Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle
The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle is an Indonesian political party, the party of the current President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo. The PDI-P was founded and is led by Megawati Sukarnoputri, president of Indonesia from 2001 to 2004, daughter of Sukarno, the first president of Indonesia. Megawati was forced out from the leadership of the Indonesian Democratic Party by the government of Indonesia under Suharto in 1996. Megawati formed the PDI-P in 1999, after Suharto resigned and restrictions on political parties were lifted; the party's centre-left ideology is based on Pancasila. It is a member of the Council of Democrats and Progressive Alliance. At the 1993 National Congress, Megawati Sukarnoputri was elected Chairperson of the Indonesian Democratic Party, one of the three political parties recognised by President Suharto's "New Order" government; this result was not recognised by the government, which continued to push for Budi Harjono, its preferred candidate for the chairpersonship, to be elected.
A Special Congress was held where the government expected to have Harjono elected, but Megawati once again emerged as elected leader. Her position was consolidated further when a PDI National Assembly ratified the results of the congress. In June 1996, another National Congress was held in the city of Medan, to which Megawati was not invited. With the government's backing, Suryadi, a former chairperson was re-elected as PDI's Chairperson. Megawati refused to acknowledge the results of this congress and continued to see herself as the rightful leader of the PDI. On the morning of 27 July 1996, Suryadi threatened to take back PDI's headquarters in Jakarta. Suryadi's supporters attacked the PDI Headquarters and faced resistance from Megawati supporters, stationed there since the National Congress in Medan. In the ensuing clash, Megawati's supporters managed to hold on to the headquarters. A riot ensued — at that stage considered the worst that Jakarta had seen during the "New Order" —, followed by a government crackdown.
The government blamed the riots on the People's Democracy Party. Despite being overthrown as chairperson by Suryadi and the government, the event lifted Megawati's profile immensely, providing both sympathy and national popularity; the PDI was now divided into Megawati's and Suryadi's. The former had wanted to participate in the 1997 legislative elections, but the government only recognized the latter. In the elections and her supporters threw their support behind the United Development Party and the PDI won only 3% of the vote. Following Suharto's resignation and the lifting of the "New Order" limitations on national political parties, Megawati declared the formation of the PDI-P, adding the suffix perjuangan to differentiate her faction of the party from the government-backed faction, she was elected chairperson of PDI-P and was nominated for the presidency in 1999. PDI-P was by far the most popular political party coming into the 1999 legislative elections. With 33% of the votes, PDI-P emerged with the largest share.
As the 1999 People's Consultative Assembly General Session loomed closer, it was expected that PDI-P would once again play the dominant role. Despite winning the legislative elections, PDI-P did not have absolute majority. Despite this however, PDI-P never formed a coalition with any of the other political parties in the lead up to the 1999 MPR General Session; the closest PDI-P had to a coalition was a loose alliance with Abdurrahman Wahid's National Awakening Party. The presidency looked set to be contested by Megawati and the incumbent BJ Habibie of Golkar, looking for a second term. However, MPR Chairman Amien Rais had other ideas as he formed a coalition called the Central Axis which consisted of Muslim Parties. Amien announced that he would like to nominate Wahid as President. PKB, their alliance with PDI-P never cemented, now moved over to the Central Axis. Golkar joined this coalition after Habibie's accountability speech was rejected and he withdrew from the race, it came down to Wahid.
Wahid, with a powerful coalition backing him was elected as Indonesia's 4th president with 373 votes to Megawati's 313. The PDI-P supporters were outraged; as the winners of the Legislative Elections, they expected to win the Presidential Elections also. PDI-P masses began rioting in cities such as Jakarta and Medan; the peaceful Bali was involved in pro-Megawati protests. Wahid realized that there was a need to recognize PDI-P's status as the winners of the Legislative Elections. With that, he encouraged Megawati to run for the Vice Presidency. Megawati rejected this offer when she saw that she had to face opponents such as United Development Party's Hamzah Haz and Golkar's Akbar Tanjung and Wiranto. After some politicking by Wahid and Wiranto withdrew from the race. Wahid ordered PKB to throw their weight behind Megawati, she was now confident and competed in the Vice Presidential elections, was elected with 396 votes to Hamzah's 284. The First PDI-P Congress was held in Semarang, Central Java in April 2000, during which Megawati was re-elected as the chairperson of PDI-P for a second term.
The congress was noted as one where she consolidated her position within PDI-P by taking harsh measures to remove potential rivals. During the election for the chairperson, two other candidates emerged, Eros Djarot and Dimyati Hartono. Both ran because they did not want Megawati to hold the PDI-P chairpersonship while concurrently being Vice President. For Eros, when received h
Muhammad Jusuf Kalla is an Indonesian politician, Vice President of Indonesia since 2014, having served from 2004 to 2009. He was unsuccessful as Golkar's presidential candidate in the 2009 presidential election. Since 2009 Kalla has served as the Chairman of the Indonesian Red Cross Society. Before Kalla declared himself as the running mate for Joko Widodo in the 2014 presidential election, a 2012 poll placed his popularity among voters in the top three contenders for the presidency and ahead of his own party's nominee Aburizal Bakrie, he is the first person to hold two non-consecutive terms as Vice President of Indonesia. Jusuf Kalla was born on 15 May 1942 in the capital of the Bone Regency in South Sulawesi, his parents were Hadji Kalla, a local businessman and Athirah, a woman who sold Buginese silk for a living. He was the second of 10 children. After completing school, Kalla attended Hasanuddin University in Makassar. At university he became active in the Indonesian Student Action Front, a student organization which supported General Suharto in his bid to gain power from president Sukarno.
Kalla was elected as chair of South Sulawesi branch of KAMI. He showed interest in a political career, becoming a member of the Regional People's Representative Council and chairman of the Youth Division of Golkar when it was still organised under a Joint Secretariat format. In 1967 Kalla graduated from the Economics Faculty at Hasanuddin University; the economic situation was bleak at the time and his father, Hadji Kalla, considered shutting down the family business, NV Hadji Kalla. Instead, Kalla decided to take over the firm. Putting aside his political activities, in 1968 Kalla became CEO of NV Hadji Kalla while his father became chairman. In the beginning the business only had one employee and business was slow. Kalla's mother assisted by trading silk and running a small transportation business with three buses. Over time the business became quite successful. NV Hadji Kalla expanded from the export-import trading business into other sectors. In addition to being CEO of NV Hadji Kalla, Kalla was CEO of various subsidiaries of the firm.
In 1977, Kalla graduated from INSEAD, an international business school in Fontainebleau, south of Paris. "NV Hadji Kalla" is now known as the Kalla Group and is one of the leading business groups in Indonesia in Eastern Indonesia. Aside from his business career, Kalla has been active in numerous well-known organizations. From 1979 to 1989, he was chairman of the Indonesian Economics Graduates Association in Makassar and continues to be an adviser for ISEI. Kalla was extensively involved with the Chamber of Industry. From 1985 to 1998 he was chairman for KADIN in South Sulawesi and was coordinator for KADIN in eastern Indonesia. In addition, Kalla is on the board of trustees for three universities in Makassar. Kalla has contributed by building the Al Markaz Mosque and becoming chairman of its Islamic centre. Kalla is seen in The Act of Killing film praising Pancasila Youth and encouraging them to commit violence. Kalla returned to active politics in 1987 when he was appointed to the People's Consultative Assembly as a regional representative for South Sulawesi.
He was re-appointed to the MPR in 1992, 1997, 1999. When Kyai Haji Abdurrahman Wahid was elected as President by the MPR in 1999, Kalla was included in the cabinet and became Minister of Industry and Trade, he had only been a minister for six months when in April 2000 Wahid removed him along with the Minister of State-Owned Enterprises. Wahid accused both Kalla and minister Laksamana of corruption, although he never produced evidence to support the charge, Kalla denied the allegations. In July 2001, at a special session of the MPR, President Gus Dur was dismissed from office. Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri took over the presidency and included Kalla in her cabinet, appointing him to the senior post of Coordinating Minister of People's Welfare. Although it was not part of his ministerial brief, Kalla helped solve the inter-religious conflict in Poso on his native island of Sulawesi. Kalla facilitated the negotiation which resulted in the signing of the Malino II Accord on 20 December 2001 and an end to the conflict which had gone on for three years.
Two months Kalla helped solve another conflict in Sulawesi. On 12 February 2002, together with Coordinating Minister of Politics and Society Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, managed to solve a similar conflict on Ambon and Molucca through a second Malino Declaration. Now a popular figure for assisting with the peace process in Sulawesi, Kalla considered putting himself forward as a candidate in the 2004 presidential elections. In August 2003 he announced his candidacy and enlisted as a participant in Golkar's 2004 Convention which would choose the Golkar candidate for president; as the months went by, Kalla came to be seen more as a vice presidential candidate. He was expected to partner a Javanese presidential candidate and his non-Javanese background was seen as a means of attracting non-Javanese votes which a Javanese candidate might have trouble getting. Just days before the Golkar national convention, Kalla decided to withdraw from running under the Golkar banner. Rather, he accepted the offer from the Democratic Party's Yudhoyono to become his running mate.
The pair received the support of the Crescent Star Party, the Indonesian Justice and Unity Party, Reform Star Party. On 5 July 2004 the pr
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro
People's Consultative Assembly
The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political system. It is composed of the members of the People's Representative Council and the Regional Representative Council. Before 2004, the amendments to the 1945 Constitution, the MPR was the highest governing body in Indonesia. In accordance with Law No. 16/1960, the assembly was formed after the general election in 1971. It was decided at that time; the 920 membership of MPR continued for the terms of 1977–1982 and 1982–1987. For the terms 1987–1992, 1992–1997, 1997–1999 the MPR's membership became 1000. One hundred members were appointed representing delegations from groups as addition to the faction delegates of Karya Pembangunan, Partai Demokrasi Indonesia, Persatuan Pembangunan, military. For the term of 1999–2004 the membership of MPR was 700 (462 civilians and 38 from military and police which formed the DPR, 135 from each of the 27 provinces which formed the Regional Delegations Faction, 65 to form the Groups Delegations Faction.
It was reduced to 688 in 2004 due to exclusion of active military and police officers and Groups Emissary Faction, as well as reassignment of Regional Delegations Faction to the newly-formed DPD and restructuring the numbers to 128 from each of the 32 provinces. Due to addition of West Papua since the 2009 election, the number of DPD senators became 132. For the 2014–2019 term there are 560 DPR members and 132 senators, resulting in 692 members of the MPR. On 18 August 1945, the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence approved a new constitution for the country, it was, difficult to implement because of the unsettled postwar conditions. The Preparatory Committee therefore decided to instead implement a document titled The Four Clauses of Transition Regulations. Clause IV of those regulations stated that until permanent governing bodies could be established all governmental powers would be held by the President with the assistance of a National Committee. On 29 August 1945, the Central Indonesian National Committee was set up, with membership drawn from leaders of communities from various regions as well from the Preparatory Committee.
On 16 October 1945, Vice President Mohammad Hatta issued a decree that outlined the function and authority of the KNIP. In addition to the assisting the President, the committee would perform legislative duties until an MPR and DPR could be formed. In taking on the functions of the MPR, the KNIP was responsible for creating the Broad Outlines of Government Policy; the role which KNIP played would provide a rough outline of the duties which the Preparatory Committee would perform. On 27 December 1949, Indonesia's independence was recognised by the Dutch Government, the search was on for a form of government that would suit Indonesia. From that year until 17 August 1950, Indonesia was known as the United States of Indonesia and had a federal system of government. Under the constitution of the RIS, the MPR was not recognised as the highest state institution, it ceased to function. On 17 August 1950, the RIS ceased to exist, Indonesia changed its name to the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
Parliamentary democracy was the form of government adopted by the newly re-formed nation. It operated under a provisional constitution that did not recognise the MPR; as a result of the 1955 legislative elections, however, a new DPR was formed. In December 1955, a government body called the Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia was formed, its duty was to draft a new constitution for Indonesia; the Constitutional Assembly could not agree on a constitution, by 1959, the government was demanding a return to the 1945 constitution. On 5 July 1959, President Sukarno, who until had played the role of ceremonial Head of State intervened. In a decree, he dissolved the Constitutional Assembly and declared that the 1945 Constitution would thenceforth be in force and that the Provisional Constitution was void. With the return to the 1945 Constitution, the MPR was once again recognised as the highest governing body in the land. After issuing the decree, Sukarno set to work in establishing an MPR, although it would be dubbed the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly.
Sukarno had envisaged a legislative election to be held to replace the MPRS with a proper MPR, but that vote was delayed until 1971 under President Suharto's rule. The MPRS during the Guided Democracy era numbered 616 members, it consisted of the 257 DPR members, 241 Representatives of the Functional Groups, 118 Regional Representatives. The MPRS was subservient to Sukarno, with the President deciding everything from the number of seats to the appointment of additional members and the choice of the body's Chairman and Vice Chairmen; the MPRS held its first General Session in West Java from 10 November to 7 December. Its main resolution was the adoption of Sukarno's political manifesto as the GBHN and the broad outlines of an eight-year Development Plan, set to start in 1961; the second General Session was held in Bandung from 15 May to 22 May 1963. It was at this General Session that Sukarno was elected'President for Life', a major breach to the Constitution; the MPRS held its third General Session in Bandung from 11 to 15 April 1965.
This General Session further entrenched Sukarno's ideol
Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Sukarnoputri is an Indonesian politician who served as President of Indonesia from 23 July 2001 to 20 October 2004. She was the country's vice president for 21 months. Megawati is the leader of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, one of Indonesia's largest political parties, she is the daughter of Sukarno. Megawati was Indonesia's first female president and the sixth woman to lead a Muslim-majority country, she is the first Indonesian leader to be born after Indonesia proclaimed independence. After serving as vice president to Abdurrahman Wahid, Megawati became president when Wahid was removed from office in 2001, she ran for re-election in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. She ran again in the 2009 presidential election. Megawati was born in Yogyakarta to Sukarno, who had declared Indonesia's independence from the Netherlands in 1945 and Fatmawati, one of his nine wives. Megawati was first daughter, she grew up in her father's Merdeka Palace.
She developed a gardening hobby. Megawati was 19 when her father relinquished power in 1966 and was succeeded by a government which came to be led by President Suharto. Megawati attended Padjadjaran University in Bandung to study agriculture but dropped out in 1967 to be with her father following his fall. In 1970, the year her father died, Megawati went to the University of Indonesia to study psychology but dropped out after two years. Sukarnoputri is a patronym, not a family name, she is referred to as Megawati or Mega, derived from Sanskrit meaning'cloud goddess'. In a speech to the students of the Sri Sathya Sai Primary School, she mentioned that Biju Patnaik, former Chief minister of Odisha, named her at Sukarno's request. In 1986, Suharto gave the status of Proclamation Hero to Sukarno in a ceremony attended by Megawati. Suharto's acknowledgment enabled the Indonesian Democratic Party, a government-sanctioned party, to campaign on Sukarno nostalgia in the lead-up to the 1987 legislative elections.
Up to that time, Megawati had seen herself as a housewife, but in 1987 she joined PDI and ran for a People's Representative Council seat. The PDI accepted Megawati to boost their own image. Megawati became popular, her status as Sukarno's daughter offsetting her lack of oratorical skills. Although PDI came last in the elections, Megawati was elected to the DPR. Like all members of the DPR she became a member of the People's Consultative Assembly. Megawati continued as a PDI member. In December 1993, the PDI held a national congress; as was always the case when New Order opposition parties held their congresses, the government interfered. As the Congress approached, three individuals contended for the PDI chair; the incumbent, had become critical of the government. The second was Budi Harjono a government-friendly figure; the third was Megawati. Her candidacy received such overwhelming support that her election at the Congress became a formality; when the congress assembled, the government stalled and delayed attempts to hold the election.
The congress faced a deadline. As the hours ticked down to the end of the congress, troops began gathering. With only two hours remaining, Megawati called a press conference, stating that because she enjoyed the support of a majority of PDI members, she was now the de facto chair. Despite her relative lack of political experience, she was popular in part for her status as Sukarno's daughter and because she was seen as free of corruption with admirable personal qualities. Under her leadership, PDI gained a large following among the urban poor and both urban and rural middle classes; the government was outraged at its failure to prevent Megawati's rise. They never acknowledged Megawati although her self-appointment was ratified in 1994. In 1996, the government convened a special national congress in Medan that reelected Suryadi as chair. Megawati and her camp refused to acknowledge the results and the PDI divided into pro-Megawati and anti-Megawati camps. Suryadi began threatening to take back PDI's Headquarters in Jakarta.
This threat was carried on the morning of 27 July 1996. Suryadi's supporters attacked PDI Headquarters and faced resistance from Megawati supporters stationed there. In the ensuing fight, Megawati's supporters held on to the headquarters. A riot ensued, followed by a government crackdown; the Government blamed the riots on the People's Democratic Party, continued to recognize Suryadi's faction as the official party. Despite what seemed to be a political defeat, Megawati scored a moral victory and her popularity grew; when the time came for the 1997 legislative election and her supporters threw their support behind the United Development Party, the other approved opposition party. In mid-1997, Indonesia began to be affected by the Asian Financial Crisis and showed severe economic distress. By late January 1998 the rupiah fell to nearly 15,000 against the US dollar, compared to only 4,000 in early December. Combined with increasing public anger at pervasive corruption, this culminated in May 1998 with Suharto's resignation and the assumption of the presidency by Vice President B. J. Habibie.
The restrictions on Megawati were removed and she began to consolidate her political position. In October 1998, her supporters held a National Congress whereby Megawati's PDI faction would