Yuri (genre)

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Dealing with the romance between an "average blonde" and a "stately brunette" at a girls' boarding school, Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first yuri manga,[1] established archetypes that can be seen even in yuri works of the 2000s.[2]

Yuri (百合, "lily"), also known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love (ガールズラブ, gāruzu rabu),[3] is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving lesbian relationships in manga, anime, and related Japanese media.[4][5] Yuri focuses on the sexual orientation or the romantic orientation aspects of the relationship, or both, the latter of which is sometimes called shōjo-ai by Western fandom.[6]

The themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian fiction of the early twentieth century,[7][8] with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya.[9] Nevertheless, it is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda.[1] The 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in dōjinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind of content.[10] In 2003, the first manga magazine specifically dedicated to yuri, Yuri Shimai, was launched, and this was followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime, which was launched after the former was discontinued in 2004.[11][12]

As a genre, yuri content could target either a male or a female audience. Although yuri originated in female-targeted (shōjo, josei) works, today it is featured in male-targeted (shōnen, seinen) ones as well.[8] Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and Strawberry Panic!, as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine, Comic Yuri Hime S, which was launched in 2007.[13]

Definition and semantic drift[edit]


The word yuri (百合) literally means "lily", and is a relatively common Japanese feminine name.[4] In 1976, Bungaku Itō, editor of Barazoku (薔薇族, lit. rose tribe), a magazine geared primarily towards gay men, first used the term yurizoku (百合族, lit. lily tribe) in reference to female readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku no heya (百合族の部屋, lit. lily tribe's room).[14] It is unclear whether this was the first instance of this usage of the term. Not all women whose letters appeared in this short-lived column were necessarily lesbians, but some were and gradually an association developed. For example, the tanbi magazine Allan (アラン, Aran) began running a Yuri Tsūshin (百合通信, "Lily Communication") personal ad column in July 1983 for "lesbiennes" to communicate.[15] Along the way, many dōjinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai (pornographic) dōjinshi, and the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped.[6] Since then, the meaning has drifted from its mostly pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of intimate love, sex, or the intimate emotional connections between women.[16]

Japanese vis-à-vis Western usage[edit]

As of 2009, the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women (whether sexual or romantic; explicit or implied) in manga, anime, and related entertainment media, as well as the genre of stories primarily dealing with this content.[5][16] The wasei-eigo construction "Girls Love" (ガールズラブ, gāruzu rabu), occasionally spelled "Girl's Love" or "Girls' Love", or abbreviated as "GL", is also used with this meaning.[3][16] Yuri is generally a form of fanspeak amongst fans, but its usage by authors and publishers has increased since 2005.[3][5] The term "Girls Love", on the other hand, is primarily used by the publishers.[16][17]

In North America, yuri has initially been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum, deemed primarily as a variety of hentai.[6] Following the pattern of shōnen-ai, a term already in use in North America to describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men, Western fans coined the term shōjo-ai to describe yuri without explicit sex.[6] In Japan, the term shōjo-ai (少女愛, lit. girl love) is not used with this meaning,[6] and instead tends to denote pedophilia (actual or perceived), with a similar meaning to the term lolicon (Lolita complex).[18] The Western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s, picking up connotations from the Japanese use.[16] American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have also adopted the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications.[19][20]

Thematic history[edit]

Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women was Nobuko Yoshiya,[9] a novelist active in the Taishō and Shōwa periods of Japan.[21] Yoshiya was a pioneer in Japanese lesbian literature, including the early twentieth century Class S genre.[22] These kinds of stories depict lesbian attachments as emotionally intense yet platonic relationships, destined to be curtailed by graduation from school, marriage, or death.[21] The root of this genre is in part the contemporary belief that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood.[23] Class S stories in particular tell of strong emotional bonds between schoolgirls, a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman.[22]

Around the 1970s, yuri began to appear in shōjo manga,[1] presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian literature of the early twentieth century.[7] This early yuri generally features an older looking, more sophisticated woman, and a younger, more awkward admirer. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their families, and when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread, they are received as a scandal. The outcome is a tragedy, with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end.[7] In general, the yuri manga of this time could not avoid a tragic ending.[24][25] Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first manga involving a lesbian relationship,[1] is a prime example, as it was "prototypical" for many yuri stories of the 1970s and 1980s.[26] It is also in the 1970s that shōjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism,[27] sometimes depicting female characters as manly looking, which was inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka Revue.[28] These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works,[29] including The Rose of Versailles, Oniisama e..., and Claudine...![30] Some shōnen works of this period feature lesbian characters too, but these are mostly depicted as fanservice and comic relief.[31]

In general, manga from specialized yuri publications, such as Kuchibiru Tameiki Sakurairo, display more explicit depictions of physical affection: from holding hands to kissing, and in some cases even sex scenes.

Some of these formulas began to weaken during the 1990s:[10] manga stories such as Jukkai me no Jukkai by Wakuni Akisato, published in 1992, began to move away from the tragic outcomes and stereotyped dynamics.[32] This stood side-by-side with dōjinshi works, which at the time were largely influenced by the immense popularity of Sailor Moon,[33] the first mainstream manga and anime series featuring a "positive" portrayal of an openly lesbian couple.[8][29] Furthermore, many of the people behind this show went on to make Revolutionary Girl Utena, a shōjo anime series where the main storyline focuses on a yuri relationship, which is widely regarded today as a masterpiece.[34] Male-targeted works such as the Devilman Lady anime series, based on a homonym seinen manga by Go Nagai, began to deal with lesbian themes in a more "mature manner" too.[35] The first magazines specifically targeted towards lesbians appeared around this period, containing sections featuring yuri manga.[36] These stories range from high school crush to lesbian life and love, featuring different degrees of sexual content.[36][37] It is at this point (the mid-1990s) that lesbian-themed works began to be acceptable.[29]

The later 1990s brought Oyuki Konno's Maria-sama ga Miteru, which by 2004 was a bestseller among yuri novels.[38] This story revisits what was being written at the time of Nobuko Yoshiya:[39] strong emotional bonds between females, mostly revolving around the school upperclassman-underclassman dynamic, like those portrayed in Class S.[39] Another prominent author of this period is Kaho Nakayama, active since the early 1990s, with works involving love stories among lesbians.[38]

Around the early 2000s, the first magazines specifically dedicated to yuri manga were launched,[11][12] containing stories dealing with a wide range of themes: from intense emotional connections such as that depicted in Voiceful, to more explicit school-girl romances like those portrayed in First Love Sisters,[40] and realistic tales about love between adult women such as those seen in Rakuen no Jōken.[41] Some of these subjects are seen in male-targeted works of this period as well,[42][43] sometimes in combination with other themes, including mecha and science fiction.[44][45] Examples include series such as Kannazuki no Miko, Blue Drop, and Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl. In addition, male-targeted stories tend to make extensive use of moe and bishōjo characterizations.[13]

In the 2010s, yuri stories by lesbian creators became more prominent, such as My Lesbian Experience With Loneliness.[46]


Cover of the autumn 2004 issue of Yuri Shimai, illustrated by Reine Hibiki, the illustrator for the yuri light novel series Maria-sama ga Miteru.

Sun Magazine published the yuri manga anthology magazine Yuri Shimai between June 2003 and November 2004 in quarterly installments, ending with only five issues.[11] After the magazine's discontinuation, Comic Yuri Hime was launched by Ichijinsha in July 2005 as a revival of the magazine,[5] containing manga by many of the authors who had had work serialized in Yuri Shimai.[12] Like its predecessor, Comic Yuri Hime is also published quarterly.[12] A sister magazine to Comic Yuri Hime named Comic Yuri Hime S was launched as a quarterly publication by Ichijinsha in June 2007.[47] Unlike either Yuri Shimai or Comic Yuri Hime, Comic Yuri Hime S is targeted towards a male audience.[13] Ichijinsha will start to publish light novel adaptations from Comic Yuri Hime works and original yuri novels under their shōjo light novel line Ichijinsha Bunko Iris, scheduled to begin on July 19, 2008.[48] Some Japanese lesbian lifestyle magazines contain manga sections, including the now-defunct magazines Anise (1996–97, 2001–03) and Phryné (1995).[36] Carmilla, an erotic lesbian publication,[36] released an anthology of lesbian manga called Girl's Only.[49] Additionally, Mist (1996–99), a ladies' comic manga magazine, contained sexually explicit lesbian-themed manga as part of a section dedicated to lesbian-interest topics.[36]

The first company to release lesbian-themed manga in North America was Yuricon's publishing arm ALC Publishing.[50] Their works include Rica Takashima's Rica 'tte Kanji!?—which in 2006 was course material for Professor Kerridwen Luis' Anthropology 166B course at Brandeis University[51][52]—and their annual yuri manga anthology Yuri Monogatari; both were first released in 2003.[50] The latter collects stories by American, European, and Japanese creators, including Akiko Morishima, Althea Keaton, Kristina Kolhi, Tomomi Nakasora, and Eriko Tadeno.[53][54] These works range from fantasy stories to more realistic tales dealing with themes such as coming out and sexual orientation.[54] Besides ALC Publishing, the Los Angeles-based Seven Seas Entertainment has also incurred in the genre, with the English version of well known titles such as the Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl manga and the Strawberry Panic! light novels.[20] On October 24, 2006, Seven Seas announced the launch of their specialized yuri manga line, which includes works such as the Strawberry Panic! manga, The Last Uniform,[20] and Comic Yuri Hime's compilations such as Voiceful and First Love Sisters.[40]

Yuri series[edit]

These lists display stories according to the role yuri plays in them. The first list shows series in which interpersonal attraction between females and the incorporation of lesbian themes play a central role in their genre or storylines. Such elements are labeled by publishers as yuri, and may include a lesbian character as the protagonist or a supporting character, or explorations of sexuality or gender that deviate from the hetero-normative. The second list contains stories in which the same subjects are used mostly for comic relief, as fanservice, subtext, or for character development in a larger, sometimes unrelated context;

Yuri as a central element[edit]

Yuri as a secondary element[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Brown, Rebecca (2005). "An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 1)". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-18. 
  2. ^ Friedman, Erica (2006-06-27). "Yuri Manga: Maya's Funeral Procession / Maya no Souretsu". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  3. ^ a b c Morishima, Akiko (January 2008). "YurixYuri Kenbunroku". Comic Yuri Hime (in Japanese) (11). ASIN B00120LP56. 
  4. ^ a b Charlton, Sabdha. "Yuri Fandom on the Internet". Yuricon. Retrieved 2008-01-13. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Joseidōshi no LOVE wo egaita, danshi kinsei no "Yuri būmu" gayattekuru!?" (in Japanese). Cyzo. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Friedman, Erica. "What is Yuri?". What are Yuri and Shoujoai, anyway?. Yuricon and ALC Publishing. Archived from the original on 6 April 2005. Retrieved 20 May 2005. 
  7. ^ a b c Fujimoto, Yukari (1998). Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? (Where do I belong?) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo. ISBN 4-313-87011-3. 
  8. ^ a b c "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 2)". Manga. About.com. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  9. ^ a b Tsuchiya, Hiromi (March 9–12, 2000). "Yoshiya Nobuko's Yaneura no nishojo (Two Virgins in the Attic): Female-Female Desire and Feminism". Homosexual/Homosocial Subtexts in Early 20th-Century Japanese Culture. San Diego, CA: Abstracts of the 2000 AAS Annual Meeting. Archived from the original on 2001-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  10. ^ a b "Maria-sama ga Miteru to Yuri Sakuhin no Rekishi" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on March 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-16.  Sources: Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? by Yukari Fujimoto (ISBN 4313870113), Otoko Rashisa to Iu Byōki? Pop-Culture no Shin Danseigaku by Kazuo Kumada (ISBN 4833110679), and Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (ISBN 978-4860110345).
  11. ^ a b c "Yuri Shimai". ComiPedia. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Comic Yuri Hime". ComiPedia. Archived from the original on 2008-01-23. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  13. ^ a b c "Ichijinsha's info about Comic Yuri Hime S" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  14. ^ "Yurizoku no heya (lily tribe's room)". Barazoku (Rose tribe) (in Japanese): 66–70. November 1976. After this first column, Yurizoku no heya appeared sporadically through the mid-1980s.
  15. ^ Welker, James (2008). "Lilies of the Margin: Beautiful Boys and Queer Female Identities in Japan". In Fran Martin; Peter Jackson; Audrey Yue. AsiaPacifQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. University of Illinois Press. pp. 46–66. ISBN 978-0-252-07507-0. 
  16. ^ a b c d e "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 1)". Manga. About.com. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  17. ^ "Comic Yuri Hime official website" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-01-19.  Ichijinsha classifies their yuri manga publication Comic Yuri Hime as a "Girls Love" comic magazine.
  18. ^ Miyajima, Kagami (April 4, 2005). Shōjo-ai (in Japanese). Sakuhinsha. ISBN 4-86182-031-6. 
  19. ^ "ALC Publishing". Yuricon. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Yuri on the Seven Seas!". Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  21. ^ a b Suzuki, Michiko (August 2006). "Writing Same-Sex Love: Sexology and Literary Representation in Yoshiya Nobuko's Early Fiction". The Journal of Asian Studies. 65 (3): 575. doi:10.1017/S0021911806001148. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  22. ^ a b Robertson, Jennifer (August 1992). "The Politics of Androgyny in Japan: Sexuality and Subversion in the Theater and Beyond". American Ethnologist (3 ed.). 19 (3): 427. doi:10.1525/ae.1992.19.3.02a00010. JSTOR 645194. 
  23. ^ Dollase, Hiromi (2003). "Early Twentieth Century Japanese Girls' Magazine Stories: Examining Shōjo Voice in Hanamonogatari (Flower Tales)". The Journal of Popular Culture. 36 (4): 724–755. doi:10.1111/1540-5931.00043. ISSN 0022-3840. OCLC 1754751. 
  24. ^ Natsume, Fusanosuke (1999). Manga no Yomikata (How to read manga). Tokyo: Takarajimasha. 
  25. ^ Schodt, Frederik (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5. 
  26. ^ a b Welker, James (2006). "Drawing Out Lesbians: Blurred Representations of Lesbian Desire in Shōjo Manga". In Chandra, Subhash. Lesbian Voices: Canada and the World: Theory, Literature, Cinema. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Pvt. ISBN 81-8424-075-9. 
  27. ^ Thorn, Matt. "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love, Sex, Gender, and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics". Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  28. ^ Welker, James (2006). "Beautiful, Borrowed, and Bent: "Boys' Love" as Girls' Love in Shōjo Manga". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 31 (3): 841. doi:10.1086/498987. 
  29. ^ a b c Subramian, Erin. "Women-loving Women in Modern Japan". Yuricon. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  30. ^ a b Corson, Suzanne (2007). "Yuricon Celebrates Lesbian Anime and Manga". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  31. ^ Ebiharai, Akiko (2002). "Japan's Feminist Fabulation: Reading Marginal with Unisex Reproduction as a Key Concept". Genders Journal (36). Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Shōjo Yuri Manga Guide". Yuricon. Retrieved June 2, 2011. 
  33. ^ Hayama, Torakichi. "What is Doujin?". Akiba Angels. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Friedman, Erica (2007). "Erica Friedman's Guide to Yuri". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on March 29, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  35. ^ Huxley, John. "The Devil Lady Review". Anime Boredom. Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  36. ^ a b c d e Welker, James; Suganuma, Katsuhiko (January 2006). "Celebrating Lesbian Sexuality: An Interview with Inoue Meimy, Editor of Japanese Lesbian Erotic Lifestyle Magazine Carmilla". Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context (12). Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  37. ^ "ALC Publishing announces yuri manga Works by Eriko Tadeno". Active Anime. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-02-24. Works by Eriko Tadeno is an anthology of four stories and three short gag comics that were originally published in Phryné, Anise and Mist magazines.
  38. ^ a b Azuma, Erika (June 2004). Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (in Japanese). Hon no Zasshisha. ISBN 978-4-86011-034-5. 
  39. ^ a b "Esu toiu kankei". Bishōjo gaippai! Wakamono ga hamaru Marimite world no himitsu (in Japanese). Excite. Archived from the original on February 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Newtype USA Reviews Voiceful and First Love Sisters Vol. 1". Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  41. ^ "Rakuen no Jōken" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Archived from the original on 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
    "Rakuen no Jouken / 楽園の条件". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  42. ^ Rasmussen, David. "Kashimashi Review". Anime Boredom. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  43. ^ Santos, Carlo (2008-02-05). "Right Turn Only!!". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  44. ^ a b "Kannazuki No Miko Reviews". Mania.com. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
    Friedman, Erica. "Kannazuki no Miko – New Yuri Anime Season Autumn 2004". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  45. ^ a b "Yuri anime & gemu daitokushū". Comic Yuri Hime S (in Japanese) (2). September 2007. ASIN B000VWRJGU. 
  46. ^ "Rethinking Yuri: How Lesbian Mangaka Return the Genre to Its Roots". The Mary Sue. Retrieved September 18, 2018. 
  47. ^ "Comic Yuri Hime S". ComiPedia. Archived from the original on 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  48. ^ "Ichijinsha Bunko Iris" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  49. ^ "Girl's Only listing at Amazon.co.jp" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  50. ^ a b Font, Dillon. "Pro Amateur Comics – Yuri Doujinshi Rica 'tte Kanji!?". Animefringe. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  51. ^ "Yuri Manga in Anthropology Course". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  52. ^ Luis, Kerridwen (December 20, 2005). "Syllabus Draft" (PDF). Unbounded Desires: A Cross-Cultural Look at Non-Heteronormative Sexualities Anth 166B. Brandeis University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  53. ^ "ALC Publishing Presents Yuri Manga Anthology Yuri Monogatari 4". ComiPress. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  54. ^ a b Thompson, Jason. "Falling for Manga! Part 1: A Quick-hit Guide to Autumn 2007's Hottest Manga". OtakuUSA. Archived from the original on 2008-06-22. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  55. ^ Sparrow, A. E. "12 Days Review". IGN. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  56. ^ Morishima, Akiko (April 2007). "YurixYuri Kenbunroku". Comic Yuri Hime (in Japanese) (8). ASIN B000PAAJN8. 
  57. ^ a b c "Comic-Con International 2007: Seven Seas". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  58. ^ "Fetishistic yuri-anime Angel's Drop" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-03-29.  "Official manga site" (in Japanese). Comic Meteor. Retrieved 2015-03-29. …百合コメディ![yuri-comedy] 
    "Fairy Tale Fantasy Anime "Angel's Drop" to Begin Broadcasting This Month". Tokyo Otaku Mode (media company). Retrieved 2015-03-29. The is a yuri anime that interweaves various elements of fetishism. 
  59. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Blue". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  60. ^ "Yuri anime & gemu tokushū". Comic Yuri Hime (in Japanese) (9). July 2007. ASIN B000TCTTCY. 
  61. ^ "Series: Bloom Into You". Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved June 30, 2018. 
  62. ^ "Yuri Hime Scoop Land". Comic Yuri Hime S (in Japanese) (4). March 2008. ASIN B0015S8XLO. 
  63. ^ "Seven Seas Licenses Saburouta's Yuri Manga Citrus". Anime News Network. January 31, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 
  64. ^ Friedman, Erica (2004-09-02). "Yuri Manga: Chirality". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  65. ^ Friedman, Erica (2007-10-24). "Yuri Anime: El Cazador, End of Season Review". Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  66. ^ "Flower Tales (花物語) Manga Guest Review by Michelle W". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. ...Yoshiya Nobuko's Taisho-era (1912-1926) work …almost 100 years later, Ozawa Mari turned fourteen of these stories into a manga by the same name. … Squee! No, seriously, this manga sounds just fantastic. 
    Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Short Story: Yoshiya Nobuko's Yellow Rose (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. …Yoshiya Nobuko's Yellow Rose (黄薔薇) from her Hana Monogatari collection. 
  67. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Visual Novel: Flowers: Le Volume Sur Printemps, Guest Review by Jye N". Okazu. Retrieved 2016-09-12. 
  68. ^ Friedman, Erica (2008-02-08). "Yuri Manga: Girl Friends, Volume 1". Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  69. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – January 21, 2012".  , "Yuri Network News – January 28, 2012". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-27. Yuri Anime … 
    "Official anime site, 第5話--第6話 contains screenshots of some yuri-scenes" (in Japanese). CAMMOT Animation Project. Retrieved 2015-03-27. 
    "New ecchi-yuri anime in 2012" (in Chinese). VeryCD and 178.com. Retrieved 2015-03-27. 工口满载百合漫《极乐园女子高寮物语》[Ecchi-yuri anime Gokurakuin Joshikōryō Monogatari] 
  70. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2008". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. The writing is stellar, the art is captivating, the story is compelling, raw, horrible and beautiful. 
    "Top Ten Yuri of 2009". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. It'’s dark, it's ugly, it's violent and dysfunctional… Gunjo is my absolute Best Yuri of 2009…and possibly, Ever. 
    "Top Ten Yuri of 2010". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
    "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. GUNJO is not the third best thing I've read this year, it is the very best thing I have ever read. 
  71. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri of 2012". 
    "Yuri Manga: Hanjuku Joshi, Volume 1". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. I stated that I thought that this book might well be the most perfect “Yuri” manga I'd ever seen. 
    "Yuri Manga; Hanjuku Joshi, Volume 2". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. Morishima has actually written a story that covers that last little piece – the gap between lesbian content and lesbian identity. 
  72. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Haru Natsu Aki Fuyu". 
    "Yuri Mini-Drama CD: Haru Natsu Aki Fuyu". 
    "Yuri Drama CD: Haru Natsu Aki Fuyu: Gyakushuu no Akazukin-chan". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
  73. ^ "HEN 1" (in Japanese). Shueisha. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  74. ^ "Inugami-san to Nekoyama-san Yuri Manga Gets Anime". Anime News Network. January 17, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  75. ^ "Iono the Fanatics" (in Japanese). MooNPhase. Archived from the original on 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  76. ^ "Old official site of Kanamewo ONA" (in Japanese). Rapparu. Retrieved 2017-09-30. 
  77. ^ "New official site of ONAs" (in Japanese). Rapparu. Retrieved 2017-09-30. 
  78. ^ "Kanamewo" (in Korean). Chuing.net. Retrieved 2017-09-30. The two form a relationship 
  79. ^ "SERIES: Kase-san and..." Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved 2017-03-18. 
  80. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – December 3, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. Erm, "Yuri Spirits on the Roof." Cute art… 
  81. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-09-09. At least this one is genuinely Yuri, I just don’t much like animal-eared characters. 
  82. ^ "Kuttsukiboshi OVA's Part 2 Trailer Reveals Date". Animekon. March 21, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  83. ^ a b Yuri Hime editorial department, ed. (2008). "Yuri Works Catalog". Yuri Works File (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ichijinsha. ISBN 978-4-7580-7015-7. 
  84. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Love Vibes". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-30. Love Vibes by Sakurazawa Erica from 1996, is classic Yuri that does not suck. 
    "Live-Action Movie: Kakera, A Piece of Our Lives". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-30. ...a live-action adaptation of Sakurazawa Erika’s Love Vibes manga. 
  85. ^ "Media Blasters Adds Kishi's Maka-Maka Color Yuri Manga". Anime News Network. 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  86. ^ Hairston, Marc (2006). "The Yin and Yang of Schoolgirl Experiences: Maria-sama ga miteru and Azumanga Daioh". Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts. 1: 177–180. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  87. ^ Peralta, Gabriel. "The Hidden Depths of Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2017-07-07. They're a lesbian couple in the most mundane manner, but that's what makes it work. 
  88. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-07-07. 
  89. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid Anime (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-07-07. 
  90. ^ Silverman, Rebecca. "Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2017-07-08. If you like your yuri sweet and focused on the emotional relationship between the protagonists [...] NTR: Netsuzou Trap is not the series for you. It has much more in common with Citrus in its more sexually aggressive characters... 
  91. ^ "Yuri Manga: Octave Volume 1". Okazu. October 29, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  92. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – May 19, 2018". Okazu. Retrieved August 26, 2018. 
  93. ^ a b c Friedman, Erica; members of the Yuricon Mailing List. "Yuri 101". Yuricon. Retrieved 2007-11-29. 
  94. ^ Friedman, Erica (May 30, 2011). "Revolutionary Girl Utena Anime Box Set – Disk 1 (English)". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  95. ^ Kunihiko Ikuhara (Director) (16 December 2011). Episode 37: Commentary (DVD). Revolutionary Girl Utena: Apocalypse Saga Box Set 3 Limited Edition: Nozomi Entertainment. 
  96. ^ Martin, Theron. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Yuri romance is strongly implied 
    Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Riddle Story of a Devil (English) End of Season Review". 
    "Yuri Anime: First Look at Riddle Story of a Devil Anime (English) Guest Review by Eric P". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-23. 
    "…兎角が晴の百合キスでデレる [Tokaku is embarrassed by Haru's yuri kiss]" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-02. 
  97. ^ "Tachi's Yuri 4-panel Manga Sakura Trick Gets TV Anime". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2013-08-12. 
  98. ^ "Yuri Game: Sapphism no Gensou, Guest Review by Mara". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-11. …this game does have some greatness that is not totally obscured by the crap that makes up the rest. 
  99. ^ "Sasameki Koto Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime Green-Lit". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  100. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Shōjo Sect". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26. 
  101. ^ その花びらにくちづけを [Sono Hanabira ni Kuchizuke o] (in Japanese). a1c. Retrieved March 24, 2013. 
  102. ^ Lau, Enoch. "Steel Angel Kurumi 2 Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  103. ^ Chavez, Eduardo M. "Stray Little Devil Vol 4 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2008-01-07. SLD is unorthodox in the way it almost has created a yuri story in the realm of knight and wizard filled fantasy. 
  104. ^ "Takako Shimura's Aoi Hana Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime". Anime News Network. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  105. ^ Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 98–100. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281. 
  106. ^ Thompson, Jason. "Tokyo Love ~ Rica 'tte Kanji!?". Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-04-07. Rica 'tte Kanji, possibly THE best lesbian-themed (Yuri) manga in English 
    Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2008". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. "Tokyo Love ~ Rica 'tte Kanji!?" named a "Best Manga for Grownups" at Comic-Con 
    "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2012". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
  107. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – February 17, 2018". Okazu. Retrieved February 25, 2018. Via Comic Natalie, we have key visuals from merryhachi's "ecchi comedy" Yuri series, To Lie Angle anime. 
  108. ^ Martin, Theron. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2017-06-05. Overall, the animated side of the Valkyrie Drive franchise has very little to offer anyone who isn't enamored of heavy fan service series, especially those which focus on (male-oriented) yuri content and enormous racks. 
  109. ^ "Watashi ni Tenshi ga Maiorita! Manga Gets TV Anime at Doga Kobo". Anime News Network. June 14, 2018. Retrieved August 26, 2018. 
  110. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri of 2010". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 1) Fu~Fu... For teaching lessons about lesbian couples to an audience that doesn't much care, in the most charming of all possible ways… 
  111. ^ Tiu, Diane. "Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  112. ^ ゆるゆり [YuruYuri] (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved April 5, 2012. 
  113. ^ "Yuri Manga Yurikuma Arashi Volume 1". Okazu. January 25, 2015. Retrieved March 2, 2015. 
  114. ^ "Official manga site is hosting a trial version of manga's part" (in Japanese). Dengeki Comics EX (Kadokawa Corporation). Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
    "Yuri Seijin Naoko-san Manga Gets Anime". ANN. Retrieved 2015-03-30. …Naoko-san, the strange alien from Yuri-sei (Yuri Planet) who loves eroticism, yuri, and girls. 
    Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News: July 14, 2012". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-30. There is some mild Yuri in the series – it’s all gags and nosebleeds, mostly. 
  115. ^ ".hack//Sign Review". CAA: Christian Anime Alliance. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2007-12-05. During the anime the characters Tsukasa and Subaru fall in love. (...) Later on in the series it’s learned that Tsukasa is a girl ([at first] Tsukasa doesn't even know this because his memory was fragmented ever since he was confined in the world). But when they do find out, Subaru does still seem to have feelings for him/her. 
  116. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  117. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Aim for the Ace". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26. 
  118. ^ Tolentino, Josh. "Japanator's Spring 2011 Preview: Part 1. A Channel". Japanator.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18. … with subtle (and not-so-subtle) lesbian undertones 
  119. ^ "Agent Aika Final Battle Review". DVD Vision Japan. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2009-07-28. We do get two pairs of women kissing, but it's not what you are hoping for. One kiss between the two Delmo leaders is almost all off camera. The other is Aika kissing a woman she thinks is a man. 
  120. ^ Beard, Jeremy A. "Air Master Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-28. , Tucker, Derrick L. "Air Master Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  121. ^ "Rrecenzja". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (284 (2245)). 2011-10-23. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2017-06-05. wrażliwa lesbijka 
    Friedman, Erica. "Snatches of Yuri". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-06-05. ...Yuri-service can/master couple. ...In the manga, one of the female characters ran out to buy a can from a vending machine and ended up with a girl instead. 
  122. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri News This Week – June 14, 2008". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
  123. ^ "Rrecenzja". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (66 (3711)). 2016-03-13. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2017-09-12. Yuriści powinni rozważyć zapoznanie się z serią, sądzę, że nie zawiedzie ich oczekiwań. 
  124. ^ "'Attack on Titan' voice actor talks Christa and Ymir romance". SBS. August 24, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2018. 
  125. ^ "FEATURE: Attack on Titan Q&A Panel at Animagic in Bonn, Germany". Crunchyroll. Retrieved June 1, 2017. The relationship between Ymir and Historia was relevant for both of them 
  126. ^ Brown, Rebecca (2005). "An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 3)". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-13. 
  127. ^ "Rrecenzja anime". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (284 (2245)). 2011-10-23. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Yuri elements in ep. 7" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Yuri elements in ep. 7" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
  128. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – October 22, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Yuri Anime … 
    Martin, Theron. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2015-04-02. That Hana is so obsessed with aggressive, exploitive BL and yet resistant to the yuri analog to what she is writing… 
  129. ^ Friedman, Erica (April 18, 2007). "Yuri Anime: Best Student Council, Volume 1". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  130. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2012". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. 1) Bodacious Space Pirates 
    "Yuri Anime: Bodacious Space Pirates (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. There’s Yuri! Squee! 
    "Bodacious Space Pirates 2 Anime, Disk 1 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. a perfect Yuri couple... Jenny makes a lovely princess to Lynn’s prince. ^_^ 
    "Bodacious Space Pirates 2 Anime, Disk 2 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. 
  131. ^ Friedman, Erica (2005-02-15). "Yuri Anime: Bubblegum Crisis/Bugglegum Crash". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  132. ^ Friedman, Erica (April 26, 2005). "Yuri Manga: Bakuretsu Tenshi, Volume 1". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
    "Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
    Friedman, Erica (2005-10-16). "Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  133. ^ Cardcaptor Sakura Memorial Book (in Japanese). Kodansha. February 2001. ISBN 978-4-06-324535-6. 
  134. ^ Friedman, Erica (2008-11-10). "Yuri Manga: Choir!, Volume 1". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2009-10-25. 
  135. ^ Beveridge, Chris. "Chu-Bra Episode #09 Review". Mania.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
    Snyder, Jon. "Annotated Anime: Winter 2010 Week 9. Chu-Bra!! 09". Japanator.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  136. ^ "Confidential Confessions Volume 4". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  137. ^ Crocker, Janet. "Cosplay Complex Review". Animefringe. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Jenny, a rabid Italian lesbian with cat fangs who loves Athena. 
  138. ^ Fukuda, Mitsuo. "「クロスアンジュ 天使と竜の輪舞(ロンド)」 クリスマス・ファンミーティング♪" [Creative producer of Cross Ange Fukuda has given an interview at Fanmeeting] (in Japanese). Retrieved March 21, 2015. 
    "Text of interview" (in Japanese). The Funnel. Retrieved March 21, 2015. レズシーンは入れる [I put lesbian scenes] 
    "Hard yuri sex in ep. 2" (in Japanese). , "Lesbian play (in Zola's yuri harem) in ep. 4" (in Japanese). , "Lesbian play in ep. 18" (in Japanese). , "Yuri love confession and yuri kiss in ep. 23" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
  139. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Cutey Honey". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26. 
  140. ^ "Case Number 06265: Small Claims Court". DVD Verdict. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
    Beveridge, Chris. "Cyberteam In Akihabara Vol. #2". Mania.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18. …has fallen in love with Hibari. …It's not a complicated plot but there are a few amusing moments 
  141. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Doki Doki School Hours Anime, Volume 1". 
    "Doki Doki School Hours Anime, Volume 2". 
    "Yuri Anime: Doki Doki School Hours, Volume 3". 
    "Yuri Anime: Doki Doki School Hours, Volume 4". 
    "Yuri Anime: Doki Doki School Hours, Volume 5". Retrieved 2015-03-22. 
  142. ^ Thom, Martin. "El-Hazard OVA Vol. #3 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  143. ^ Crandol, Mike. "Excel Saga DVD 4 – Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2011-12-08. 
    Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – November 20, 2010". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
    "Lesbians in Anime and Manga - The List". Yuricon. Archived from the original on 2010-12-25. Retrieved 2015-04-06. Ropponmatsu (both of them), Hyatt, Excel 
  144. ^ Ellingwood, Holly (2008-01-27). "Family Complex (Advance Review)". Active Anime. Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  145. ^ "yuri kiss in ep. 2 of 2nd season" (in Japanese). ,"yuri kiss in ep. 3 of 2nd season" (in Japanese). ,"yuri kiss in ep. 4 of 2nd season" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-03. 
    "...イリヤと美遊、とっても仲良し(百合的に)!" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-03. …レズレズじゃのう。... 百合百合じゃのう! 
  146. ^ Ross, Carlos. "Iczer-One Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  147. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  148. ^ Thomas, Miles. "FEATURE: Queer Discovery in "Flip Flappers"". Crunchyroll. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  149. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News - April 20, 2013". Retrieved March 20, 2015. 
  150. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Gakuen Alice, Volume 1 (English)". 
    "Yuri Anime: Gakuen Alice". 
    "Yuri Anime: Gakuen Alice Update". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-24. 
  151. ^ Pezzano, Kevin. "Review". RevolutionSF (online magazine). Retrieved 2015-04-07. lesbian undertones 
    "Case Number 06634". DVD Verdict. Retrieved 2015-04-07. ...lesbianism 
    Ross, Carlos. "Review". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2015-04-07. oh-so-lesbian-for-Yuna... 
    "Lesbians in Anime and Manga - The List". Yuricon. Archived from the original on 2010-12-25. Retrieved 2015-04-07. Yuna Kagurazaka, Cube Yuuri, Ria 
  152. ^ Gilvear, Kevin. "Girls Bravo Volume 1 Review". DVD Times. Retrieved 2007-12-03. Further examples come later when Kirie runs into Kosame in episode 4, and thus we get another character insight when we learn that Kosame is a lesbian and fancies Kirie. 
  153. ^ Beveridge, Chris. "Godannar Vol. #5 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. 
  154. ^ "Interview with CVs, Kotobuki's words about yuri" (in Japanese). Famitsu.com (Kadokawa Corporation). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Interview with CVs, another Kotobuki's words about yuri" (in Japanese). 4Gamer.net (Aetas Inc.). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Ep.3 with yuri scenes" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
  155. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2010". 
    "Yuri Manga: Gunsmith Cats Burst, Volume 5". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
  156. ^ Toole, Mike. "Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite vols. 1–3 Review". Anime Jump. Archived from the original on 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2007-12-04. The maids are rounded out by Yashima, a security maid with dark skin, a speech impediment, and a lesbian crush on Konoe. 
  157. ^ a b c "Top Yuri Anime List of 2016". Okazu. Retrieved 2016-12-30. These series had enough Yuri to get mentions this year 
  158. ^ Friedman, Erica (February 12, 2008). "He is My Master Manga, Volume 1 (English)". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  159. ^ Gaffney, Sean (2007-06-30). "Yuri Manga: High School Girls, Volume 8 (English)". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  160. ^ "Rrecenzja". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (281 (4256)). 2017-11-21. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved February 25, 2018. Nie zrezygnowano natomiast z podtekstów yuri... W głównej mierze dotyczą one relacji między Liones i Niną... 
  161. ^ Friedman, Erica (2004-11-22). "Yuri Anime:I My Me Strawberry Egg". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  162. ^ Beveridge, Chris. "Ikki Tosen Vol. #3 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on September 8, 2005. 
  163. ^ Jones, Davey C. "Ikki Tousen The Complete Thinpack Collection". Active Anime. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  164. ^ Silverman, Rebecca. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Review (anime)". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2015-04-19. Once you throw in the predatory lesbian Nobara, a fair amount of innuendo-laden speech (principally from Zange) and the S&M maniac Kagerou it becomes apparent that the show isn't for kids. 
  165. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Manga of 2010". 
    "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2012". 
    "Jormungand Perfect Order Anime Guest Review by Mara".  "Jormungand Anime (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-23. Yuri – Valmet is in love/lust with Koko 
  166. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Eternal Alice Rondo, Volume 2 (English)". , "Yuri Manga: Eternal Alice Rondo, Volume 3 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
    "Review (anime)". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2015-04-18. good lord, some yuri prospecting 
    Alexander, Matthew. "Key Princess Story: Eternal Alice Rondo Vol. #03". , "Key Princess Story: Eternal Alice Rondo Vol. #04". Mania.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  167. ^ "Review (anime)". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2015-04-18. … lesbianism … lesbian overtones 
  168. ^ a b c Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2009". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  169. ^ "Katsugeki Shoujo Tanteidan (recenzja anime)". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (331 (2644)). 2012-12-06. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2015-04-12. …yuri i cholera wie, czego jeszcze. 
    "활극소녀 탐정단" (in Korean). Chuing.net. Retrieved 2015-04-12. She has feelings for Yuriko which she shows with kissing her. 
  170. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – December 11, 2010". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Yuri Anime …If you liked Kiddy Grade but felt that the leads needed to accidentally lose their underwear more often, then you’ll love this series. 
    "...百合風呂[Yuri bath]" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-02. 
  171. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Kill La Kill Anime (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-23. Creepy, incesty Yuri, Fan-pairing Yuri, slightly less creepy incesty Yuri, rival Yuri, friend Yuri and in the end, there’s actually a potential couple. 
  172. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – April 12, 2014". Okazu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. Yuri Anime; YNN Correspondent Vivi C.is excited to let you know that school life anime Kiniro Mosaic is getting a sequel 
  173. ^ Friedman, Erica (September 1, 2008). "Yuri Anime: Koihime Musou". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2011-03-17. 
  174. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – October 22, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Kyoukai Senjou no Horizon has a Yuri couple. ...it’s a trashy series with a surprisingly nice couple. 
    "メインキャストコメント [with Tōyama's and Nitta's words about yuri love between Naichan and Gacchan)]" (in Japanese). MoCa News (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-02. Tōyama: school, battle, history, love, friendship,… Yuri! So many elements... [translated] 
  175. ^ "Lady Snowblood Review". RPGnet. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  176. ^ "Yuri in ep.8" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Shoujo-ai-ish ep.4" (in Japanese). ,"Yuri in ep.8" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
  177. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Loveless". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26. 
  178. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Nanoha". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26. 
  179. ^ "Maria Holic Manga Confirmed to Get TV Anime". Anime News Network. 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  180. ^ "Maze TV". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2009-07-26. Solude is exactly like Fuuko-chan from Flame of Recca (or heck, Asagiri Priss, weaponry-wise), with the lesbian bent of Akane from KOR. 
  181. ^ "Yuri Anime: Mikagura School Suite, Guest Review by Mariko S". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-09-10. 
  182. ^ Friedman, Erica (March 12, 2008). "Yuri Anime: Mnemosyne 2". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  183. ^ "Review (anime)". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2015-04-18. …yuri elements ...There's not a lot of time for depth here, as there's only twelve episodes, and some of the yuri elements feel like they come out of left field at times, but there is a sense of heart and likability that nearly makes up for it. 
  184. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Myself:Yourself Anime". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-02. The Yuri in Myself;Yourself begins in episode nine with some meaningful looks and is fully revealed in episode eleven. 
  185. ^ Divers, Allen. "Najica Blitz Tactics DVD 1 Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-11-28. Yes, this show is full of panty shots, upskirt camera angles and a slight lesbian overtone. 
  186. ^ a b Friedman, Erica. "Negima". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-26. 
  187. ^ Friedman, Erica (July 12, 2007). "Yuri Anime: Ninja Nonsense, Volume 4 (English)". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  188. ^ Friedman, Erica (December 27, 2014). "Yuri Network News – (百合ネットワークニュース) – December 27, 2014". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
    "Non Non Byori Anime (Guest Review by Bradley M.)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-23. 
  189. ^ "...百合カラミあり[Nyaruko-san W, ep. 5. There is yuri sexual relationship]" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-03. 
    "Haiyore! Nyaruko-san W, ep. 5" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-03. …百合プレイ[yuri play] 
    "Haiyore! Nyaruko-san W, ep. 4. [Text contains few words about Kuko's feelings]" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-03. 
  190. ^ Martin, Theron. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2017-09-10. They make for a cute duo, and the yuri implications between them are not subtle. [...] It might be worth a look if a yuri-leaning series about semi-magical cyborgs sounds interesting to you, but I can't give it a general recommendation. 
  191. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Mawaru Penguindrum (輪るピングドラム) Anime". 
    "Top (?) Ten Yuri Anime of 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-23. While not technically *better* than Utena, Mawaru Penguindrum is new, is just as compelling and is wholly, uniquely Ikuhara... He’s not afraid to consciously embrace Yuri tropes like predatory lesbians, Takarazuka, Rose of Versailles and then stand them on their heads in a way that actually makes the series more interesting... 
  192. ^ Anderson, Matthew. "Project Ako Review". DVD Vision Japan. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. Retrieved 2015-04-04. Yes, Bko is a lesbian, in love with Cko, and all of the people on the ship were women. 
  193. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Psycho-Pass Anime (English)". 
    "Psycho-Pass Anime (English) End of Series Review". 
    "Psycho-Pass 2 Anime, Guest Review by Katherine H". 
    "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2013". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-24. Technically, this series is a "Snatches of Yuri" series... But in the middle of intense psychological drama, horror and violence – the lesbian couple live happily ever after. 
  194. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – December 17, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2011-11-17. Yuri Anime; The English dubbed trailer for the Mahou Shoujo Madoka Magica anime release is up for your viewing pleasure. 
  195. ^ Smith, Lesley. "Puni Puni Poemy Review". DVD Times. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  196. ^ Friedman, Erica (2010-12-15). "Yuri Anime: Queen's Blade Anime, Volume 1 (English)". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  197. ^ "第5話 [Yuri battle (love/lust triangle)]" (in Japanese). Getchu.com (Gainz Inc). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Yuri in ep.1" (in Japanese). ,"Yuri battle in ep. 5" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "Yuri in ep.5" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
  198. ^ Friedman, Erica (2006-12-07). "Yuri Manga: Rakka Ryuusui". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  199. ^ Friedman, Erica (April 19, 2007). "Yuri Manga: Red Garden, Volume 1". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  200. ^ "Recenzja". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (142 (2103)). 2011-06-03. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2015-04-18. …Kenichi Sonoda lubił wrzucać do swoich historyjek wątki yuri i tutaj uczynił podobnie. [Kenichi Sonoda liked to add yuri themes into his stories, and he did same there again.] 
    Crandol, Mike. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  201. ^ "S.S. ASTRO: Asashio Sogo Teachers' ROom by Negi Banno". Yen Press. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  202. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2014". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-24. It’s silly, it’s stupid, it’s full of painful gags... But it has Yuri 
    "Yuri Anime Sabagebu! (English) Guest Review by Elizabeth V". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-24. 
  203. ^ Welker, James (2010). "11. From The Cherry Orchard to Sakura no Sono: Translation and the Transfiguration of Gender and Sexuality in Shōjo Manga". In Aoyama, Tomoko; Hartley, Barbara. Girl Reading Girl in Japan. New York: Routledge. pp. 160–173. ISBN 978-0-415-54742-0. 
    Friedman, Erica. "Live Action: Sakura no Sono Movie 2008 (櫻の園)". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
    "Sakura no Sono (櫻の園) Manga – Guest Review by Katherine H". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  204. ^ Brienza, Casey (2009-01-02). "Sasami: Magical Girls Club Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-07-23. Probably the most annoying recurring interaction is An-An's puppy love infatuation with Tsukasa. 
  205. ^ Chapman, Jacob. "Scum's Wish Episode 4". ANN. Retrieved 2017-06-05. It's a messed-up situation, as Hanabi is coerced physically and Ecchan is coerced emotionally into the world's saddest lesbian sex scene, but it's also the most honest moment that any two characters have shared so far in the show. 
    "yuri in ep. 4" (in Japanese). 
  206. ^ Frost, Marc. "Seraphim Call Review". Asian-Stuff. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2008-03-18. Some scenes of girls in bathing suits and lingerie. Lesbian themes. 
  207. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Kyoshiro to Towa no Sora, Volume 2". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  208. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – October 22, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-18. ...creepy one-sided crush in Shinryaku!? Ika Musume 
  209. ^ Chuang, Jeff. "Annotated Anime: Soul Eater NOT episodes 5-6". Japanator.com. Retrieved 2017-09-12. The yuri factor also goes up a notch given the way Jacqueline pines after Kim. 
  210. ^ "Sound! Euphonium Anime (English) Guest Review by Christina Maria J". Okazu. Retrieved 2017-06-05. It is within this relationship the Yuri lies. Starting slow with Kumiko simply being heavily preoccupied with Reina, it develops to a point where the two share an intense physical and emotional intimacy that is not lost on other characters. 
  211. ^ "Steel Angel Kurumi Vol. 1 – Angel On My Shoulder Review". Otaku Review. 2004-10-08. Retrieved 2009-07-28. and the rival maid who is a lesbian. 
  212. ^ "Soukou no Strain (recenzja anime)". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (103 (690)). 2007-04-14. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2015-04-18. … wplatając wątki komediowe i parodiujące shoujo ai […includes comedic and parodic shoujo-ai] 
    Beveridge, Chris. "Str.A.In.: Strategic Armored Infantry Box Set". Mania.com. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
    Kimlinger, Carl. "Review". ANN. Retrieved 2015-04-18. yuri undertones 
  213. ^ Beveridge, Chris. "Stratos 4 Vol. #3 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2007-11-20. It's a military show that's not a military show (...) with an aliens invasion storyline that's tied to lesbianism and consuming mass quantities of food. 
  214. ^ Friedman, Erica (February 12, 2009). "Strike Witches Anime". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  215. ^ Friedman, Erica (March 3, 2004). "Yuri Manga: Sukeban Deka". Okazu. Yuricon. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  216. ^ "Rrecenzja". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (278 (2943)). 2013-11-12. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2017-09-12. ... i w większości ogranicza się do podtekstów yuri, których w serii jest pełno. 
  217. ^ Tran, Can. "Anime Review of Tactical Roar". GroundReport. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  218. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News (百合ネットワークニュース) – March 22, 2014". 
    "Tamako Market Anime, Guest Review by Katherine H". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-24. 
  219. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – September 27, 2009". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-22. Snatches of Yuri 
  220. ^ Shamoon, Deborah (2007). "Revolutionary Romance: The Rose of Versailles and the Transformation of Shōjo Manga". In Lunning, Frenchy. Networks of Desire. Mechademia. 2. University of Minnesota Press. p. 8, pp.10–11. ISBN 978-0-8166-5266-2. 
  221. ^ Friedman, Erica (February 1, 2008). "Another Anime With Yuri In It: Touka Gettan". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  222. ^ Jones, Tim. "Ultimate Girls Review". THEM Anime. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  223. ^ Friedman, Erica (2004-12-01). "Yuri Anime: Uta-Kata Revisited". Okazu. Yuricon. Retrieved 2015-05-06. 
  224. ^ Napier, Susan J. (1998). "Vampires, Psychic Girls, Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". In Martinez, Dolores P. The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 97 and p.107. ISBN 0-521-63128-9. 
  225. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Vandread-ful". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  226. ^ "Venus Versus Virus Ultimate Guide". Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved 2007-12-08. There is no explicit yuri content in the manga, but the pages are full of subtext. 
  227. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2013". 
    "Vividred Operation Anime (English) Guest Review by Jennifer L". Okazu. Retrieved 2015-03-24. 
  228. ^ "Rrecenzja anime". Tanuki.pl (online magazine) (in Polish). Małgorzata Kaczarowska (312 (2977)). 2013-12-22. ISSN 1898-8296. Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "ep.7, with ecchi and yuri elements" (in Japanese). New Akiba (media company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
    "ep.2" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. 百合プレイ 
    "ep.7" (in Japanese). Terrafor from Maximlight (Media Company). Retrieved 2015-04-19. レズレズじゃのう 
  229. ^ Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – August 9, 2014". Okazu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. Yuri Anime; The Yuyushiki anime series is being released by Sentai Filmworks on DVD and BD, as well. 

Further reading[edit]