Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Order of the Badge of Honour
The Order of the Badge of Honour was a civilian award of the Soviet Union. It was established on 25 November 1935, was conferred on citizens of the USSR for outstanding achievements in production, scientific research and social and other forms of social activity; the order was awarded 1,574,368 times. The "Order of the Badge of Honour" was replaced by the "Order of Honour" by a Decree of the Presidium of the USSR on 28 December 1988. Following the USSR dissolution, it was replaced by the "Order of Honour" of the Russian Federation, established by Presidential Decree no. 442 of 2 March 1994. Order of Honour Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union Awards and decorations of the Russian Federation
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Molodaya Gvardiya (publisher)
Molodaya Gvardiya is an open joint-stock Russian publishing house, one of the oldest publishers in Russia, having been founded in 1922 during the Soviet era. From 1938 until 1992, it was responsible for publishing the magazine Vokrug sveta, it is known for its biography series, The Lives of Remarkable People. During its existence, it has released a total circulation of more than 2 billion copies of books. 1922 — The Molodaya Gvardiya publishing and printing association was founded in Moscow on the initiative of the Central Committee of the Komsomol on October 10th. In the first year of the publishing house's operation, 71 books were published with a circulation of 584,000 copies.1930s — The publishing house began to produce not only books, but newspaper and magazine products, which made up one fifth of all printed materials of the USSR. Popular Soviet-era youth magazines: Murzilka, Vokrug Sveta, Yuny Tekhnik, Molodaya Gvardiya, Molodoy Kommunist, Komsomolskaya Zhizn, Studenchesky Meridian, Yuny Naturalist, Modelist-Konstructor, Yuny Khudozhnik, Pionerskaya Pravda, Vesyolye Kartinki, Shkolny Vestnik - started here.
Shkolny Vestnik is the only magazine in Russia for blind and visually impaired children, published in braille, to date. In 1932, Molodaya Gvardiya published the novel. 1938 — After the disbandment of the Journal and Newspaper Association, the biography series The Lives of Remarkable People, started in 1890 by Russian publisher Florenty Pavlenkov and continued in 1933 by Maxim Gorky, fell under the dominion of Molodaya Gvardiya. The books of the series created by Pavlenkov were unusually capacious in content. In his youth, Aleksey Tolstoy, Nikolai Berdyaev, Vladimir Vernadsky and many other figures of Russian culture were read in the books of the series; the basic principles of the series: scientific accuracy, high literary level and entertaining. The range of the series is wide: from Confucius and Plato to Freud and Hegel, from Alexander Nevsky to Zhukov, from Wagner to Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninoff, from Leonardo da Vinci and Caravaggio to Salvador Dalí and Picasso, from Sergius of Radonezh to Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow.
1942 — Molodaya Gvardiya published Aleksandr Tvardovsky's popular poem, Vasily Tyorkin, Konstantin Simonov's Lyrics. 1960s — In 1963, the first book of Vasily Shukshin's short stories Villagers was published. The year 1964 was marked by the release of the book of river stories by Vasily Belov, in 1971, a collection of his prose, Rural Stories, was published, making the author famous. Tales from the Don by Nobel laureate Mikhail Sholokhov was one of the first published by Molodaya Gvardiya. Vasily Chuikov, Marshal of the Soviet Union, was the author of a number of prefaces to the Molodaya Gvardiya books and it was in this house that his book Hardened Youth in Fights, memoirs of the Russian Civil War, was published. In 1968, Soviet pilot and cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin signed for the printing of his book Psychology and Space, written in collaboration with Vladimir Lebedev, reprinted and translated into numerous languages, he wrote the preface of the biography of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in the ZhZL series, in 1962.
1990s — The circulation of books was reduced, with many series being discontinued. The disappearance of the centralized acquisition of libraries led to the fact that the books of Molodaya Gvardiya became inaccessible to many regions of Russia. In 1991, on the basis of the publishing and printing association Molodaya Gvardiya, the OJSC Molodaya Gvardiya was established, which still exists today. 2000s — A gradual process of reviving the activities of the publishing house was started. The book series of the Living History: The Daily Life of Humanity publishing house was founded in 1999 on the model of the famous French series La Vie Quotidienne. More than 10 years of its existence, over 110 books have been published in the series, each of, a historical "portrait" of a certain epoch, a profession or the social layer. In 2002, the publishing house created a new memoirs book series A Close Past. Among the books published in the series are Life in the East Wind: Between Petersburg and Munich by writer Johannes von Guenther, Without a Choice, autobiography by novelist Leonid Borodin, Music as Fate by composer Georgy Sviridov and correspondence by artist Mikhail Sokolov.
In 2005, the book series The Lives of Remarkable People: The Biography Continues.... In contrast to the classic ZhZL series, in this series there are books about living people. In 2009, the ZhZL: Small Series was launched, which differs from the classic ZhZL series only in the volume of the material; the series Case Number... includes books written on the basis of declassified documents, tells about secret military operations, intelligence officers, conspiracies. Among them are the True Story of the Major Whirlwind, Military Counterintelligence of 1918–2010, Secret Operations of the Second World War: A Book of Military Intelligence, Hitler's Sea Wolves, A Gendarme with the Tsar in the Head, Scouts: Heroes Soviet Union and Heroes of Russia, Three Attempts on Lenin, etc; the Lives of Remarkable People The Lives of Remarkable People: The Biography Continues... The Lives of Remarkable People: Small Series Living History
Shamanism in Siberia
A large minority of people in North Asia in Siberia, follow the religio-cultural practices of shamanism. Some researchers regard Siberia as the heartland of shamanism; the people of Siberia comprise a variety of ethnic groups, many of whom continue to observe shamanistic practices in modern times. Many classical ethnographers recorded the sources of the idea of "shamanism" among Siberian peoples.'shaman': saman, sama. The variant /šaman/ is Evenk.'shaman': alman, wolmen'shaman':, The Buryat word for shaman is бөө, from early Mongolian böge.'shaman': ńajt, from Proto-Uralic *nojta'shamaness':, udugan, odogan. Related forms found in various Siberian languages include utagan, utygan, utügun, iduan, or duana. All these are related to the Mongolian name of Etügen, the hearth goddess, Etügen Eke'Mother Earth'. Maria Czaplicka points out that Siberian languages use words for male shamans from diverse roots, but the words for female shaman are all from the same root, she connects this with the theory that women's practice of shamanism was established earlier than men's, that "shamans were female."
Siberian shamans' spirit-journeys were conducted in, e.g. Oroch and Nganasan healing séances; as mentioned above, shamanistic practice shows great diversity if restricted to Siberia. In some cultures, the music or song related to shamanistic practice may mimic natural sounds, sometimes with onomatopoeia; this holds true for the practices of the noaidi among Sami groups. Although the Sami people live outside of Siberia, many of their shamanistic beliefs and practice shared important features with those of some Siberian cultures; the joiks of the Sami were sung on shamanistic rites. Joiks are sung in two different styles: one of these is sung only by young people. Several surprising characteristics of joiks can be explained by comparing the music ideals, as observed in joiks and contrasted to music ideals of other cultures; some joiks intend to mimic natural sounds. This can be contrasted to bel canto, which intends to exploit human speech organs on the highest level to achieve an “superhuman” sound.
The intention to mimic natural sounds is present in some Siberian cultures as well: overtone singing, shamanic songs of some cultures can be examples. In a Soyot shamanic song, sounds of bird and wolf are imitated to represent helping spirits of the shaman; the seances of Nganasan shamans were accompanied by women imitating the sounds of the reindeer calf. In 1931, A. Popov observed the Nganasan shaman Dyukhade Kosterkin imitating the sound of polar bear: the shaman was believed to have transformed into a polar bear. Sound mimesis is not restricted to Siberian cultures and is not linked to shamanistic beliefs or practices. See, for example, Inuit throat singing, a game played by women, an example of Inuit music that employs overtone singing, and, in some cases, the imitation of natural sounds; the imitation of animal sounds can serve such practical reasons as luring game in hunt. Uralic languages are proven to form a language family. Not all Uralic peoples have shamanistic religions; the largest populations, the Hungarians and Finns, live outside Siberia and are Christian.
Saami people had kept shamanic practices alive for a long time. They practiced shamanism until the 18th century. Most other Uralic peoples have only remnant elements of shamanism; the majority of the Uralic population lives outside Siberia. Some of them have migrated to their present locations since then; the original location of the Proto-Uralic peoples is debated. Combined phytogeographical and linguistic considerations suggest that this area was somewhere between the Kama and Vyatka rivers on the western side of the ural mountains. Among several Samoyedic peoples shamanism was a living tradition in modern times at groups living in isolation until recent times. There were distinguished several types of shamans among Nenets and Selkup people. Nenets people, Enets people, Nganasan people speak Northern Samoyedic languages, they live in North Siberia, they provide classical examples. Selkups are the only ones, they live more to the south, shamanism was in decline at the beginning of the 20th century, although folklore memories could be recorded in the 1960s.
Other Southern Samoyedic languages were spoken by some peoples living in the Sayan Mountains, but language shift has taken place, making all these languages extinct. There were several types of shamans distinguishing ones contacting upper world, ones contacting underneath world, ones contacting the dead; the isolated location of Nganasan people enabled that shamanism was a living phenomenon among them in the beginning of the 20th century, the last notable Nganasan shaman's seances could be recorded on film in the 197
Grinzane Cavour Prize
The Grinzane Cavour Prize was an Italian literary award established in 1982 by Francesco Meotto. The annual award ceremony took place in the medieval castle of Grinzane Cavour; the goal of the prize was to attract young people to read. The voting system was divided into two phases: first, a jury of literary critics selected finalists, they chose an overall winner from the pool of finalists. Special prizes for best new author and lifetime achievement were awarded; the Grinzane Cavour Prize Association was dissolved on 31 March 2009 as a result of the implication of the organization's president, Giuliano Soria, in an embezzling scheme. Soria used the Grinzane Cavour Prize to gain €4.5 million in government grants which he appropriated for his personal use. The assets of the organization were acquired by the Monforte d'Alba Bottari Lattes cultural foundation at a bankruptcy auction in 2010. Official site "Premio Grinzane Cavour - An Award in the hands of children."
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona