A princely state called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary. At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions; the princely states varied in status and wealth. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, with a population of just below 3,000; some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950 all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan; the accession process was peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir, Junagadh. and Kalat. As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses, retained their statuses and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956.
During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of, headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh, equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states; the states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C. E. during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; the widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire.
In the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century; the advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.
India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any govern
Raja, is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. The title has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, being attested from the Rigveda, where a rājan- is a ruler, see for example the dāśarājñá, the "Battle of Ten Kings". While most of the Hindu salute states were ruled by a Maharaja exclusively from 13 guns up, a number had Rajas: Hereditary salutes of 11-guns the Raja of Rajouri the Raja of Ali Rajpur the Raja of Bilaspur the Raja of Chamba the Raja of Faridkot the Raja of Jhabua the Raja of Mandi the Raja of Manipur the Raja of Narsinghgarh the Raja of Pudukkottai the Raja of Rajgarh the Raja of Sailana the Raja of Samthar the Raja of Sitamau the Raja of SuketHereditary salutes of 9-guns the Raja of Dharampur the Raja of SangliHereditary salute of 9-guns the Raja of SavantwadiHereditary salutes of 9-guns the Raja of Baraundha the raja of Jawhar, Hereditory salute of 9-guns the Raja of Bhor the Raja of Chhota Udepur the Raja of Khilchipur the Raja of Maihar the Raja of Mudhol the Raja of Nagod the Raja of Sant the Raja of ShahpuraPersonal salute of 9-guns the Raja of Bashahr Rajadharma is the dharma which applies to the king, or the Raja.
Dharma is that which upholds, supports, or maintains the order of the universe and is based on truth. It is of central importance in achieving order and balance within the world and does this by demanding certain necessary behaviors from people; the king served two main functions as the Raja: Religious. The religious functions involved certain acts for propitiating gods, removing dangers, guarding dharma, among other things; the secular functions involved helping prosperity, dealing out even-handed justice, protecting people and their property. Once he helped the Vibhore to reach his goal by giving the devotion of his power in order to reduce the poverty from his kingdom. Protection of his subjects was seen as the foremost duty of the king; this was achieved by punishing internal aggression, such as thieves among his people, meeting external aggression, such as attacks by foreign entities. Moreover, the king possessed executive and legislative dharmas, which he was responsible for carrying out.
If he did so wisely, the king believed that he would be rewarded by reaching the pinnacle of the abode of the sun, or heaven. However, if the king carried out his office poorly, he feared that he would suffer hell or be struck down by a deity; as scholar Charles Drekmeier notes, "dharma stood above the king, his failure to preserve it must accordingly have disastrous consequences". Because the king's power had to be employed subject to the requirements of the various castes' dharma, failure to "enforce the code" transferred guilt on to the ruler, according to Drekmeier some texts went so far as to justify revolt against a ruler who abused his power or inadequately performed his dharma. In other words, Danda as both the king's tool of coercion and power, yet his potential downfall, "was a two-edged sword"; the executive duty of the king was to carry out punishment, or danda. For instance, a judge who would give an incorrect verdict out of passion, ignorance, or greed is not worthy of the office, the king should punish him harshly.
Another executive dharma of the king is correcting the behavior of brahmanas that have strayed from their dharma, or duties, through the use of strict punishment. These two examples demonstrated how the king was responsible for enforcing the dharmas of his subjects, but was in charge of enforcing rulings in more civil disputes; such as if a man is able to repay a creditor but does not do so out of mean-spiritedness, the king should make him pay the money and take five percent for himself. The judicial duty of the king was deciding any disputes that arose in his kingdom and any conflicts that arose between dharmasastra and practices at the time or between dharmasastra and any secular transactions; when he took the judgment seat, the king was to abandon all selfishness and be neutral to all things. The king would hear cases such as thefts, would use dharma to come to a decision, he was responsible for making sure that the witnesses were honest and truthful by way of testing them. If the king conducted these trials according to dharma, he would be rewarded with wealth, respect, an eternal place in heaven, among other things.
However, not all cases fell upon the shoulders of the king. It was the king's duty to appoint judges that would decide cases with the same integrity as the king; the king had a legislative duty, utilized when he would enact different decrees, such as announcing a festival or a day of rest for the kingdom. Rajadharma portrayed the king as an administrator above all else; the main purpose for the king executing punishment, or danda, was to ensure that all of his subjects were carrying out their own particular dharmas. For this reason, rajadharma was seen as the root of all dharma and was the highest goal; the whole purpose of the king was to make everyone prosper. If they were not prospering, the king was not fulfilling his dharma, he had to carry out his duties as laid down in the science of government and "not act at his sweet will." Indeed, in the major writings on dharma, the dharma of the king was regarded as the "capstone" of the other castes' dharma both due to the king's goal of securing the happiness and prosperity of his people as well as his ability to act as the "guarantor" of the whole social structure through the enforcement of Danda.
Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin was a late medieval kingdom and princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India. Once controlling much of the territory between Ponnani and Thottappally, the Cochin kingdom shrank to its minimal extent as a result of invasions by the Zamorin of Calicut; when Portuguese armadas arrived in India, the Kingdom of Cochin had lost its vassals like Edapalli, Cranganore etc. to Zamorin and was looking for an opportunity to preserve independance of Cochin, at risk. King Unni Goda Varma Tirumulpadu warmly welcomed Pedro Álvares Cabral on 24 December 1500 and negotiated a treaty of alliance between Portugal and the Cochin kingdom, directed against the Zamorin of Calicut. Cochin became a long-time Portuguese ally providing assistance against native overlords. After the Portuguese, the Dutch East India Company was an ally of Cochin; this was followed by the English East India Company. Today, the full official designation of the Raja of Cochin is “Perumpadappu Gangadhara Veera Kerala Thrikkovil Adhikarikal”.
The Kingdom of Cochin known as Perumpadappu Swarupam, was under the rule of the Later Cheras in the Middle Ages. The Nambudiri of Perumpadappu had married the sister of the last Later Chera king, Rama Varma Kulashekhara, as a consequence obtained Mahodayapuram, Thiruvanchikulam Temple along with numerous other rights, such as that of the Mamankam festival. After the fall of the Mahodayapuram Cheras in the 12th century, along with numerous other provinces Perumpadappu Swarupam became a free political entity. However, it was only after the arrival of Portuguese colonizers on the Malabar Coast did the Perumpadappu Swarupam acquire any political importance. Perumpadappu rulers had family relationships with the Nambudiri rulers of Edappally. After the transfer of Kochi and Vypin from Edappally rulers to the Perumpadappu rulers, the latter came to be known as kings of Kochi. Ma Huan, the Muslim voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans, describes the king of Cochin as being a Buddhist.
The Cochin kingdom included much of modern-day Thrissur district excluding chavakkad taluk, few areas of Alathur taluk and the whole of Chittur Taluk of the Palakkad district and Kochi Taluk, most of Kanayannur Taluk, parts of Aluva Taluk, parts of Kunnathunad Taluk and parts of Paravur Taluk of the Ernakulam district which are now the part of the Indian state of Kerala. There is no extant written evidence about the emergence of the Kingdom of Cochin or of the Cochin Royal Family known as Perumpadapu Swaroopam. All, recorded are folk tales and stories, a somewhat blurred historical picture about the origins of the ruling dynasty; the surviving manuscripts, such as Keralolpathi and Perumpadapu Grandavari, are collections of myths and legends that are less than reliable as conventional historical sources. There is an oft-recited legend that the last Perumal who ruled the Chera dynasty divided his kingdom between his nephews and his sons, converted to Islam and traveled to Mecca on a hajj; the Keralolpathi recounts the above narrative in the following fashion: The last and the famous "Perumal" ruled Kerala for 36 years.
He left for Mecca by ship with some Muslims who converted to Islam. Before leaving for Mecca, he divided his kingdom between his sons; the Perumpadapu Grandavari contains an additional account of the dynastic origins: The last Thavazhi of Perumpadapu Swaroopam came into existence on the Kaliyuga day shodashangamsurajyam. Cheraman Perumal divided the land in half, 17 "amsa" north of Neelaeswaram and 17 amsa south, totaling 34 amsa, gave his powers to his nephews and sons. Thirty-four kingdoms between Kanyakumari and Gokarna were given to the "thampuran", the daughter of the last niece of Cheraman Perumal. Keralolpathi recorded the division of his kingdom in 345 Common Era, Perumpadapu Grandavari in 385 Common Era, William Logan in 825 Common Era. There are no written records on these earlier divisions of Kerala, but according to some historians the division might have occurred during the Second Chera Kingdom at the beginning of the 12th century. Cochin kingdom ruled over a vast area in central Kerala before the Portuguese arrival.
Their state stretched up to Ponnani and Pukkaitha in the north, Aanamala in the east, Cochin and Porakkad in the south, with capital at Perumpadappu on the northern border. Calicut was conquered by Zamorin of Eranad, who conquered large parts of Cochin Kingdom, began trying to assert suzerainty over Cochin. On the Malabar coast during the early 15th century and Cochin were in an intense rivalry, so the Ming dynasty of China decided to intervene by granting special status to Cochin and its ruler known as Keyili to the Chinese. Calicut had been the dominant port-city in the region. For the fifth Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He was instructed to confer a seal upon Keyili of Cochin and designate a mountain in his kingdom as the Zhenguo Zhi Shan. Zheng He delivered a stone tablet, inscribed with a proclamation composed by the Yongle E
Sikhs are people associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century, in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The term "Sikh" has its origin in the Sanskrit words शिष्य, meaning a student. A Sikh, according to Article I of the Sikh Rehat Maryada, is "any human being who faithfully believes in One Immortal Being; the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent has been the historic homeland of the Sikhs, was ruled by the Sikhs for significant parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the Punjab state in northwest India has a majority Sikh population, sizeable communities of Sikhs exist around the world. Many countries, such as the United Kingdom, recognize Sikhs as a designated religion on their censuses; the American non-profit organization United Sikhs has sought to have Sikh included on the U. S. census as an ethnicity, arguing that Sikhs "self-identify as an'ethnic minority'" and believe "that they are more than just a religion".
Male Sikhs have "Singh" as their middle or last name, female Sikhs have "Kaur" as their middle or last name. Sikhs who have undergone the Khanḍe-kī-Pahul may be recognized by the five Ks: Kesh, uncut hair, kept covered by a turban. Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, was born to Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta, in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore. Guru Nanak was social reformer. However, Sikh political history may be said to begin with the death of the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev, in 1606. Religious practices were formalised by Guru Gobind Singh on 30 March 1699. Gobind Singh initiated five people from a variety of social backgrounds, known as the Panj Piare to form the Khalsa, or collective body of initiated Sikhs. During the period of Mughal rule in India several Sikh gurus were killed by the Mughals for opposing their persecution of minority religious communities including Sikhs. Sikhs subsequently militarized to oppose Mughal rule. After defeating the Afghan and Mughal, sovereign states called Misls were formed, under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.
The Confederacy was unified and transformed into the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh Bahadur, characterised by religious tolerance and pluralism, with Christians and Hindus in positions of power. The empire is considered the zenith of political Sikhism, encompassing Kashmir and Peshawar. Hari Singh Nalwa, the commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army in the North West Frontier, expanded the confederacy to the Khyber Pass, its secular administration implemented military and governmental reforms. After the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British, the latter recognized the martial qualities of the Sikhs and Punjabis in general and started recruiting from that area. During the 1857 Indian mutiny, the Sikhs stayed loyal to the British; this resulted in heavy recruiting from Punjab to the colonial army for the next 90 years of the British Raj. The distinct turban that differentiates a Sikh from other turban wearers is a relic of the rules of the British Indian Army; the British colonial rule saw the emergence of many reform movements in India including Punjab.
This included 1879 of the First and Second Singh Sabha respectively. The Sikh leaders of the Singh Sabha worked to offer a clear definition of Sikh identity and tried to purify Sikh belief and practice; the part of British colonial rule saw the emergence of the Akali movement to bring reform in the gurdwaras during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee; the months leading up to the partition of India in 1947 were marked by conflict in the Punjab between Sikhs and Muslims. This caused the religious migration of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus from West Punjab, mirroring a similar religious migration of Punjabi Muslims from East Punjab; the 1960s saw growing animosity between Sikhs and Hindus in India, with the Sikhs demanding the creation of a Punjab state on a linguistic basis similar to other states in India. This was promised to Sikh leader Master Tara Singh by Jawaharlal Nehru, in return for Sikh political support during negotiations for Indian independence.
Although the Sikhs obtained the Punjab, they lost Hindi-speaking areas to Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan. Chandigarh was made a union territory and the capital of Haryana and Punjab on 1 November 1966. Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale triggered violence in the Punjab; the prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered an operation to remove Bhindranwale from the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star. This led to her assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. Gandhi's assassination resulted in an explosion of violence against Sikh communities and the killing of thousands of Sikhs throughout India. Since 1984, relations between Sikhs and Hindus have moved toward a rapprochement aided by economic prosperity. However, a 2002 claim by the Hindu right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh that "Sikhs are Hindus" disturbed Sikh sensibilities. During the 1999 Vaisakhi, Sikhs worldwide celebrated the 300th anniversary of the creation of the Khalsa. Canada Post honoured Sikh Canadians with a
Yuvvraaj is a 2008 Indian drama film directed and produced by Subhash Ghai. The film stars Anil Kapoor, Salman Khan, Zayed Khan and Katrina Kaif in the lead roles and is inspired by the Hollywood film Rain Man. Yuvvraaj is a musical story of a fragmented family of three brothers who try to con each other to inherit their father's wealth. According to the director, the film is about the overconfidence of contemporary youth; the film was released on 21 November 2008. Although the film received mixed reviews from critics and bombed at the box-office, its script was added to the library of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 2009. Deven Yuvvraaj is a struggling singer who Dr. Banton, his girlfriend Anushka’s father, dislikes because he is not wealthy and is rather careless at times, he signs an agreement to become a billionaire in 40 days. To acquire this wealth, he has to go through an emotional roller coaster journey of joy and pain with his two estranged brothers, Gyanesh Yuvvraaj and Danny Yuvvraaj, who he meets after 12 years.
On meeting them, he is shocked to see that his father has left everything to the mentally-challenged Gyanesh. So both Danny and Deven make an agreement to scam their brother out of his money. Danny's attempt to blackmail Gyanesh to make him lie in front of some lawyers fails and he assaults Gyanesh. Deven intervenes and plays the good guy and helps Gyanesh and takes him to Austria in an attempt to win him. There Anushka and Gyanesh get on well and she is amazed by his singing talent, she lets him into her orchestra, due to perform in front of thousands of people. Deven gets jealous as Gyanesh get on so well but soon learns to love his brother. Danny, now thrown out of all the luxurious clubs, loses his girlfriend, he meets up with Deven and Gyanesh and they all become loving brothers again and forget about the money. His mother's new husband and family decide to poison Gyanesh to get his money, they show Gyanesh a recording of Deven and Danny plotting to scam Gyanesh out of his money which breaks his heart.
They switch his inhaler with one containing poison and leave. Gyanesh and breathless uses his inhaler and fights with his brothers who realize that he knows about their plot. Heartbroken Gyanesh performs on stage when Deven shows up and they do a duet with Deven singing about forgiveness. Onstage Gyanesh collapses and Deven takes him to hospital whilst Danny gets the police to arrest the family members who tried to poison Gyanesh. At the hospital, Deven is informed. Dr. Banton accuses him of only wanting Gyanesh to survive for the money so he can marry his daughter but Deven breaks down and tells Dr. Banton that if he saves Gyanesh he will not marry Anushka saying he just wants to keep his family together. Dr. Banton is shocked by Deven's sense of saves Gyanesh, he allows Deven to marry Anushka now that he has become a changed man who cares about his family. The ending is a dance scene featuring the crew of the film. Anil Kapoor as Gyanesh Yuvvraaj an autistic savant, removed from the idea of money.
By some stroke of destiny, he has a genius disorder. Since childhood, he was brilliant in all aspects of music, he effortlessly becomes the superstar that Deven dreamt of being. Salman Khan as Deven Yuvvraaj is a ambitious guy who believes life begins with himself and ends with his love Anushka. A quarrel with his father was reason enough for him to live as a struggling singer. Devoid of family values, he is forced to journey through the circle of love for the sake of money to complete his love story. Zayed Khan as Danny Yuvvraaj is the real prince. A passion for flying kept him floating on an air-cushion filled with his father’s money. A playboy and a brat, he was sure. Unable to deal with the loss of his playground, he strikes at Gyanesh in an attempt to get back what he thinks was rightfully his. Katrina Kaif as Anushka Banton is an angelic girl, passionately in love with her'cello and Deven. A girl of high values, she refuses to marry Deven unless her father accepts him willingly. Mithun Chakraborty as Sikander Mirza, an attorney and a friend of Gyanesh and Danny's father.
He insists Deven on having a true brotherly relation with Gyanesh. He wants to see the three brothers live as a united family. Aanjjan Srivastav as Om Prakash'Mama ji', declared the trustee of all property transferred to an orphanage, a negative character, who keeps a Subtle approach, but all in disguise. Boman Irani as Dr. Banton, Anushka's Father who dislike her daughter's love interest Deven. Although a part of the film plays in the Czech capital Prague, the corresponding outdoor shots were filmed in the Austrian mountain province Tyrol. Scenes filmed in the province's capital Innsbruck feature many of the city's sights, such as the imperial castle, St. James's Cathedral, the main street and the ski jumping arena; the film received mixed reviews from critics. Taran Adarsh from Bollywood Hungama gave the film 3 out of 5 saying "On the whole, Yuvvraaj is interesting in parts, with the penultimate 20/25 minutes taking the film to an all-time high". Martin D'Souza of Glamsham giving it 3 from 5 stars said " In short, there's nothing new, script wise, but the way it has been backed with music and choreography is what lifts this mundane script to another level.
The execution is'perfect'". Nikhat Kazmi from Times of India rated it 3 out of 5 whil
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam