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|This biographical article relating to Soviet athletics is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Yuri Vladimirovich Nikulin was a well-known Soviet and Russian actor and comedian who starred in many popular films. He was awarded the title of People's Artist of the USSR in 1973 and Hero of Socialist Labour in 1990, he received a number of state awards, including the prestigious Order of Lenin, which he received twice in his lifetime. Nikulin was born just in Smolensk in Western Russia, his mother was a garage supervisor and his father a writer of satirical plays – "a profession which may have influenced future career". Nikulin fought in the Red Army in the Winter War with the World War II with Germany, he had a comparably "long period of military service, from 1939-46, preparing to be demobilised just when the German invasion of the Soviet Union began in 1941." Nikulin's style and precise delivery, as well as his mastery of timing and his hilarious masks made him an outstanding comedian. In the ring, Nikulin presented a phlegmatic temperament and unsmiling, to many in the West his personality was reminiscent of the great silent film comedian Buster Keaton.
Rich in mimicry, doleful of expression, Nikulin was hailed as “a brainy clown” outside Russia. Nikulin, affectionately called "Uncle Yura" by Russian children, relied upon his wits to earn his place in history as one of the best clowns of the 20th century. Nikulin first took up clowning in 1944 when a political officer in his battalion, impressed by his repertoire of jokes, ordered him to organize entertainment for the division, which he did with resounding success. Encouraged, once the war ended, Nikulin "tried unsuccessfully to enter drama college before answering a newspaper advertisement recruiting trainees for the Clown Studio at Moscow's Tsvetnoy Boulevard Circus."The several acting schools and theatres rejected Nikulin due to "lacking artistic talent". However, he did find initial success at the Circus and qualified as a trained clown in 1950, never abandoned his links with the circus, he met his wife, there, in 1982 became the director of the Moscow Circus, a post he held until his death.
His son, Maxim, is now a circus administrator. His screen debut came in 1958 with the film The Girl with the Guitar, he appeared in a dozen major features in the 1960s and 1970s, "but his ascent to star status was assured by a handful of short films directed by Leonid Gaidai."The first two of these, Dog Barbos and Unusual Cross and Bootleggers were where Nikulin was featured as a character named Fool in The Three Stooges-like trio, along with Georgy Vitsyn as Coward and Yevgeny Morgunov as Experienced. In former Soviet republics he is well known for his role in popular film series about the criminal trio; the series included such films as Operation Y and Other Shurik's Adventures and Kidnapping Caucassian Style. His most popular films include comedies The Diamond Arm, The Twelve Chairs, Grandads-Robbers, he was acclaimed for his roles in Andrey Tarkovsky's Andrei Rublev and several films on World War II themes. Nikulin's "comic timing never faltered" in old age and "he had no enemies and mixed with politicians from both the Soviet and post -Soviet eras".
He was close to Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov and supported Boris Yeltsin's re-election campaign."As mentioned, Nikulin was succeeded in his office at the Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard by his son. There is a bronze monument to him in front of the circus, he is buried in Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. Hero of Socialist Labour - 1990 Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 3rd class Two Orders of Lenin Order of the Patriotic War, 2nd class Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of the Badge of Honour Medal For Courage Medal "For Labour Valour" Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad" Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" People's Artist of USSR State Prize of the RSFSR Vasiliev brothers Great Russian Clown Yuri Nikulin Yuri Nikulin on IMDb
The hammer throw is one of the four throwing events in regular track and field competitions, along with the discus throw, shot put and javelin. The "hammer" used in this sport is not like any of the tools called by that name, it consists of a metal ball attached by a steel wire to a grip. The size of the ball varies between women's competitions. With roots dating back to the 15th century, the contemporary version of the hammer throw is one of the oldest of Olympic Games competitions, first included at the 1900 games in Paris, France, its history since the late 1960s and legacy prior to inclusion in the Olympics have been dominated by European and Eastern European influence, which has affected interest in the event in other parts of the world. The hammer evolved from its early informal origins to become part of the Scottish Highland games in the late 18th century, where the original version of the event is still contested today. While the men's hammer throw has been part of the Olympics since 1900, the International Association of Athletics Federations did not start ratifying women's marks until 1995.
Women's hammer throw was first included in the Olympics at the 2000 summer games in Sydney, after having been included in the World Championships a year earlier. The men's hammer weighs 16 pounds and measures 3 feet 11 3⁄4 inches in length, the women's hammer weighs 8.82 lb and 3 ft 11 in in length. Like the other throwing events, the competition is decided by who can throw the implement the farthest. Although thought of as a strength event, technical advancements in the last 30 years have evolved hammer throw competition to a point where more focus is on speed in order to gain maximum distance; the throwing motion involves about two swings from stationary position three, four or rarely five rotations of the body in circular motion using a complicated heel-toe movement of the foot. The ball moves in a circular path increasing in velocity with each turn with the high point of the hammer ball toward the target sector and the low point at the back of the circle; the thrower releases the ball from the front of the circle.
As of 2015 the men's hammer world record is held by Yuriy Sedykh, who threw 86.74 m at the 1986 European Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, West Germany on 30 August. The world record for the women's hammer is held by Anita Włodarczyk, who threw 82.98 m during the Kamila Skolimowska Memorial on 28 August 2016. Updated August 2015 Below is a list of all other throws superior to 86.50 metres: Yuriy Sedykh 86.66 m. Sedykh threw 86.68 m and 86.62 m ancillary marks during world record competition. Ivan Tsikhan of Belarus threw 86.73 on 3 July 2005 in Brest, but this performance was annulled due to drugs disqualification. Correct as of June 2018. Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 78.00 m: Anita Włodarczyk threw 82.87 m, 82.29 m, 81.77 m, 81.74, 81.63 m, 81.27 m, 81.08 m, 80.85 m, 80.79 m, 80.73 m, 80.69 m, 80.42 m, 80.40 m, 80.31 m, 80.26 m, 79.80 m, 79.73 m, 79.72 m, 79.68 m, 79.67 m, 79.63 m, 79.62 m, 79.61 m, 79.59 m, 79.58 m, 79.48 m, 79.45 m, 79.39 m, 79.27 m, 79.23 m, 79.07 m, 79.06 m, 78.94 m, 78.76 m, 78.74 m, 78.69 m, 78.59 m, 78.55 m, 78.54 m, 78.52 m, 78.46 m, 78.35 m, 78.30 m, 78.28 m, 78.24 m, 78.22 m, 78.17 m, 78.16 m, 78.14 m, 78.10, 78.00 m.
Tatyana Lysenko threw 78.51 m and 78.15 m Betty Heidler threw 78.07 m and 78.00 m. The following athletes had their performances annulled due to doping offences: Aksana Miankova 78.69 m and 78.19 m Gulfiya Agafonova 77.36 m List of hammer throwers IAAF list of hammer-throw records in XML HammerThrow.eu HammerThrow.org Statistics Hammer Throw Records Hammer Throw History
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta