Yuryev-Polsky is an old town and the administrative center of Yuryev-Polsky District of Vladimir Oblast, located in the upper reaches of the Koloksha River, 68 kilometers northwest of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 19,595 , it was founded by Yury Dolgoruky in 1152. First part of its name derives from St. George; the second part is derived from the word polsky meaning "in the fields". This specification was needed in order to distinguish the town from the earlier established fortress of Yuryev, at the time located in the woods in what is now Estonia and the biggest Russian settlement in the territory of the Chuds. Upon Vsevolod III's death in 1212, the town was assigned to one of Svyatoslav, it was that prince who designed the town's chief landmark, the Cathedral of St. George, it is the latest pre-Mongol construction in Russia, unprecedented in abundance of stone sculptures, the model for first stone churches in the Moscow Kremlin. In the 1460s, the cathedral's dome collapsed, thus burying most of unique sculptures which had adorned the cathedral walls.
The collapsed roof was sloppily restored by a well-known Muscovite artisan, Vasili Yermolin, in 1471. The great Battle of Lipitsa was fought near the town in 1216. In 1238, Yuryev was sacked by the Mongols. A century it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow; the chief monument of the Muscovite period is the walled Monastery of Archangel Michael, founded in the 13th century and containing various buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries. Several miles from Yuryev, on the bank of the Yakhroma River, stands the Kosmin Cloister, whose structures are typical for the mid-17th century. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Yuryev-Polsky serves as the administrative center of Yuryev-Polsky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Yuryev-Polsky is incorporated within Yuryev-Polsky Municipal District as Yuryev-Polsky Urban Settlement. Yuryev-Polsky is twinned with: Hîncești, Moldova Администрация Владимирской области. Постановление №433 от 13 июня 2007 г.
«О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области», в ред. Постановления №169 от 5 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в Постановление Губернатора области от 13.06.2007 №433 "О реестре административно-территориальных образований и единиц Владимирской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Владимирские ведомости", №114, 20 июня 2007 г.. Законодательное Собрание Владимирской области. Закон №55-ОЗ от 11 мая 2005 г. «О наделении Юрьев-Польского района и вновь образованных муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований и установлении их границ», в ред. Закона №54-ОЗ от 14 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение 8-1 к Закону Владимирской области "О наделении Юрьев-Польского района и вновь образованных муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований и установлении их границ"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Владимирские ведомости", №156–157, 17 мая 2005 г.. Unofficial website of Yuryev-Polsky Picture of Kosmin Cloister
Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev was a prominent Russian statesman, ethnographer, best remembered as the author of the first full-scale Russian history and founder of three Russian cities: Stavropol-on-Volga and Perm. Throughout this work, he advocates the idea that autocracy is the perfect form of government for Russia. A male-line descendant of the 9th-century prince Rurik, Tatischev was born near Pskov on April 19, 1686. Having graduated from the Engineering school in Moscow, he took part in the 1700-1721 Great Northern War with Sweden. In the service of Peter the Great he gained a prominent post in the Foreign Office, which he used to oppose the policies of the Supreme Privy Council and support Anna's ascension to the Russian throne in 1730, he was entrusted by Anna with a lucrative office of the management of Ural factories. At that post he founded the cities of Perm and Yekaterinburg, which have since grown into the veritable capitals of the Urals. A monument to him was opened in Perm in 2003.
During the Bashkir War of 1735-40 he was in command of Siberian operations from the winter of 1736-37 and head of the whole operation from the spring of 1737. He was removed from command after March 1739, nominally on charges of corruption, but because he had made too many enemies. Tatischev finished his official career as a governor of Astrakhan, he died at the Boldino estate near Moscow on July 15, 1750. Having retired from active service, the elderly statesman dedicated himself to scholarly pursuits. Feeling that the Russian historiography had been neglected, he discovered and published several legal monuments of great interest, e.g. Russkaya Pravda and Sudebnik of 1550, his magnum opus was the first sketch of Russian history, entitled Russian History Dating Back to the Most Ancient Times and published in 5 volumes after his death. He compiled the first encyclopedic dictionary of the Russian language; the scientific merits of Tatischev's work were disputed in the 18th century. It is true that he used some chronicles that have since been lost, leading Iakov Lur'e to write of "Tatishchev Information," which he defined as "data unique to that historian," but most of them were of dubious authenticity.
It is true that he could never tell a genuine work from a fake, some incidents inserted in his history could have been products of his own fancy. Only some prominent historians have demonstrated that Tatischev's lost sources may be relied on. A settlement and a district in Saratov Oblast are named after Tatishchev. There are monuments to Tatishchev in Perm and Yekaterinburg and in 1998 a large equestrian statue of Tatishchev was estasblished in Tolyatti. Tatischev family Popov N.: Tatischev and His Time. Moscow, 1861. Deutch G. M.: Vasily Nikitich Tatischev. Sverdlovsk, 1962. Peshtich S. L.: Russian historiography of the 18th century, vol. 1-2. Leningrad, 1961, 1965. Anikin, Andréi: Los Pensadores Rusos. Ideas Socioeconómicas en la Rusia de los Siglos XVIII y XIX,Editorial Progreso, pp. 34-37,URRSS, Moscú, 1990. Russian biography with a portrait Tatischev's views on history History of Perm
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Kievan Rus' was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finnic peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty. The modern nations of Belarus and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. At its greatest extent, in the mid-11th century, it stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the majority of East Slavic tribes. According to Russian historiography, the first ruler to start uniting East Slavic lands into what has become known as Kievan Rus' was Prince Oleg, he extended his control from Novgorod south along the Dnieper river valley to protect trade from Khazar incursions from the east, he moved his capital to the more strategic Kiev. Sviatoslav I achieved the first major expansion of Kievan Rus' territorial control, fighting a war of conquest against the Khazars.
Vladimir the Great introduced Christianity with his own baptism and, by decree, extended it to all inhabitants of Kiev and beyond. Kievan Rus' reached its greatest extent under Yaroslav the Wise; the state declined beginning in the late 11th century and during the 12th century, disintegrating into various rival regional powers. It was further weakened by economic factors, such as the collapse of Rus' commercial ties to the Byzantine Empire due to the decline of Constantinople and the accompanying diminution of trade routes through its territory; the state fell to the Mongol invasion of the 1240s. During its existence, Kievan Rus' was known as the "land of the Rus'", in Greek as Ῥωσία, in Old French as Russie, Rossie, in Latin as Russia, from the 12th century Ruthenia. Various etymologies have been proposed, including Ruotsi, the Finnish designation for Sweden, Ros, a tribe from the middle Dnieper valley region. In the Norse sources, the sagas, the principality is called Garðariki, the peoples, according to Snorre Sturlason, are called Suiones, the confederation of Great Sviþjoð were made up of the peoples along the Dniepr called Tanais that separated Asia and Europe, all the way to the Baltics and Scandinavia.
The term Kievan Rus' was coined in the 19th century in Russian historiography to refer to the period when the centre was in Kiev. In English, the term was introduced in the early 20th century, when it was found in the 1913 English translation of Vasily Klyuchevsky's A History of Russia, to distinguish the early polity from successor states, which were named Rus; the Russian term was rendered into Belarusian and Ukrainian as Кіеўская Русь and Ки́ївська Русь, respectively. Prior to the emergence of Kievan Rus' in the 9th century AD, the lands between the Baltic Sea and Black Sea were populated by eastern Slavic tribes. In the northern region around Novgorod were the Ilmen Slavs and neighboring Krivichi, who occupied territories surrounding the headwaters of the West Dvina and Volga Rivers. To their north, in the Ladoga and Karelia regions, were the Finnic Chud tribe. In the south, in the area around Kiev, were the Poliane, a group of Slavicized tribes with Iranian origins, the Drevliane to the west of the Dnieper, the Severiane to the east.
To their north and east were the Vyatichi, to their south was forested land settled by Slav farmers, giving way to steppelands populated by nomadic herdsmen. Controversy persists over whether the Rus' were Slavs; this uncertainty is due to a paucity of contemporary sources. Attempts to address this question instead rely on archaeological evidence, the accounts of foreign observers, legends and literature from centuries later. To some extent the controversy is related to the foundation myths of modern states in the region. According to the "Normanist" view, the Rus' were Scandinavians, while Russian and Ukrainian nationalist historians argue that the Rus' were themselves Slavs. Normanist theories focus on the earliest written source for the East Slavs, the Primary Chronicle, although this account was not produced until the 12th century. Nationalist accounts have suggested that the Rus' were present before the arrival of the Varangians, noting that only a handful of Scandinavian words can be found in modern Russian and that Scandinavian names in the early chronicles were soon replaced by Slavic names.
Archaeological evidence from the area suggests that a Scandinavian population was present during the 10th century at the latest. On balance, it seems that the Rus' proper were a small minority of Scandinavians who formed an elite ruling class, while the great majority of their subjects were Slavs. Considering the linguistic arguments mounted by nationalist scholars, if the proto-Rus' were Scandinavians, they must have become nativized, adopting Slavic languages and other cultural practices. Ahmad ibn Fadlan, an Arab traveler during the 10th century, provided one of the earliest written descriptions of the Rus': "They are as tall as a date palm and ruddy, so that they do not need to wear a tunic nor a cloak. Liutprand of C
Vladimir-Suzdal Vladimir-Suzdalian Rus' formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir, was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma. With time the principality grew into a grand duchy divided into several smaller principalities. After being conquered by the Mongol Empire, the principality became a self-governed state headed by its own nobility. A governorship of principality, was prescribed by a Khan declaration issued from the Golden Horde to a noble family of any of smaller principalities. Vladimir-Suzdal is traditionally perceived as a cradle of the Great Russian language and nationality, it evolved into the Grand Duchy of Moscow; the first notable administrators in the Rostov region were the sons of Vladimir the Great and Gleb, Yaroslav the Wise. The principality occupied a vast territory in the northeast of Kievan Rus' bounded by the Volga and Northern Dvina rivers; until the decline of Kievan Rus' in the 12th-13th centuries the territory was commonly called Zalesie depicting a region beyond woodland.
Scarce historical information exists for the area during that time. The foundation of the city of Rostov has been lost in the span of time. According to the archeologist Andrei Leontiev, who specializes in the history of the region, the Rostov land until the 10th century was under the control of Rostov city, while Sarskoye Gorodishche was a tribal center of the native Merya people. In the 10th century an eparchy was established in Rostov. One of the first known princes was Yaroslav the Wise and Boris Vladimirovich. At that time Rostov was the major center of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity in the region dominated by shamanism; until the 11th century Rostov was associated with the Great Novgorod. Evidently the spread of Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the lands of the Great Perm was conducted from Rostov. Rostov was the regional capital, including other important towns included Suzdal and Belozersk. Vladimir Monomakh, son of the Grand Prince of Vsevolod I, inherited the rights to the principality in 1093.
As the Grand Prince of Kiev he appointed his son George I to rule the northeastern lands and in 1125 moved its capital from Rostov to Suzdal, after which the Principality was referred to as Rostov-Suzdal. During the 11th and 12th centuries when southern parts of Rus' were systematically raided by Turkic nomads, their inhabitants began to migrate northward. In the wooded areas, known as Zalesye, many new settlements were established; the foundations of Pereslavl, Dmitrov, Yuriev-Polsky, Tver and many others were assigned to George I, whose sobriquet alludes to his dexterity in manipulating the politics of far-away Kiev. Sometime in 1108 Monomakh strengthened and rebuilt the town of Vladimir on the Klyazma River, 31 km south of Suzdal. During the rule of George I the principality gained military strength, in the Suzdal-Ryazan war of 1146 it conquered the Ryazan Principality. In the 1150s Yuri occupied Kiev a couple of times as well. From that time the lands of the northeastern Rus' played an important role in the politics of Kievan Rus'.
George's son Andrew the Pious increased Vladimir's power at the expense of the nearby princely states, which he treated with contempt. After burning down Kiev the metropolitan seat of Rus', in 1169, he enthroned his younger brother. For Andrew, his capital of Vladimir was a far greater concern, as he embellished it with white stone churches and monasteries. Prince Andrew was murdered by boyars in his suburban residence at Bogolyubovo in 1174. After a brief interregnum, Andrew's brother Vsevolod III secured the throne, he continued most of his brother's policies and once again subjugated Kiev in 1203. Vsevolod's chief enemies, were the Southern Ryazan Principality, which appeared to stir discord in the princely family, the mighty Turkic state of Volga Bulgaria, which bordered Vladimir-Suzdal to the east. After several military campaigns, Ryazan was burnt to the ground, the Bulgars were forced to pay tribute. Vsevolod's death in 1212 precipitated a serious dynastic conflict, his eldest son Konstantin gained the support of powerful Rostovan boyars and Mstislav the Bold of Kiev and expelled the lawful heir, his brother George, from Vladimir to Rostov.
George managed to return to the capital six years upon Konstantin's death. George proved to be a shrewd ruler who decisively defeated Volga Bulgaria and installed his brother Yaroslav in Novgorod, his reign, ended when the Mongol hordes under Batu Khan took and burnt Vladimir in 1238. Thereupon they proceeded to devastate other major cities of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'. None of the cities of the principality managed to regain the power of the Great Kievan Rus' after the Mongol invasion. Vladimir became a vassal of the Mongol Empire succeeded by the Golden Horde, with the Grand Prince appointed by the Great Khan; the popular Alexander Nevsky of Pereslavl had to go to the Khan's capital in Karakorum in order to be installed as the Grand Prince in Vladimir. As many factions strove for power, the principality disintegrated into eleven tiny states: Moscow, Pereslavl, Yaroslavl, Belozersk, Nizhny Novgorod, Starodub-upon-Klyazma, Yuriev-Polsky. All of them nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, but his effective authority became progres
Sviatoslav Olgovich was the Prince of Novgorod. He was the son of Oleg Sviatoslavich, Prince of Chernigov with an unnamed daughter of Asaduk, Khan of Khumans. After the death of their older brother, Vsevolod II, Sviatoslav and his brother Igor were driven out of Kiev by Iziaslav Mstislavich. Sviatoslav escaped, but Igor was captured and killed in 1147. Sviatoslav fled to Chernigov but was ordered to relinquish his city, Novgorod-Seversky, to his cousins, Iziaslav Davidovich and Vladimir Davidovich. With the assistance of his ally, Yuri Dolgoruki, his father-in-law, Aepa Khan, Sviatoslav began a war against his cousins, but was forced to flee to Karachev. There on January 16, 1147, Sviatoslav defeated the Davidovichi brothers. In 1108, Sviatoslav married a Cuman princess, daughter of Aepa Khan, who gave him a daughter and a son, Oleg. In 1136 Svyatoslav married a second time, to a woman of Novgorod, who bore his famous son, Igor Sviatoslavich. Dimnik, Martin; the Dynasty of Chernigov, 1146-1246, 2000
Kostroma is a historic city and the administrative center of Kostroma Oblast, Russia. A part of the Golden Ring of Russian towns, it is located at the confluence of the Volga and Kostroma Rivers. Population: 268,742 ; the city was first recorded in the chronicles for the year 1213, but historians believe it could have been founded by Yury Dolgoruky more than half a century earlier, in 1152. Since many scholars believe that early Eastern Slavs tribes arrived in modern-day Belarus,Ukraine and western Russia 400 to 600 AD, Kostroma could be much older than thought; the city shares the same name as the East Slavic goddess Kostroma. Like other towns of the Eastern Rus, Kostroma was sacked by the Mongols in 1238, it constituted a small principality, under leadership of Prince Vasily the Drunkard, a younger brother of the famous Alexander Nevsky. Upon inheriting the grand ducal title in 1271, Vasily didn't leave the town for Vladimir, his descendants ruled Kostroma for another half a century, until the town was bought by Ivan I of Moscow.
As one of the northernmost towns of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Kostroma served for grand dukes as a place of retreat when enemies besieged Moscow in 1382, 1408, 1433. In 1375, the town was looted by Novgorod pirates; the spectacular growth of the city in the 16th century may be attributed to the establishment of trade connections with English and Dutch merchants through the northern port of Archangel. Boris Godunov had the Epiphany monasteries rebuilt in stone; the construction works were finished just in time for the city to witness some of the most dramatic events of the Time of Troubles. Kostroma was twice ravaged by the Poles; the heroic peasant Ivan Susanin became a symbol of the city's resistance to foreign invaders. The future Tsar, Mikhail Romanov lived at the monastery, it was here that an embassy from Moscow offered him the Russian crown in 1612. It is understandable; the Ipatievsky monastery was visited by many including Nicholas II, the last Russian Tsar. The monastery had been founded in the early 14th century by a Tatar prince, ancestor of the Godunov family.
The Romanovs had the magnificent Trinity Cathedral rebuilt in 1652. A wooden house of Mikhail Romanov is still preserved in the monastery. There are several old wooden structures transported to the monastery walls from distant districts of the Kostroma Oblast. Town status was granted to Kostroma in 1719. In 1773, Kostroma was devastated by a great fire. Afterwards the city was rebuilt with streets radiating from a single focal point near the river, they say that Catherine the Great dropped her fan on the city map, told the architects to follow her design. One of the best preserved examples of the 18th century town planning, Kostroma retains some elegant structures in a "provincial neoclassical" style; these include a governor's palace, a fire tower, a rotunda on the Volga embankment, an arcaded central market with a merchant church in the center. The First Workers' Socialist Club based in Kostroma was one of the best documented workers' clubs run by Proletkult. Organised around the principle of a "public hearth" this club combined both practical support for workers in need of accommodation, food or furniture, as well as providing a focus for popular education.
Kostroma is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Kostromskoy District though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Kostroma—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Kostroma is incorporated as Kostroma Urban Okrug. The city is served by the Kostroma Airport. Since 1887 there has been a railway connection between Moscow. Built in 1559-1565, the five-domed Epiphany Cathedral was the first stone edifice in the city; the minster houses the city's most precious relic, a 10th-century Byzantine icon called Our Lady of St. Theodore, it was with this icon that Mikhail Romanov was blessed by his mother when he left for Moscow to claim the Russian throne. They say that just before the Revolution of 1917, the icon blackened so badly that the image was hardly visible.
The Ipatyevsky monastery survives intact, with its 16th-century walls, towers and the 17th-century cathedral. Apart from the monasteries, most of the city churches were either rebuilt or demolished during the Soviet years; the only city church that survives from the 17th-century "golden age" is the Resurrection church on the Lowlands. As the story goes, the church was commissioned by one merchant who ordered in England ten barrels of dye but received ten barrels of gold instead, he resolved that the unearned gold was the devil's gift and decided to spend it on building a church, beautiful within and without. Two other 17th-century temples, of rather conventional architecture, may be seen on the opposite side of the Volga. Among the vestiges of the Godunov rule, a fine tent-like church in the urban-type settlement of Krasnoye-na-Volge may be recommended; the Nuclear Power Referendum was arranged in 1990 in the Kostroma area