Thursday Island, colloquially known as TI, or in the native language, Waiben, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago located 39 kilometres north of Cape York Peninsula in the Torres Strait, Australia. It has an area of about 3.5 square kilometres. The Muralag peoples are the traditional owners of the land and seas surrounding Thursday Island; the highest point on Thursday Island, standing at 104 metres above sea level, is Milman Hill, a World War II defence facility. At the 2011 census, Thursday Island had a population of 2,610. Thursday Island is within the Shire of Torres, but is the administrative and commercial centre of the Torres Strait Island Region despite not being part of that local government area; the island has been populated for thousands of years by the Torres Strait Islanders, though archeological evidence on Badu, further north in Torres Strait, suggests that the area has been inhabited from before the end of the last Ice Age. The archeology from Badhu, Pulu and Mer shows that Melanesian occupation started around 2,600 years ago.
The original place of permanent European settlement in Torres Strait was Somerset, south-east of the tip of Cape York Peninsula, established in 1864. However, the channel between Albany Island and Somerset proved to be hazardous for a port and in 1875 it was jointly decided by the Queensland and British governments to transfer the port to the deep anchorage on the south side of Thursday Island; the new port was called Port Kennedy, after Edmund Kennedy, the explorer of Cape York Peninsula, was established in 1867. In 1877, an administrative centre for the Torres Strait Islands was set up on the island by the Queensland Government and by 1883 over 200 pearling vessels were based on the island. A lucrative pearling industry was founded on the island in 1884, attracting workers from around Asia, including Japan and India, seeking their fortune; the Japanese community was in part indentured divers and boat hands who returned to Japan after a period of service and some longer term residents who were active in boat building and in the ownership of luggers for hire -, illegal but bypassed by leases through third parties back to other Japanese, a practice called "dummying."
Additionally, many south Pacific Islanders worked in the industry, some imported against their will. While the pearling industry has declined in importance, the mix of cultures is evident to this day; the pearling industry centred on the harvesting of pearl shell, used to make shirt buttons. The local pearl oyster is Pinctada maxima. Trochus shell was gathered by boats that specialised in this. Most shell was exported as the raw material - to a London-based market. Pearls themselves were rare and a bonus for the crew; the boats used were graceful two-masted luggers. In shallow water free diving was used while in deeper water diver's dress, or an abbreviated form of it, with a surface air supply was used. In good times there were three divers to a lugger, a stern diver, one midships, one diver off the bow. A manual air compressor was used, it looked. For part of the fleet that operated further from Thursday Island, larger vessels schooners were used as mother ships to the luggers. Shell was opened on the mother vessels rather than on the luggers, in order to secure any pearls found.
The waters of the Straits are murky and visibility was very poor. Though dive depths were not great, except at the Darnley Deep, 40 fathoms, attacks of the bends were common and deaths frequent. On 25 August 1887, The Paterson Telegraph Station on the West Coast of Cape York was opened, it connected the Cape York Telegraph Line with Thursday Island, via an undersea cable. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries Thursday Island was a regular stop for vessels trading between the east coast of Australia and Southeast Asia. A shipping disaster to a vessel in this service occurred in 1890 when RMS Quetta struck an uncharted reef in the Strait and sank in five minutes with the loss of over 130 lives; the Anglican Church on Thursday Island built shortly afterwards was named the Quetta All Souls Memorial Cathedral in memory of the event. Today the church is called All St Bartholomew Church. Cyclone Mahina, which hit Bathurst Bay, southeast of Thursday Island in 1899, wrecked the pearling fleet sheltering there, with huge losses of vessels and lives.
The fear of Russian invasion as a result of the deterioration of relations between the Russian Empire and the British Empire led to a fort on Battery Point being built in 1892 to protect the island. The fort is today a heritage feature of the island. Local pearling declined up to the Second World War through competition from a Japanese-based fleet which did not use local resources or personnel. In the 1950s plastic buttons imitating pearl supplanted much of the demand for shell. Before the decline, pearl fishing was taken by the island-based fleet to the Aru Islands in what was the Dutch East Indies. During World War II, Thursday Island became the military headquarters for the Torres Strait and was a base for Australian and United States forces. January 1942 saw the evacuation of civilians from the island. Residents of Japanese origin or descent were interned; the residents did not return until after the end of the war and many ethnic Japanese were forcibly repatriated. The island was spared from bombing in World War II, due, it was thought, to it being the burial place of many Japanese pearl shell divers, or the
Yungaburra is a town located on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, not far from Cairns. In the 2011 census, Yungaburra had a population of 1,116 people; the name'Yungaburra' comes from the local Yidiny word janggaburru, denoting the Queensland silver ash. The landscape around Yungaburra has been shaped by millennia of volcanic activity; the most recent eruptions were 10,000 years ago. Notable geological features nearby include: Seven Sisters and Mount Quincan are volcanic cones. Lake Eacham and Lake Barrine are lakes inside volcanic craters. Mount Hypipamee Crater is a diatreme. Tinaroo Dam submerged the old town of Kulara is visible, on whose cricket-pitch, when drought conditions drastically lower the water-level, locals play cricket matches. Prior to European settlement the area around Yungaburra was inhabited by about sixteen different indigenous groups, among them the Ngatjan, with the custodians being Yidinji people and neighbouring Ngajanji people; the Queensland police and native troops carried out extensive massacres in the area to rid it of blacks.
In one incident in 1884, at Skull Pocket just north of the town, a group of Yidinji were surrounded at night, at dawn mowed down after they fled on hearing the first shot. The children were stabbed to death by native troopers. In the early 1880s the area around Allumbah Pocket was used as an overnight stop for miners travelling west from the coast. In 1886 the land was surveyed, in 1891 settlers moved in. In 1910 the railway arrived, the town was renamed Yungaburra, to avoid confusion with another town called Allumbah. By 1911 indigenous numbers had fallen to 20% of the pre-settlement population due to disease, conflict with settlers and loss of habitat. At the 2006 census, Yungaburra had a population of 932; the population of Yungaburra is 1,034 persons as of 30 June 2009. In 2006, The Atherton Tableland region was damaged by the Category 4 Cyclone Larry. Of the 19 heritage listed sites in Yungaburra, only the roofs of the community hall, police station and one of the bush cottages were badly damaged, as were the front of the Yungaburra Butchery and Gem Gallery sign.
The town was restored quickly. Yungaburra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 27 Atherton Road: Bank of New South Wales 6-10 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Court House 7-9 Cedar Street: 7-9 Cedar Street, Yungaburra 12 Cedar Street: Residence 15-17 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Post Office 16-20 Cedar Street: Williams' House 19 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Community Centre 32 Cedar: Billy Madrid's House 34 Cedar Street: Barber's Shop, Yungaburra Curtain Fig Tree Road: Curtain Fig Tree 7 Eacham Road: St Marks Anglican Church 25-33 Eacham Road: Cairns Plywood Pty Ltd Sawmill Complex 20 Gillies Highway: Eden House Restaurant 2 Kehoe Place: Butchers Shop 6-8 Kehoe Place: Lake Eacham Hotel 7 Mulgrave Road: Allumbah 4 Oak Street: Residence 1 Penda Street: St Patricks Catholic Church on the shores of Lake Tinaroo, the Afghanistan Avenue of Honour Yungaburra's economy today revolves around tourism, the town contains a primary school, post office, library/telecentre and a range of businesses and services for the use of residents and visitors.
Other facilities include a bowling club. The town has 18 Heritage Listed buildings, is the largest National Trust village in Queensland; the Yungaburra Markets, held on the fourth Saturday of each month, are one of the largest in Far North Queensland, each year around the end of October, Yungaburra holds the two-day Yungaburra Folk Festival, featuring concerts from Australian folk musicians. Yungaburra is the site of the war memorial to soldiers lost, opened 22 June 2013. There is a network of walking tracks around the town including Peterson's Creek. Allumbah Pocket is a picnic area on Peterson's Creek, it is the centre for a series of walking tracks along the creek. Tracks lead to Frawley's Pool, a popular swimming hole and picnic area further to Yungaburra's historical train bridge. In the opposite direction there is a track to the platypus viewing deck. Aside from this all of the tracks are easy and short enough for anyone to do; the site is dedicated to Geoff Tracy, a local renowned environmentalist who died in 2004.
Yungaburra has access to the southern arm of Lake Tinaroo, popular for fishing, sailing, water-skiing and camping. The other main places to get to Tinaroo are the township of Tinaroo; the Curtain Fig Tree, just out of Yungaburra, is a giant rainforest fig tree with roots hanging down, giving it the appearance of curtains. There is a short boardwalk around the tree. Lake Barrine and Lake Eacham are crater lakes, formed from volcanoes. Lake Eacham is popular for swimming and Lake Barrine has a teahouse and gift shop as well as cruises around the lake however is unsuitable for swimming due to the cruise boats. Both lakes have walking tracks around them. Lake Barrine's track is Lake Eacham's is 3 kilometres. There are a number of places to dine, from takeaway to fine dining. Yungaburra State School is a government primary school at 4 Maple Street. In 2017 the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 13 non-teaching staff; the nearest public secondary school is Atherton State High School. Yungaburra has a library at Maud Kehoe Park operated by the Tablelands Regional Council.
The Yungaburra branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall on the corner of Cedar Street and the Gillies Highway. Notable people from or who have lived in Yungaburra include: George Alfred
Mornington Island is the northernmost of 22 islands that form the Wellesley Islands group. The island is in the Gulf of Carpentaria and is part of the Gulf Country region in the Australian state of Queensland; the Manowar and Rocky Islands Important Bird Area lies about 40 kilometres to the north-west. Mornington Island is the largest of the islands, the largest settlement of, Gununa on the south-west of the island; the general topography of the island is flat with the maximum elevation of 150 metres. The island contains 10 estuaries, all in near pristine condition; the population was estimated to be 1,143 in 2016 and the majority of the citizens live in the township of Gununa. Mornington Island is included in the Shire of Mornington local government area; the majority of the islanders are Aboriginal. Lardil are the predominant clan group on Mornington Island and are the traditional owners of the land and surrounding seas; the Kaiadilt clan arrived more from nearby Bentinck Island, when that island's water supply was contaminated by salt after a cyclone.
Recent re-building work on aboriginal housing has been undertaken by the James Fraser Foundation, a non-profit organisation in Queensland. Macassan trepangers once travelled thousands of kilometres from Sulawesi to Mornington Island and other Australian mainland destinations in search of sea cucumbers; the eastern cape of the island was named Cape Van Diemen after Anthony van Diemen. Commander Matthew Flinders named the island after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, known when younger as the Earl of Mornington. Gununa Post Office opened by 1982; the Mornington Island Airport was a temporary airfield used by the RAAF and allied air forces during World War II. Penile subincision is still traditionally performed on the island for those wanting to learn a complex ceremonial language called Damin; the Mornington Island State School opened on 28 January 1975. In 1978, the Queensland government decided to take over control of both the Aurukun and Mornington Island Aboriginal reserves. Cyclones hit the island.
In 2000 Cyclone Steve passed directly over the island. Tropical Cyclone May passed in February 1988 and Tropical Cyclone Bernie passed to the west in early 2002. Tropical Cyclone Fritz passed directly over the island on 12 February 2003. Severe Tropical Cyclone Harvey caused damage on the island in February, 2005. Mornington Island State School offers kindergarten and limited secondary schooling for boys and girls operated by the Queensland Government at 500 Lardil Street. In 2016, the school had an enrolment of 248 students with 16 non-teaching staff. Mornington Island was the site of research over several decades by British anthropologist David McKnight, described in a series of books, People and the Rainbow Serpent: Systems of classification among the Lardil of Mornington Island, From Hunting to Drinking: The devastating effects of alcohol on an Australian Aboriginal community, Going the Whiteman’s Way: Kinship and marriage among Australian Aborigines and Of Marriage and Sorcery: The quest for power in northern Queensland.
McKnight lamented the increasing levels of violence since the 1970s. Indigenous art of Mornington Island is described in The Heart of Everything: The art and artists of Mornington & Bentinck Islands, ed. N. Evans, L. Martin-Chew and P. Memmott. A tribe of indigenous people on the island have been communicating with wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins for millennium, it is said that they have "a medicine man who "speaks" to them telepathically. By these communications he assures that the tribes’ fortunes and happiness are maintained." In 2003 the Government of Queensland implemented an Alcohol Management Plan to 19 indigenous communities in Queensland where alcohol abuse was rampant. The alcohol bans are aimed at alleviating high levels of domestic violence, child abuse and child neglect; the plan restricts tavern opening hours, limits sales to only light and mid-strength beers, bans takeaway alcohol sales and home brewing. The Mornington Island community has been described as the toughest in Queensland when it comes to resisting alcohol bans.
In December 2003 police reinforcements had to be sent to Mornington Island after riots broke out when tough new alcohol laws were introduced. In 2008 more riots were feared after the Lelka Murrin Hotel, one of only two liquor retailers on the island, closed due to the proprietor being ill. Extra police were sent to the island to stop any unauthorised sale of alcohol and to quash any alcohol-fueled violence that may have erupted at a time when violent incidents on the island were common; as per 2018, alcohol continues to be a major social and health problem. The alcohol ban on the island has led to locals home brewing, which in turn is providing unlimited quantities of cheap alcohol. List of islands of Australia Sydney Island Mornington Island Weather & Community Portal Junkuri Laka Welleslaey Islands Aboriginal Law Justice and Governance Association
Croydon is a town and locality within the Shire of Croydon in Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, the town and surrounding area recorded a population of 312 people, it is a terminus for the Normanton to Croydon railway line, which operates the Gulflander tourist train. The historic goldrush town of Croydon is located in the heart of the Gulf Savannah, 529 kilometres west of Cairns. Mining in the area drove out the Bugulmara people indigenous to the area. Croydon was a large pastoral holding owned by Alexander Brown and Margaret Chalmers that covered an area of 5,000 square kilometres, when first settled in the 1880s; the town's name is derived from a pastoral run name, used by their sons, Alexander Brown and William Chalmers Brown, pastoralists. Gold was discovered in 1885 and by 1887, the town's population had reached 7,000. Croydon Post Office opened on 20 March 1886. Croydon State School was established on 12 September 1889 but did not open until 7 July 1890. Gold was to be the main economic production of the area for four decades.
The Mining Warden left in 1926. During its heyday, Croydon was the fourth largest town in the colony of Queensland. In 1917, Dr. Elkington, Director of the Division of Tropical Hygiene, Commonwealth Department of Health, was concerned about health and hygiene of its growing population, contemplated conducting a statistical and social survey of the town, which did not eventuate. Elkington's interest in sociological surveys of gathering social and economic details on a population developed into the 1924 Sociological Survey of White Women conducted from the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Townsville. Croydon has a much smaller population, having decreased following the end of the gold rush; the population is now a few hundred people. The town is one of the termini for the Gulflander railway, opened for the gold rush in 1891 but now a tourist railway operated by Traveltrain. In early 2009, the close proximity of a receding cyclone ex-Cyclone Charlotte, caused torrential rain and Croydon to be flooded.
An estimated $5 million of damage was made to town infrastructure. Croydon has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Croydon: Homeward Bound Battery and Dam Gulf Developmental Road: Content Mine Gulf Developmental Road: Richmond Mine and Battery Helen Street: Croydon railway station Julia Creek Road: Croydon Cemetery Normanton Road: Golden Gate Mining and Town Complex Normanton Road: Station Creek Cemetery Normanton to Croydon: Normanton to Croydon railway line Off Gulf Developmental Road: Chinese Temple and Settlement Site Samwell Street: Court House Samwell Street: Croydon Shire Hall Samwell Street: Police Station Sircom Street: Croydon Hospital Ward Tabletop Cemetery West of the railway station: Old Croydon Cemetery Croydon has a swimming pool, golf course, lawn bowls, a museum, a tourist information centre, caravan park and a primary school; the Croydon Shire Council operates a public library at 63 Samwell Street. Croydon State School is a government primary school in Brown Street.
In 2014, it had 42 students enrolled with 2 classes with 3 teachers. Water supply is sourced from Lake Belmore. Croydon was mentioned in the 1950 novel A Town Like Alice by Nevil Shute, as an example of a abandoned gold rush town. Australian Country music singer-songwriter Jamey Fitzgerald had lived in Croydon during his teen age years and early adulthood. In 2012 he was featured on television Channel 9 discussing his life living in the town. Media related to Croydon, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Croydon and Croydon Shire "Heritage Precinct". Croydon Shire Council
Tully is a town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. It is adjacent to the Bruce Highway 140 kilometres south of Cairns by road and 210 kilometres north of Townsville. In the 2016 census, Tully had a population of 2,390 people; the Tully River was named after Surveyor-General William Alcock Tully in the 1870s. The town of Tully was named after the river when it was surveyed off when the sugar mill was erected in 1924. A settlement known as Banyan had grown up on the other side of Banyan Creek during the previous decade. Tully is one of the larger towns of the Cassowary Coast Region; the economic base of the region is agriculture. The sugar cane grown at the many farms in the district is processed locally at the Tully Sugar Mill to give raw sugar, shipped elsewhere for refinement; the Tully River area was settled once Cardwell, to the south, was established. The river was renamed in 1872 in honour of William Alcock Tully under-secretary for public lands and chief commissioner of crown lands in Queensland.
The first settlers were the nephews of James Tyson. It was not until the government constructed a sugar mill in 1925. Tully was within the Cardwell Division, which became the Shire of Cardwell in 1903; the original headquarters for the division/shire were in older town of Cardwell. In 1929, the decision was taken to relocate the shire council's headquarters to the newer but more populous town of Tully; the first council meeting held in Tully was on 27 June 1929. A new shire chambers was built in 1930 on the south-east corner of Morris Streets. At the 2011 census, Tully had a population of 2,436. Tully remained the administrative centre for the Shire of Cardwell, until the shire was amalgamated into the Cassowary Coast Region in 2008; the regional council has its headquarters in Innisfail. In March 2015, a farm at Tully tested positive for the soil-borne Panama disease. Follow-up testing confirmed the results. One of the strains of the disease affects all types of bananas and has only been detected in the Northern Territory.
Harvesting continued on the property with strict protocols allowing the farm to continue to operate and distribute product without posing a threat. Tully has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 17 Mars Street: Tully State School 69 Bryant Street: Tully Court House Tully has a tropical rainforest climate. With an average annual rainfall exceeding 4,000 millimetres, the highest annual rainfall in a populated area of Australia, Tully is arguably the wettest town in Australia – a rivalry exists between Tully and the nearby town of Babinda for said title in which most years Babinda wins. Although Tully's average rainfall is less than Babinda, in 2003 a giant gumboot was erected as a monument to the town's climate. Buildings in Tully were badly damaged by Cyclone Yasi on 3 February 2011. According to residents, Tully was "...a scene of mass devastation". An unknown number of homes were destroyed as intense winds, estimated at 300 km/h, battered the area. Many other homes not destroyed or roof damage.
As daybreak came, reports from the town stated that about 90 percent of the structures along the main avenue sustained extensive damage. The Cassowary Coast Regional Council operates the Dorothy Jones Library at Tully; the Tully branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall at 5 Plumb Street. Tully railway station is a prominent station on the main North Coast Railway Line, situated just over halfway between Townsville and Cairns. By 10 December 1924, Tully was connected with both Innisfail. Tully State High School has serviced students in the Tully district since its establishment in 1964. Tully State High School has an enrolment of 630 students; as of 2016, Richard Graham is the principal of the school. Tully State High School has been accredited as a Centre of Excellence in Mathematics and Technology and is one of only a few Reef Guardian schools; the campus is situated on extensive grounds, 38 hectares, includes an aquaculture centre, a worm farm, an arboretum, a herd of cattle and several sports fields.
The high school has since been rebuilt. Tully State School caters to the educational needs of the town's primary school children; when erected in 1924, it was known as Banyan Provisional and has since gone through a number of name changes: Tully Provisional. The school's current motto is "Work well and succeed". St. Clare's Parish School is a Catholic primary school, erected in 1928. Tully Tigers, is the local Rugby League club. One of their most famous juniors is former Cowboys forward Peter Jones. Tully was once one of the biggest sporting hubs in Far North Queensland, but since the economic crisis has hit, they are looking for more and more ways to support their clubs. Tully is the last place; the Golden Gumboot is in the park on corner of Hort Street. Built in 2003, the Gumboot is 6.1 metres long and 7. 9 metres high.
Curtain Fig Tree
Curtain Fig Tree is a heritage-listed tree at Curtain Fig Tree Road, Tablelands Region, Australia. It is one of the largest trees in Tropical North Queensland and one of the best known attractions on the Atherton Tableland, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 3 December 2009. The Curtain Fig Tree is of the strangler fig species Ficus virens; these figs germinate on top of another tree and try to grow roots into the ground. Once this important step is accomplished, the fig will grow vigorously kill the hosting tree and grow on independently. In this case, the hosting tree tilted towards the next one, its curtain of aerial roots drops 15 metres to the ground. Although these figs kill their hosts, they are an epiphyte which feeds from the ground, unlike a parasitic plant which feeds from the sap of the host plant/tree. Far North Queensland's famous Curtain Fig Tree is located in a national park about one kilometre north of the town of Yungaburra on the Atherton Tableland, it is estimated by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service to be at least 500 years old.
Associated with organised tourism on the Tableland since the 1920s, the tree has been important in the development of the Cairns hinterland as a major tourist region in Queensland. Since the 1890s the tropical vegetation of the Atherton Tableland has been known variously as scrub and more mabi rainforest; the term "rainforest" was coined in 1898 but it was not a descriptor applied to the tropical vegetation of the Cairns region until the 1970s. Mabi rainforest was classified in the 1960s by ecologists, based on its physical characteristics and species composition; the name "mabi" is derived from a local Aboriginal word for the rare Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo, the largest mammal found in this rainforest. Logging and urban development on the Tableland has resulted in significant loss of mabi rainforest and it is listed as endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Early non-indigenous visitors to the Atherton Tableland viewed the scrub in Romantic terms, fascinated by the dense and luxurious vegetation the enormous trees covered with vines, delicate and unusual ferns and orchids.
A number of early twentieth century tourist attractions in the region, such as Fairyland and the Maze at Kuranda developed reflecting this view of the scrub. Other early commentators saw the fecundity of the scrub in a less favourable light, referring to it as gloomy and swarming with insects. Ways of seeing the rainforest began to shift in the 1920s from the Romantic view of nature as a collection of fascinating curiosities and grand and sublime landscapes, to an ecological paradigm which views nature as a systemic interrelationship between all living things including humans, their environment. In the 1930s the North Queensland Naturalists' Club lobbied for language change, seeking to replace "scrub" used in a derogatory manner, by "jungle", in a bid to change community attitudes to the rainforest. Valuing the rainforest gained momentum with the rise of the environmental movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Giant strangler figs such as the Curtain Fig Tree were considered to be wonders of nature.
Strangler figs are a parasitic species of tree that develop when the seed of a fig germinates on the top of another tree and tries to plant its roots in the ground. Once the root system is established, the fig grows vigorously killing the host tree and growing independently; the unusual formation of the Curtain Fig Tree was created when its vertical roots strangled the host causing it to fall into a neighbouring tree on a 45 degree angle. The extensive aerial roots of the strangler fig dropped from the oblique angle of the fallen tree 15 metres to the forest floor, forming a "curtain". North Queensland strangler figs were portrayed photographically in The Queenslander from as early as 1896 and on postcards soon after 1900. Descriptions of unusual tropical vegetation such as the giant strangler figs began to appear in tourist guides from the 1920s; the Curtain Fig Tree was well known as a tourist attraction by the 1920s when Whitecars, a local hire-car service, commenced day tours of the southern Tableland c.
1926, stopping to view the giant tree. Prior to this the only comfortable travel available to visitors to the southern Tableland was by train via the Kuranda Railway. Whitecars was established c. 1922 by Les Battle and Norm Graham, who developed a timetabled taxi service between Malanda and Atherton, between Malanda and Millaa Millaa, with three cars. They took advantage of the 1926 opening of the Gillies Highway, linking the southern Tableland with Cairns, to take Ned Williams into partnership as The Cairns Tableland Motor Service Ltd, to capitalise on the expected influx of tourists. In 1927 the company won the tender to transport passengers between Cairns and the southern Tableland via the Gillies Highway, to operate day tours on the Tableland out of Yungaburra. In 1934 Whitecars introduced its first bus, capable of carrying 17 passengers; the development of Whitecars was integral to the development of tourism on the Tablelands and led to the increased popularity of attractions such as the Curtain Fig Tree.
By the 1950s the Curtain Fig Tree was included in the Grand Tour/Tropical Wonderland Tour itineraries promoted by the Queensland Government Tourist Bureau. The Grand Tour operated during the winter months when a P&O ship would arrive at Cairns each week from Melbourne and Brisbane carrying around 200 passengers for a six day stay in the regio
Mission Beach, Queensland
Mission Beach is a small town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. In the 2016 census Mission Beach and surrounding villages had a total population of 3,597 people. Mission Beach is bounded on the east by the Coral Sea; the popular tourist destination of Dunk Island lies 4 kilometres offshore. Today, what were once separate villages have now grown such that they are considered one town, Mission Beach; the villages are, from south to north, South Mission Beach, Wongaling Beach, Mission Beach, Bingil Bay, Brooks Beach and Carmoo. Development is continuing at Garners Beach to the north. Clump Point is the northern end of a sandy beach 13 kilometres long facing the Coral Sea which runs south to Tam O'Shanter Point in South Mission Beach at the southern end. Clump Point was descriptively named by Captain Owen Stanley of the Royal Navy survey ship HMS Rattlesnake. In 1872 it was alleged by two sailors, that the captain and some of the crew of the ill-fated Maria, wrecked in a "typhoon", were killed and eaten by natives north of Tam O'Shanter Point.
Survivor Thomas Ingham attests that the aborigines were friendly with his party until joined by another group of unfriendly natives. A group of vigilantes raided the area now called South Mission Beach and attacked a local aboriginal camp. In 1916 Ingham wrote: "Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave short-shrift to the cannibals, who had eaten the captains party, the brutes who had speared me and taken my belt was seen to be wearing it around his head like a crown; that sealed his fate. This belt saved my life, it made him a king when he bought about his demise. Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave it back to me, I have kept it since." The river Louisa was renamed Maria Creek after the wreck. Johnstone River was named after Sub Inspector Johnstone. In the early 20th century Chinese banana farmers used Aborigines as labourers in the Tully River region. Opium addiction and conflict with European settlers resulted in the Queensland government creating an Aboriginal internment centre at the present Mission Beach. Superintendent John Martin Kenny started the necessary work on 1 September 1914.
There was no mission in the religious sense. The settlement had characteristics of a penal settlement; the Hull River detention centre and superintendent's residence were destroyed in the cyclone of 10 March 1918 and were not rebuilt. Superintendent Kenny and his daughter were killed by debris; the surviving Aborigines were forcefully moved to Queensland. The first white settlers, the Cutten brothers, came to Mission Beach area in 1882 and settled at Bingil Bay, where they farmed mangoes, pineapples, citrus fruit and coconuts, they manufactured their own coffee. Produce was shipped south on cargo-boats. Before this the only white people to enter this area were the timber-getters who sometimes camped on the beach and retrieved timber from the adjacent rain forests, they employed local Aborigines for their assistance in their timber hauling, paying the Aboriginal labourers with tobacco and tools. After the Cutten brothers, the Unsworths settled at Narragon Beach, the Garners came and settled at Garners Beach, the Porter brothers settled at what the locals refer to as Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach.
Mission Beach Post Office opened on 15 December 1949. In the 2006 census Mission Beach had a population of 515. Mission Beach State School is located at Webb Road Wongaling Beach, it is a Prep to Year 6 school and details of the curriculum and resources can be found on the Mission Beach State School Website. In early October there is the evolve music festival than shows local musicians and a few bands from around Australia. There is a market there that has food, clothes and other festival stuff. Rugby League plays a big part in the town, with Tully Tigers the main club. Mission Beach is now a thriving tourist town, able to maintain its small town feel. One reason for this is that the town is spread out along a thin strip of land between the ocean and the hills and farmland behind; this has spread out a large tourism market, the village doesn't feel as busy as one might expect. The beach is flanked by green mountains rising just a short distance inland, provides views out to the Family Islands. Close to shore at Mission Beach lies a shallow reef.
The reef runs from the mouth of Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach to Clump Point, a popular fishing spot, the main departure and arrival point for the Dunk Island Ferry. Surrounded by World Heritage rainforest on one side and the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef on the other, Mission Beach is home to many wildlife species, most notable is the cassowary; this large flightless bird can be found in the rainforest surrounding the area but appears to be thriving in spite of land clearing and predators such as wild dogs and feral pigs. Much of the area is part of the Coastal Wet Tropics Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of lowland tropical rainforest birds. Mission Beach is the mainland gateway to Dunk Island, with water taxis and ferries shuttling guests and day-trippers out to the island and its resort