetry speaking of a "Yugoslav race". An amalgamation of the most fertile qualities of our three tribes will come forth every more and thus will be constructed the type of single Yugoslav civilization-the final and most important goal of our country."On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne, his wife, in Sarajevo. Princip was a member of Young Bosnia, a group whose aims included the unification of the Yugoslavs and independence from Austria-Hungary.

The assassination in Sarajevo set into motion a series of fast-moving events that escalated into full-scale war. After his capture, during his trial, he stated "I am a Yugoslav nationalist, aiming for the unification of all Yugoslavs, I do not care what form of state, but it must be free from Austria."In June–July 1917, the Yugoslav Committee met with the Serbian Government in Corfu and on 20 July the Corfu Declaration that laid the foundation for the post-war state was issued. The preamble stated that the Serbs and Slovenes were "the same by blood, by language, by the feelings of their unity, by the continuity and integrity of the territory which they inhabit undivided, by the common vital interests of their national survival and manifold development of their moral and material life." The state was created as the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, a constitutional monarchy under the Karađorđević dynasty. The term "Yugoslavs" was used to refer to all of its inhabitants, but to those of South Slavic ethnicity.

Some Croatian nationalists viewed the Serb plurality and Serbian royal family as hegemonic. A conflict of interest sparked among the Yugoslav peoples. In 1929, King Alexander sought to resolve a deep political crisis brought on by ethnic tensions by assuming dictatorial powers in the 6 January Dictatorship, renaming the country "Kingdom of Yugoslavia", pronouncing that there is one single Yugoslav nation with three tribes; the Yugoslav ethnic designation was thus imposed for a period of time on all South Slavs in Yugoslavia. Changes in Yugoslav politics after King Alexander's death in 1934 brought an end to this policy, but the designation continued to be used by some people. Philosopher Vladimir Dvorniković advocated the establishment of a Yugoslav ethnicity in his 1939 book entitled "The Characterology of the Yugoslavs", his views included cultural blending to create one, strong Yugoslav nation. There had on three occasions been efforts to make Bulgaria a part of Yugoslavia or part of an larger federation: through Aleksandar Stamboliyski during and after World War I.

2018 Rugby Europe Championship

The 2018 Rugby Europe Championship is the premier rugby union competition outside of the Six Nations Championship in Europe. This is the second season under its new format, that saw Georgia, Romania, Russia and Belgium compete for the title; this year's edition of the Rugby Europe Championship served as a key stage of the European region qualification process for the 2019 Rugby World Cup. The team with the best record across the 2017 and 2018 Championships qualified as Europe 1; as Georgia have secured qualification automatically, results involving that team are discarded for the purposes of Rugby World Cup qualification. Both the Championship and the Qualification Process were affected by controversial disciplinary issues involving player eligibility and the selection of neutral officials. In respect of matters relating to the eligibility of players, following a full review of the evidence, including statements and submissions from World Rugby, Rugby Europe, Romania and Russia, the independent committee found: Belgium had fielded one or more ineligible players on 7 occasions during the 2017 and 2018 Rugby Europe Championships.

In respect of sanctions, pursuant to Regulation 18, the independent committee determined the following: The deduction of 5 points for any match in which a union fielded an ineligible player. In practice this meant the following 40-point deduction for Spain 30-point deduction for Belgium. Therefore, based on a re-modelling of the Rugby Europe Championship tables in the context of Rugby World Cup 2019 qualifying, Russia would qualify as Europe 1 into Pool A replacing Romania and Germany will replace Spain in the European play-off against Portugal. Georgia's victory in the 2018 Rugby Europe Championship itself was unaffected. Germany's proposed promotion/relegation play-off with Portugal, becomes a Romania-Portugal play-off. Germany would now face Portugal in the Rugby World Cup European qualification play-off. Rugby Europe International Championships 2017–18 Rugby Europe International Championships 2019 Rugby World Cup – Europe qualification Six Nations Championship Antim Cup Rugby Europe official website

Borneo Evangelical Mission

The Borneo Evangelical Mission was a Protestant Evangelical Christian missionary society that worked among the people of Borneo, Malaysia. It was founded in October 1928 by three Australian missionaries, Hudson Southwell, Frank Davidson and Carey Tolley. In 1975 the BEM merged with Overseas Missionary Fellowship; the Borneo Evangelical Mission was pioneered by Hudson Southwell together with two fellow missionaries Frank Davidson and Carey Tolley of Australia. They boarded an old cargo steamer from Melbourne in early October 1928 bound for Singapore. Travelling with them was Alexander Henderson, a pioneer of the Southeast Asian timber trade who had offered to help establish a base on the island of Borneo. Henderson left the team the following year. On 12 November 1928, Henderson landed in Kuching, Borneo; the Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, gave permission to establish a mission in Sarawak and recommended starting in the Limbang area to the north-east. Davidson and Tolley were to join them later. Sarawak, together with Sabah and the Federation of Malayan States came together and formed Malaysia in 1963.

With the increasing use of the Malaysian national language, Borneo Evangelical Mission soon became Sidang Injil Borneo. Today, SIB churches may be found in Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia. Bray, Longhouse of faith, Borneo Evangelical Mission, 1971. Bray, Longhouse of fear, Borneo Evangelical Mission. Cole, R Alan. Emerging pattern. CIM work in the Diocese of Singapore and Malaya, China Inland Mission / Overseas Missionary Fellowship, 1961, 48pp. Day, Phyllis. Sold twice; the story of a girl in West Malaysia. Original story by Norah Rowe. Paper. True story of the conversion of a girl sold as an infant and bought back by her mother. Hunt, Gillian. All the pieces fit, OMF, Singapore, 1987, pp. 28–157. Lees, Shirley. Drunk before dawn, OMF, 1979. Story of the Borneo Evangelical Mission now part of the Overseas Missionary Fellowship. ISBN 0-85363-128-X Lees, Shirley P. Jungle Fire, Oliphants, 1964, 94pp. Spread of Christianity among Borneo tribal groups in the 1950s. Lees and Bill. Is it sacrifice? OMF/IVP/STL, 1987, 192pp.

Experiences with the Tagal people in Sabah and other work of the BEM/OMF in East Malaysia. ISBN 9971-972-53-0 Nightingale, Ken. One way through the jungle, OMF/BEM, 1970. Newton, Brian William. A new dawn over Sarawak: the church and its mission in Sarawak, East Malaysia, MA thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary, 1988, 198pp. Peterson, Robert. Roaring Lion. Spiritism in Borneo challenged by the power of Christ, Overseas Missionary Fellowship, 1968, 1970. Rusha, Gladys. Truth to tell in Borneo, 1969, Oliphants. Southwell, C Hudson, Uncharted Waters, 1999, Astana Publishing. ISBN 0-9685440-0-2

Pain disorder

Pain disorder is chronic pain experienced by a patient in one or more areas, is thought to be caused by psychological stress. The pain is so severe that it disables the patient from proper functioning. Duration may be as short as as long as many years; the disorder may begin at any age, occurs more in girls than boys. This disorder occurs after an accident or during an illness that has caused pain, which takes on a'life' of its own. Common symptoms of pain disorder are: negative or distorted cognition, such as feelings of despair or hopelessness. Acute conditions last. There is no physiological basis for the pain. Pain is reported as more distressing. Pain behavior highlights the psychological aspect of pain disorder; this can be demonstrated how moderate pain symptoms become more painful when rewarded in the form of solicitous and attentive behavior of others, by monetary gain, or by the successful avoidance of distasteful activities. The same can be said about excessive worry. A minor physical symptom can be aggravated or become more harmful and threatening if the person suffering engages in a constant body and symptom appraisal, which can lead to stress and maladaptive behavior when coping with the physical symptom.

There are several theories regarding the causes of pain disorder. Psychodynamic theory: unconscious conflicts or desires are converted into somatic symptom to protect the person from conscious awareness of it Emotions and communication: children show distress in what may be the only way they can, physical symptoms, when they lack the ability to speak or express their thoughts in any way Social influences: where psychological disorders are frowned upon, whether in families or cultures, distress may be expressed in physical terms Learning theory: children learn to imitate a family member or pick up on possible gains of being "sick" Family systems theory: a child's role in a family may be the sick one as part of the family dynamics. Reasons why fall under four possibilities: enmeshment, rigidity or lack of conflict resolution Trauma and abuse: this includes physical, psychological, or both combined with somatization, it is a common combination. People who have a history of physical or sexual abuse are more to have this disorder.

However, not every person with pain disorder has a history of abuse. Early intervention when pain first occurs or begins to become chronic offers the best opportunity for prevention of pain disorder; the DSM-IV-TR specifies three coded subdiagnoses: pain disorder associated with psychological factors, pain disorder associated with both psychological factors and a general medical condition and pain disorder associated with a general medical condition. Conditions such as dyspareunia, somatization disorder, conversion disorder, or mood disorders can eliminate pain disorder as a diagnosis. Diagnosis depends on the ability of physicians to explain the symptoms and on psychological influences. There are, authors who propose that the diagnosis for unexplained pain should be adjustment disorder because it does not pathologize individuals with this medical condition; this is proposed to avoid the stigma of such illness classification. The prognosis is worse. Treatment may include psychotherapy and sleep therapy.

According to a study performed at the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, antidepressants have an analgesic effect on patients suffering from pain disorder. In a randomized, placebo-controlled antidepressant treatment study, researchers found that "antidepressants decreased pain intensity in patients with psychogenic pain or somatoform pain disorder more than placebo". Prescription and nonprescription pain medications do not help and can hurt if the patient suffers side effects or develops an addiction. Instead and talk therapy are recommended. CBT helps patients learn what worsens the pain, how to cope, how to function in their life while handling the pain. Antidepressants worry. Many people do not believe the pain "is all in their head," so they refuse such treatments. Other techniques used in the management of chronic pain may be of use. There are interventions known as pain control programs that involve the removal of patients from their usual settings to a clinic or facility that provides inpatient or outpatient treatments.

These include multidisciplinary or multimodal approaches, which use combinations of cognitive and group therapies. Before treating a patient, a psychologist must learn as many facts as possible about the patient and the situation. A history of physical symptoms and a psychosocial history help narrow down possible correlations and causes. Psychosocial history covers the family history of disorders and worries about illnesses, chronically ill parents and negative life events, problems with family functioning, school difficulties; these indicators may reveal whether there is a connection between st

The Jaz Life

The Jaz Life is an album by the American jazz trumpeter Malachi Thompson recorded in 1991 and released by the Delmark label the following year. Allmusic reviewer Michael G. Nastos stated "These six compositions are not only life-affirming, but acknowledgments to such important icons as John Coltrane, Art Blakey, Miles Davis, some of their important sidemen, who have inspired Thompson during his struggle with a rare lymphomatic cancer... Thompson hits the note with this band of modern mainstream jazz masters performing at their best. Recommended". All compositions by Malachi Thompson except where noted "In Walked John" – 7:08 "My Romance" – 9:23 "Drown in My Own Tears" – 7:27 "Mystic Trumpet Man" – 5:49 "Croquet Ballet" – 6:39 "Lucky Seven" – 12:07 Malachi Thompson – trumpet Joe Ford – alto saxophone, soprano saxophone Carter Jeffersontenor saxophone Kirk Brown – piano Harrison Bankheadbass Nasar Abadey – drums Richard Lawrencecongas

Little Neston

Little Neston is a residential village south of Neston and situated on the Wirral Peninsula, England. Little Neston is administratively part of Cheshire West and Chester and had a population of 3,390 at the 2001 Census; the settlement was mentioned in the Domesday Book as Little Nestone. Together with Neston, it is a former mining village; the marshes of the River Dee are popular with bird watchers and horticulturalists because of the wide range of flora and fauna to be found in the area. Lord Nelson's mistress, Emma Hamilton, was born in nearby Ness and is remembered locally with the Lady Hamilton pub. Little Neston is home to St Winifride’s RC Primary School on Mellock Lane and Woodfall Primary School on Woodfall Lane. Neston Primary School on Burton Road is in Little Neston; the nearest high school is Neston High School in Neston. Listed buildings in Neston Neston website