Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska
Northwest Arctic Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,523; the borough seat is Kotzebue. The borough was formed on June 2, 1986. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 40,749 square miles, of which 35,573 square miles is land and 5,176 square miles is water. By land area, it is larger in total area than the state of Indiana, its coastline is limited by the Chukchi Sea. The Kotzebue Sound, a significant wildlife area, is a prominent water body within the Northwest Arctic Borough; the largest polar bear sighted in history, a male weighing 2209 pounds, was sighted at Kotzebue sound. North Slope Borough, Alaska - north Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - east Nome Census Area, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Chamisso Wilderness Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Cape Krusenstern National Monument Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic Wilderness Kobuk Valley National Park Kobuk Valley Wilderness Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge Noatak National Preserve Noatak Wilderness Selawik National Wildlife Refuge Selawik Wilderness At the 2000 census, there were 7,208 people, 1,780 households and 1,404 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 0.18 per square mile. There were 2,540 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 12.32% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 82.46% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 3.70% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.00 % "Eskimo" at home. There were 1,780 households of which 55.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 19.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.10% were non-families. 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.87 and the average family size was 4.36. Age distribution was 41.50% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 15.50% from 45 to 64, 5.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.70 males. Noatak Red Dog Mine List of airports in the Northwest Arctic Borough Official website Borough map: Alaska Department of Labor Summaries of Division of Subsistence research projects in northwest Alaska / Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by the Alaska State Publications Program. Subsistence wildlife harvests in five northwest Alaska communities, 2001-2003: results of a household survey / by Kawerak, Inc. Maniilaq Association, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Galena is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census the population was 470, with a 2016 estimate of 488 inhabitants. Galena was established in 1918, a military airfield was built adjacent to the city during World War II; the city was incorporated in 1971. The Koyukon Athabascans moved as the wild game migrated. In the summer many families floated on rafts to the Yukon River to fish for salmon. There were 12 summer fish camps located on the Yukon River between the Koyukuk River and the Nowitna River. Galena was established in 1918 near an Athabascan fish camp called Henry's Point, it became a supply and point for nearby lead ore mines that opened in 1918 and 1919. In 1941 and 1942, during World War II, a military air field was built adjacent to the civilian airport, the two facilities shared the runway and flight line facilities; this air field was designated Galena Air Force Station shortly after the split of the United States Air Force from the United States Army, which occurred as a result of the National Security Act of 1947.
During the 1950s, the construction of additional military facilities at Galena and the nearby Campion Air Force Station, in support of Galena's mission as a forward operating base under the auspices of the 5072nd Air Base Group, headquartered at Elmendorf Air Force Base, near Anchorage, provided improvements to the airport and the local infrastructure, causing economic growth for the area. Following the end of the Cold War, in 1993, operation of Galena Air Force Station was turned over to a contractor, all military personnel were withdrawn with only small groups of active personnel visiting the base on an as-needed basis; the former military facility remains in use as a forward operating location, used by the military. This use came under scrutiny by the Base Realignment and Closure Committee in the late 2000s and was closed October 1, 2010; the Air Force retains responsibility for toxin cleanup in the area and engineers from Eielson Air Force Base in Fairbanks still visit the site on occasion.
The base is now controlled by the City of Galena, the Galena School District and the Alaska Department of Transportation. The Alaska Wing of the Civil Air Patrol was pursuing retaining one of the F-16 fighter hangars as a CAP facility for the CAP Wing in Galena, the "Yukon Squadron"; the City of Galena gained notoriety in 2011 when it was noted in media reports as being the US community which received the most benefits from lobbying efforts. The town evaded bankruptcy by aggressively lobbying for state and federal funds for the GILA boarding school in the town, which produced funds that turned the city's finances around. In May 2013, Galena suffered a freak catastrophic flood when the spring breakup on the Yukon River caused an ice jam 20 miles downstream, backing up the river and affecting 90% of homes in the city; this flood was on the scale of a flood never seen before by Galena residents. In the part of town closest to the river, houses were submerged to the roofs in water, properties on higher ground suffered damage also.
Most of the residents had to evacuate in thanks to the efforts of the local airline, volunteer missionary pilots, the Alaska National Guard. Some of the residents chose to stay behind and took refuge in the few last remaining dry parts of town; the flood dike the Air Force built around the runway managed to keep the river from inundating the runway and GILA. Efforts are underway to help Galena rebuild, with the assistance of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and volunteer groups. Galena is located at 64°44′26″N 156°53′8″W. Galena is located on the north bank of the Yukon River, 45 mi east of Nulato; the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is southwest of Galena. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.0 square miles, of which, 17.9 square miles of it is land and 6.1 square miles of it is water. Galena is inaccessible by road to other parts of Alaska. Residents rely on river cargo in the brief summer season for the bulk of its needs, by air travel to access the outside world.
Galena first appeared on the 1890 U. S. Census as the unincorporated native village of "Notaloten", it would not appear again until 1930. It formally incorporated as a city in 1971; as of the census of 2010, there were 470 people, 190 households, 123 families residing in the city. The population density was 26.3 people per square mile. There were 264 housing units at an average density of 14.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 29.4% White, 0.0% Black or African American, 63.6% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 6.2% from two or more races. 2.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 29.3% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 20 to 29, 20.8% from 30 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. There were 229 females, 166 of whom were 18 years and over, 241 males, 171 of whom were 18 years and over; the median income for a household in the city was $60,313, the median income for a family was $62,917.
The per capita income for the city was $26,551. About 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line and 18.9% were below 125 percent of the poverty line. The headquarters for the Koyukuk/Innoko/Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge is located in Galena; the City of Galena is incorporated as a first-class city, governed by a city council. The city's mayor is Jon Korta; the Louden Tribal Counc
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is a national wildlife refuge in northeastern Alaska, United States. It consists of 19,286,722 acres in the Alaska North Slope region, it is the largest national wildlife refuge in the country larger than the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is administered from offices in Fairbanks; the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is the biggest and the wildest land publicly owned by the United States. ANWR includes a large variety of species of plants and animals, such as polar bears, wolves and migratory birds, that rely on the refuge. Just across the border in Yukon, are two Canadian National Parks and Vuntut; the National Wildlife Refuge System was founded by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1903, to protect boundless areas of wildlife and wetlands in the United States. This refuge system created the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 which conserves the wildlife of Alaska. In 1929, a 28-year-old forester named Bob Marshall visited the upper Koyukuk River and the central Brooks Range on his summer vacation "in what seemed on the map to be the most unknown section of Alaska."In February 1930, Marshall published an essay, "The Problem of the Wilderness,", a spirited defense of wilderness preservation in The Scientific Monthly, arguing that wilderness was worth saving not only because of its unique aesthetic qualities, but because it could provide visitors with a chance for adventure.
Marshall stated: "There is just one hope of repulsing the tyrannical ambition of civilization to conquer every niche on the whole earth. That hope is the organization of spirited people who will fight for the freedom of the wilderness." The article became a much-quoted call to action and by the late 20th century was considered seminal by wilderness historians. According to environmental journalist Brooke Jarvis, "Marshall saw the enormous unsettled Arctic lands he had explored as a possible antidote to this—not another chance to keep chasing America's so-called Manifest Destiny but a chance to stop chasing it." For Americans who would never travel there, "he thought they would benefit knowing that it still existed in the condition it always had." "In Alaska alone," Marshall wrote, "can the emotional values of the frontier be preserved."In 1953, an article was published in the journal of the Sierra Club by National Park Service planner George Collins and biologist Lowell Sumner titled "Northeast Alaska: The Last Great Wilderness".
Collins and Sumner recruited Wilderness Society President Olaus Murie and his wife Margaret Murie with an effort to permanently protect the area. In 1954, the National Park Service recommended that the untouched areas in the Northeastern region of Alaska be preserved for research and protection of nature; the controversy over whether to drill for oil in the National Wildlife Arctic Refuge has been a political controversy since 1977. The debate concerns the "Section of 1002" in ANWR; the section of 1002 is located on the coastal plain where many of the Arctic's diverse wildlife species preside. The usage of section 1002 in ANWR depends on the amount of oil worldwide. There are the opposition of drilling. Most of the supporters for drilling are big oil companies and political campaigners who sought to go after the resources that could be found in the refuge; the oppositions of drilling include people who reside in Alaska and people who want to preserve the wildlife and land for future considerations.
In 1956, Olaus and Mardy Murie led an expedition to the Brooks Range in northeast Alaska, where they dedicated an entire summer to studying the land and wildlife ecosystems of the Upper Sheenjek Valley. The conclusion resulting from these studies was an ever-deeper sense of the importance of preserving the area intact, a determination that would play an instrumental part in the decision to designate the area as wilderness in 1960; as Olaus would say in a 1963 speech to a meeting of the Wildlife Management Association of New Mexico State University, "On our trips to the Arctic Wildlife Range we saw that it was not a place for mass recreation... It takes a lot of territory to keep this alive, a living wilderness, for scientific observation and for esthetic inspiration; the Far North is a fragile place." The region first became a federal protected area in 1960 by order of Fred Andrew Seaton, Secretary of the Interior under U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In 1980, Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act.
The bill was signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980. Eight million acres of the refuge, the Mollie Beattie Wilderness, are designated as wilderness area; the expansion of the refuge in 1980 designated 1.5 million acres of the coastal plain as the 1002 area and mandated studies of the natural resources of this area petroleum. Congressional authorization is required; the remaining 10.1 million acres of the refuge are designated as "minimal management," a category intended to maintain existing natural conditions and resource values. These areas are suitable for wilderness designation, although there are presently no proposals to designate them as wilderness. There are no roads within or leading into the refuge, but there are a few Native settlements scattered within. On the northern edge of the refuge is the Inupiat village of Kaktovik and on the southern boundary the Gwich'in settlement of Arctic Village. A popular wilderness route and historic passage exists between the two villages, traversing the refuge and all its ecosystems from boreal, interior forest to Arctic
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Innoko National Wildlife Refuge
The Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is a national wildlife refuge of the United States located in western Alaska. It consists of 3,850,481 acres, it is the fifth-largest national wildlife refuge in the United States. The refuge is administered from offices in Galena; the refuge was established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The northern part of the refuge, called Kaiyuh Flats, is adjacent to the Yukon River southwest of Galena, it contains 751,000 acres. The southern part contains 3,099,000 acres of land surrounding the Innoko River; the land is swampy and is the nesting area for hundreds of thousands of birds including ospreys, northern hawk-owls, trumpeter swans, bald eagles, common ravens, short-eared owls, red-tailed hawks. Mammalian species that habitat this refuge are brown and black bears, wolf packs, Canadian lynx, porcupine, caribou, river otter, red fox, wolverine and mink; the refuge contains no roads. Air access can be arranged in McGrath. Official website
Innoko Wilderness is a 1,240,000-acre wilderness area in the U. S. state of Alaska. It was designated by the United States Congress in 1980, it lies within the southeastern part of Innoko National Wildlife Refuge. Innoko Wilderness is a transition zone between the boreal forestland of interior Alaska and the open tundra of western Alaska. More than half of the Wilderness is wetlands of muskeg and marsh, lakes and streams dotted with islands of black spruce and an understory of mosses and shrubs. Along the Yukon and Innoko Rivers are numerous owned subsistence camps used periodically for hunting and fishing by Alaska Natives. More than 20,000 beavers live in the Innoko Wilderness, along with moose and caribou and brown bears, red foxes, lynx, otters and wolverines. An estimated 65,000 Canada geese summer in the Wilderness with more than 380,000 other waterfowl and shorebirds, including pintails, shovelers, wigeons, red-necked grebes, lesser yellowlegs, Hudsonian godwits. List of U. S. Wilderness Areas Wilderness Act Innoko Wilderness - Wilderness.net