click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Yuzo Koshiro

Yuzo Koshiro is a Japanese video game musician programmer, president of the game development company Ancient. He is regarded as one of the most influential innovators in chiptune and video game music, producing music in a number of genres, including various electronic genres, symphonic, hip hop and synth-rock. Nintendo Power once stated that Koshiro was "arguably the greatest game-music composer of the 16-bit age" and that he "created some of the most memorable game music of the late'80s and early'90s." 1UP stated. He has produced some of the most influential role-playing video game scores, for titles such as Nihon Falcom's Dragon Slayer and Ys series, as well as ActRaiser and Beyond Oasis. GameAxis Unwired stated that his "progressive, techno-style compositions" for games such as The Revenge of Shinobi, Misty Blue, the Streets of Rage series were "far more advanced than what players were used to" and set a "new high watermark for what music in games could sound like." The Streets of Rage soundtracks are considered ahead of their time, featuring a "blend of swaggering house synths," "dirty" electro-funk, early trance elements.

His influence extends to the popular music industry within the electronic dance music genre. His work remains regarded within the chiptune community, has influenced artists outside of it, including electronic music artists such as Ikonika, BT, Martyn, Darkstar and Just Blaze. Koshiro's Streets of Rage soundtracks in particular have been compared to electronic dance music, have influenced electronica and dubstep producers. Outside of composing music and his sister Ayano founded the game development company Ancient in 1990. Yuzo Koshiro was born in Tokyo on December 12, 1967, his mother, Tomo Koshiro, was a pianist. She taught him how to play the piano at the age of three, by the age of five, he had a strong command of it. In 1975, he began taking music lessons from the acclaimed film composer Joe Hisaishi, studied with him for three years. Everything Koshiro has learned. While he was still in high school during the early 1980s, Koshiro began composing music on the NEC PC-8801 as a hobby, including mockups of early arcade game music from Namco and Sega.

The sequencing skills and experience he gained from this would be utilized in his early video game projects. The video games that influenced him most were The Tower of Druaga, Space Harrier, Gradius; the video game music soundtracks to these games inspired him to become a video game composer. In a 1992 interview, Koshiro said that his favorite music genres are new wave, dance music, technopop and hard rock, that his favorite Western bands are Van Halen and Soul II Soul. Koshiro's first composing job was with Nihon Falcom in 1986 at the age of 18. Falcom used compositions from the PC-8801 demo tape he had sent them in their Dragon Slayer action role-playing game Xanadu Scenario II, for its opening theme and several dungeon levels, he wrote the opening song in Romancia that same year. His compositions for these early games were influenced by arcade game music and Japanese bands such as The Alfee, he produced the soundtrack to Dragon Slayer IV / Legacy of the Wizard, influenced by the sounds of early Konami games.

His most well-known Falcom works are his soundtracks for Sorcerian and the early Ys games, Ys I and Ys II. These early music productions featured rock and fusion music; the TurboGrafx-CD versions of the first three Ys games are notable for their early use of Red Book audio in video games. Music from the Ys games were employed in the Ys anime. All of these early soundtracks were produced using the FM synthesis sound chip of the PC-8801. Despite advances in audio technology, Koshiro would continue to use older PC-8801 hardware to produce many of his video game soundtracks, including the Streets of Rage and Etrian Odyssey soundtracks, his soundtracks for early Nihon Falcom games, such as the Dragon Slayer and Ys series, are regarded as some of the most influential role-playing video game scores. Following his separation with Falcom, Koshiro became a freelancer, composing music for many other companies, his early freelance projects included the Sharp X68000 port of Bosconian, Bothtec's action role-playing game The Scheme for the PC-8801, Enix's visual novel adventure game Misty Blue for the PC-9801 in 1990.

The latter two soundtracks featured early Eurobeat music. His most notable freelance work was for Sega, where he composed music for the Shinobi series and the Streets of Rage series, as well as Quintet, where he composed the soundtracks to ActRaiser and ActRaiser 2, his first freelance work for Sega was the soundtrack to The Revenge of Shinobi, for which he produced house and "progressive, techno-style compositions" that fused electronic dance music with traditional Japanese music. His soundtrack for ActRaiser, on the other hand, was classical and orchestral. While working on ActRaiser, in order to get around the SNES's 64 KB memory limitation which limited the number of instruments that can be used and prevented the reloading of samples, Koshiro developed a sample loading system that worked with the ROM cartridge memory, swapping samples from the ROM data on the fly; this allowed him to "load parts of the music as needed, change it between stages or parts of a stage"

Bane (DC Comics)

Bane is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Dennis O'Neil, Chuck Dixon, Doug Moench, Graham Nolan, he made his debut in Batman: Vengeance of Bane #1. Bane is depicted as an adversary of the superhero Batman and belongs to the collective of enemies that make up the Batman rogues gallery. Possessing a mix of brute strength and exceptional intelligence, Bane is credited as the only villain to have "broken the bat" both physically and mentally, he is a son of another one of Batman's enemies, King Snake. IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time ranked Bane as #34. Chuck Dixon, Doug Moench and Graham Nolan created the character for the Knightfall storyline. Both Dixon and Moench wrote the character's first appearance in Vengeance of Bane, with art by Graham Nolan, they developed the concept of Bane after an initial idea by Batman editor Dennis O'Neil. O'Neil had created Bane's birthplace of Santa Prisca in The Question and the drug Venom in the storyline of the same name.

In the pages of Azrael, O'Neil introduced Bane's perception of Venom as both an addiction and the weakness responsible for his earlier defeats. Bane's origin story is established in the story "Knightfall", his father, Edmund Dorrance, had been a revolutionary. The corrupt government decreed that his young son would serve out the man's life sentence, thus Bane spent his childhood and early adult life in prison. Although he was imprisoned, his natural abilities allowed him to develop extraordinary skills within the prison's walls, he read as many books as he could get his hands on, spent most of his spare time body building in the prison's gym, developed his own form of meditation, learned to fight in the merciless school of prison life. Because of the cultural and supposed geographical location of Santa Prisca, Bane knew how to speak English, Spanish and Latin. Despite his circumstances, he found teachers of various sorts during his incarceration, ranging from hardened convicts to an elderly Jesuit priest, under whose tutelage he received a classical education.

Bane murdered this priest upon his return to Santa Prisca years later. He committed his first murder at the age of eight, stabbing a criminal who wanted to use him to gain information about the prison. During his years in prison, Bane carried a teddy bear he called Osito, whom he considered his only friend, it is revealed. Bane is tortured by a monstrous, terrifying bat creature that appears in his dreams, thus giving him an intense fear of bats, he established himself as the "king" of Peña Duro prison and became known as Bane. The prison's controllers took note and forced him to become a test subject for a mysterious drug known as Venom, which had killed all other subjects; the Peña Duro prison Venom experiment nearly killed Bane at first, but he survived and found that the drug vastly increases his physical strength, although he needs to take it every 12 hours or he will suffer debilitating side-effects. Bane escapes Peña Duro, along with several accomplices based on the Fabulous Five, his ambition turns to destroying Batman.

Gotham fascinates Bane because, like Peña Duro, fear rules Gotham – but it is the fear of Batman. Bane is convinced that Batman is a personification of the demonic bat which had haunted his dreams since childhood. Therefore, Bane believes. During the "Knightfall" storyline, wanting Batman reduced to his weakest physical and psychological state, uses stolen munitions to destroy the walls of Arkham Asylum—allowing its deranged inmates to escape into Gotham City. During this time, Bane murdered Film Freak who acted as the Mad Hatter's mind-controlled assassin and unsuccessfully interrogated Robin, spying on him, had a bloody rematch with Killer Croc which ended in a stalemate as they were washed out of the Sewer. Batman is forced to recapture the escapees, a mission that takes him three months and drives him to the brink of mental and physical collapse. Exhausted, Batman returns to his home in Wayne Manor, only to find Bane waiting for him. Bane attacks Batman and beats him nearly to death, delivers a brutal final blow in which he raises Batman up and breaks him over one knee, leaving him a paraplegic.

Bane thus becomes the only man to have "Broken the Bat". This iconic moment is incorporated in The Dark Knight Rises, Robot Chicken's DC Comics Special and alluded to numerous times in the DCAU. While Bane establishes himself as the new ruler of Gotham's criminal underworld, Bruce Wayne passed the mantle of Batman to Jean-Paul Valley known as Azrael. Ignoring Bruce's warnings to stay away from Bane, Azrael attempts to confront the villain in his penthouse suite. Azrael has by now added a set of high-tech, heavy metal gauntlets to the Batsuit, uses them to shoot sharp projectiles at Bane. However, Bane is able to get the upper hand in the fight after using Venom and taunting Azrael, making him angry enough to lose focus and, thus

Salvia pratensis

Salvia pratensis is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. The specific epithet pratensis refers to its tendency to grow in meadows, it grows in scrub edges and woodland borders. Salvia pratensis is an herbaceous perennial forming a basal clump 1 to 1.5 m tall, with rich green rugose leaves that are ruffled and toothed on the edges. The stems are clad in glandular and soft hairs; the leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, with those on the lower part of the stem up to 15 cm long, decreasing in size higher up the stem. The flower stalks are branched, with four to six flowers in each verticil forming a lax spike; the 2.5 cm flowers open from the base of the inflorescence. The small calyx is dark brown; the corolla is 20 to 30 mm long, fused with two lips and long-tubed. The upper lip arches in a crescent shape and the lower lip is three-lobed with the central lobe larger than the lateral lobes. In the wild the corolla is bluish-violet.

In cultivation, the flowers have a wide variety of colors, from rich violet and violet-blue to bluish white, from pink to pure white. There are two long stamens protected by the upper corolla lip and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp. Salvia pratensis is native to Europe, western Asia and northern Africa where it grows in meadows, fields and rough places, it has become naturalized in many parts of the United States, is considered a noxious weed in the state of Washington. At one time it was banned from California because it was thought to have naturalized in three locations. Salvia pratensis is said to be hardy from USDA Zone 3, it is grown in horticulture Salvia pratensis subsp. Haematodes, prized by flower arrangers as a cut flower; some botanists consider it a separate species, S. haematodes. Named cultivars include:-'Atroviolacea', dark blue to violet'Baumgartenii', blue to violet'Lupinoides', to 60 cm, white-flecked blue to purple'Mitsommer', sky blue'Rosea', rose-pink to purple'Rubicunda', rose-red'Tenorii', to about 60 cm tall, blue flowers'Variegata', blue and sometimes white-tipped flowers.

The cultivar'Indigo' with violet blue flowers has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The name of the plant'clary' is derived from'clear-eye' and the plant seeds were used as a paste to remove particles from the eyes and to reduce inflammation or redness, it was used as a gargle for sore throats, to clean teeth. It has been used as a flavouring for beers and wines. Media related to Salvia pratensis at Wikimedia Commons

Glass (surname)

Glass or Glaß is a surname with several sources. It can be English, Russian/Slavic, Irish or Scottish. Many with the last name Glass, are of eastern European descent, where Glass is a shortened version of their original last name, it is a Jewish surname, adopted by some Eastern European Ashkenazi in the nineteenth century. After being forced by the authorities to take on a surname, Jews in this area chose names referring to places, occupations or signifying personal traits; the name Glass referred to Glass-making and the Glass trade. It is a Scottish surname from the Gaelic word glas, meaning grey - and was used as a nickname for someone with grey hair. Alice Glass, vocalist of Crystal Castles Ari Glass, American painter H. Bentley Glass, American geneticist Butch Glass, American Negro League baseball player Caitlin Glass, American voice actress Carter Glass, American politician Charles Glass, American broadcaster Cheryl Linn Glass, American race-car driver Darren Glass, Australian rules footballer David D. Glass, Kansas City Royals owner David Glass, Canadian lawyer David Glass, English sociologist Deborah Glass, Deputy Chair of the UK's Independent Police Complaints Commission Eduard Glass, Austrian chess master Edward Glass, several people with this name Franklin Potts Glass, Sr.

American publisher Fridolin Glass, Austrian Nazi activist and SS officer Gene V. Glass, American statistician and education researcher George Glass, American film producer and publicist Gerald Glass, American former basketball player Geri Glass, American model Glen Glass, American politician Harold Glass, Australian judge and jurist Harry Glaß, German ski jumper Helen Glass, Canadian nurse and educator Henry Glass, several people with this name Henry Glaß, German ski jumper Henry Glass, Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy Henry P. Glass, Austrian-born American architect and industrial designer Hugh Glass, fur trapper and frontiersman Ira Glass, host of This American Life Jack Glass, Scottish evangelical preacher Jeff Glass, Canadian hurdler Jeff Glass, American Hockey League goaltender Jesse Glass, American writer and poet Jimmy Glass, English former football goalkeeper Joseph Glass, multiple people Julia Glass, American writer Kim Glass, American volleyball player Louis Glass, Danish composer Max Glass, Austrian film producer Ned Glass, Polish-born American character actor Pat Glass, British politician Philip Glass, minimalist composer Presley T. Glass, American politician Richard Atwood Glass, English cable manufacturer and politician Ron Glass, American actor Shaun Glass, guitarist for the band SOiL Solomon Glass, philatelist of Baltimore, Maryland Stephen Glass, disgraced journalist Stephen Glass, Scottish footballer Tanner Glass, Pittsburgh Penguins center Todd Glass, American stand-up comedian Walter Glaß, German skier Glass family, a fictional family featured in a number of J. D. Salinger's short stories

Civil marriage

A civil marriage is a marriage performed and recognised by a government official. Such a marriage may be performed by a religious body and recognised by the state, or it may be secular; every country maintaining a population registry of its residents keeps track of marital status, all UN Member countries except Iran, South Sudan and Tonga have signed or ratified either the United Nations Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, Registration of Marriages or the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women which carry a responsibility to register marriages. Most countries define the conditions of civil marriage separately from religious requirements. Certain countries, such as Israel, allow couples to register only on the condition that they have first been married in a religious ceremony recognised by the state, or were married in a different country. In medieval Europe, marriage was governed by canon law, which recognised as valid only those marriages where the parties stated they took one another as husband and wife, regardless of the presence or absence of witnesses.

It was not necessary, however, to be married by any cleric. This institution was cancelled in England with the enactment of "Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act" of 1753, which required that, in order to be valid and registered, all marriages were to be performed in an official ceremony in a religious setting recognised by the state, i.e. Church of England, the Quakers, or in a Jewish ceremony. Any other form of marriage was abolished. Children born into unions which were not valid under the Act would not automatically inherit the property or titles of their parents. For historical reasons, the Act did not apply in Scotland; until 1940, it continued to be enough in Scotland for a man and a woman to pledge their commitment to each other in front of witnesses to legalise their marriage. This led to an industry of "fast marriages" in Scottish towns on the border with England. In 1836, the requirement that the ceremony take place in a religious forum was removed, registrars were given the authority to register marriages not conducted by a religious official.

Many European countries had institutions similar to common-law marriage. In 1566, the edict of the Council of Trent was proclaimed denying Catholics any form of marriage not executed in a religious ceremony before a priest and two witnesses; the Protestant pastor and theologian of Geneva, John Calvin, decreed that in order for a couple to be considered married they must be registered by the state in addition to a church ceremony. In 1792, with the French Revolution, religious marriage ceremonies in France were made secondary to civil marriage. Religious ceremonies could still be performed, but only for couples, married in a civil ceremony. Napoleon spread this custom throughout most of Europe. In present-day France, only civil marriage has legal validity. A religious ceremony may be performed after or before the civil union. In Germany, the Napoleonic code was valid only in territories conquered by Napoleon. With the fall of his empire, civil marriage in Germany began to die out. However, certain sovereign German states introduced civil marriages, which were either obligatory or optional, with either a religious or civil ceremony being accepted.

Before 1848 the Grand-Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach enacted optional civil marriages, followed by the German republics of the Free City of Frankfurt upon Main and Hanseatic City of Hamburg and Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck. German Grand-Duchies such as Oldenburg and Hesse as well as the Kingdom of Württemberg followed suit. Civil marriages enabled interfaith marriages as well as marriages between spouses of different Christian denominations. After the unification of Germany in 1871, the Reichstag adopted a bill initiated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as the "Civil Marriage Law" in 1875. Religious ceremonies may still be performed at the couple's discretion; until Dec. 31, 2008, religious marriages could not be performed until the couple had first married in a civil ceremony. Today marriages in England or Wales must be held in authorised premises, which may include register offices, premises such as stately homes and hotels that have been approved by the local authority, churches or chapels of the Church of England or Church in Wales, other churches and religious premises that have been registered by the registrar general for marriage.

Civil marriages require a certificate, at times a licence, that testify that the couple is fit for marriage. A short time after they are approved in the superintendent registrar's office, a short non-religious ceremony takes place which the registrar, the couple and two witnesses must attend. Reference must not be made to God or any deity, or to a particular religion or denomination: this is enforced, readings and music in the ceremony must be agreed in advance. Marriage in the United States is still regulated by state laws. All states require a marriage license issued by local civil authorities; as a rule, ministers of religion are authorized in law to perform marriages.

Josiah Partridge

Josiah Partridge was a lawyer in the early days of the British Colony of South Australia. Partridge emigrated to South Australia aboard Rajasthan, an unaccompanied widower, arriving in November 1838 and settled on what became Partridge Street, Glenelg. Partridge was one of the first seven lawyers to be registered in South Australia, he practised in Adelaide as a solicitor in partnership with James George Nash, had a reputation for honest dealing. He was involved in conveyancing until the Torrens Act reduced the amount of litigation involved in such transactions, he suffered a back injury from falling off his horse while commuting between Glenelg and Adelaide, for many years he could not sit up, around 1856 sold his business to Herford & Boucaut, the latter at the onset of an illustrious career that would see him Judge of the Supreme Court and Premier of the Colony. A few years he retired to "Malvern", a country property near Clarendon, where he remained, he recovered his health to some extent, took daily horseback rides until his final illness.

He became deaf. Partridge married the eldest daughter of the South Australian Company, they both died at "Malvern" a few years before him. Josiah Partridge was a son of his wife Mary née Stroud, he married Fanny Huckvale who died sometime before he embarked on Rajasthan for South Australia in July 1838. He married Mary Giles in Adelaide on 25 June 1840, she was a daughter of William Giles, who arrived in SA in 1838. Their children included: John William Partridge was one of the first two students at Adelaide Educational Institution, he married Georgina Ann Little Needham on 1 September 1864. She was a daughter of John's Classics master, they moved to New South Wales, she died in Chatswood, NSW Edith Sarah Partridge married John Balfour Anderson on 22 June 1872. He was manager, Bank of Australasia, New Zealand. Henry Partridge married Mary Strawbridge on 19 December 1874. An AEI scholar, Henry became a Parkin missionary on Kangaroo Island. Mary Partridge Josiah Stroud Partridge married Julia Jaffrey on 31 August 1880.

He had fellmonger business at Saltia, South Australia, insolvent 1884, discovered coal reserves nearby had an orchard. He died at Port Augusta after being thrown from his buggy. Thomas Partridge married Eva Crawford on 20 December 1893, he was with his brother Josiah at Saltia. J Roper Partridge Ellen Isabella Partridge Fanny Huckvale Partridge Several members of the family were interred at the Happy Valley cemetery