Sanofi S. A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales. The company was formed as Sanofi-Aventis in 2004 by the merger of Aventis and Sanofi-Synthélabo, which were each the product of several previous mergers, it changed its name to Sanofi in May 2011. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Sanofi engages in the research and development and marketing of pharmaceutical drugs principally in the prescription market, but the firm develops over-the-counter medication; the company covers seven major therapeutic areas: cardiovascular, central nervous system, internal medicine, oncology and vaccines. In February 2019, Sanofi appointed Dr. Ameet Nathwani as its Chief Digital Officer. Sanofi was founded in 1973 as a subsidiary of Elf Aquitaine, when Elf Aquitaine took control of the Labaz group, a pharmaceutical company formed in 1947 by Societe Belge de l'Azote et des Produits Chimiques du Marly.
In 1993 Sanofi made a move into the Eastern Europe market by acquiring a controlling interest in Chinoin, a Hungarian drug company that had about US$104 million in sales in 1992. In that same year, Sanofi's made its first significant venture into the U. S. and strengthened its presence in Eastern Europe, by first partnering with Sterling Winthrop and acquiring the prescription pharmaceuticals business in 1994. Sanofi was incorporated under the laws of France in 1994 as a société anonyme, a form of limited liability company. Synthélabo was founded in 1970 through the merger of two French pharmaceutical laboratories, Laboratoires Dausse and Laboratoires Robert & Carrière. In 1973, the French cosmetics group L’Oréal acquired the majority of its share capital. In 1991, Synthelabo acquired Laboratories Delalande and Laboratoires Delagrange, through this deal picked up the product metoclopramide. Sanofi-Synthélabo was formed in 1999; the merged company was based in France. The merged companies focused on pharmaceuticals, divesting several businesses soon after the merger, including beauty, animal health and nutrition, custom chemicals, two medical equipment businesses.
Aventis was formed in 1999 when French company Rhône-Poulenc S. A. merged with the German corporation Hoechst Marion Roussel, which itself was formed from the 1995 merger of Hoechst AG with Cassella, Roussel Uclaf and Marion Merrell Dow. The merged company was based near Strasbourg, France. At the time of the merger, Rhône-Poulenc's business included the pharmaceutical businesses Rorer and Pasteur Merieux, the plant and animal health businesses Rhône-Poulenc Agro, Rhône-Poulenc Animal Nutrition, Merial, a 67 percent share in Rhodia, a speciality chemicals company. Hoechst, one of the companies resulting from the post-WWII split of IG Farben, had seven primary businesses: Hoechst Marion Roussel, AgrEvo, HR Vet, Dade Behring, Centeon and Messer. Merieux has been in the business of selling blood products, In the 1980s during the AIDS epidemic and other companies were involved in scandals related to HIV-contaminated haemophilia blood products that were sold to developing nations. In mid 2000 Aventis and Millennium Pharmaceuticals, a US biotechnology company formed to discover new drugs based on the then-new science of genomics, announced that Aventis would make a $250M investment in Millennium and would pay $200M to Millennium in research fees over five years, one of the largest such deals between a big pharmaceutical company and a biotech company at the time.
In late 2000, in the midst of the recall of Starlink, its genetically modified maize product, Aventis announced that it had determined to sell off Aventis Cropscience, the seed and pesticide business unit it had created from the agriculture businesses of its predecessors. In October 2001, Bayer and Aventis announced that Bayer would acquire the unit for about $6.6 billion, with the unit becoming Bayer CropScience and making Bayer the world's second-largest agrochemical company behind Syngenta. In 2003 Aventis entered into a collaboration with Regeneron, a New York biotechnology company, to develop Regeneron's VEGF-inhibiting drug, aflibercept, in the field of cancer, in Phase I clinical trials. Aventis made an upfront payment of $80 million in cash. Regeneron partnered the drug with Bayer Healthcare in the field of proliferative eye diseases, under the name Eylea it was approved by the FDA in 2011. Sanofi-Aventis was formed in 2004. In early 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo made. Aventis rejected the bid because it felt that the bid offered inferior value based on the company's share value, the board of Aventis went so far as to enact poison pill provisions and to invite Novartis to enter merger negotiations.
The three-month takeover battle concluded when Sanofi-Synthélabo launched a friendly bid of €54.5 billion in place of
L'Oréal S. A. is a French personal care company headquartered in Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine with a registered office in Paris. It is the world's largest cosmetics company and has developed activities in the field concentrating on hair colour, skin care, sun protection, make-up, hair care. Upon the death of her mother, principal shareholder Liliane Bettencourt, Françoise Bettencourt Meyers is the current owner of the company, with a 33.14% stake in its existence. In 1909, Eugène Paul Louis Schueller, a young French chemist of German descent, developed a hair dye formula called Oréale. Schueller formulated and manufactured his own products, which he decided to sell to Parisian hairdressers. On 31 July 1919, Schueller registered his company, the Société Française de Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux; the guiding principles of the company, which became L'Oréal, were research and innovation in the field of beauty. In 1920, the company employed three chemists. By 1950, the team was 100 strong. Schueller held meetings for La Cagoule at L'Oréal headquarters.
La Cagoule was a violent French fascist-leaning and anti-communist group whose leader formed a political party Mouvement Social Révolutionnaire which in Occupied France supported the Vichy collaboration with the Germans. L'Oréal hired several members of the group as executives after World War II, such as Jacques Corrèze, who served as CEO of the United States operation; this involvement was extensively researched by Michael Bar-Zohar in Bitter Scent. L'Oréal got its start in the hair-colour business, but the company soon branched out into other cleansing and beauty products. L'Oréal markets over 500 brands and thousands of individual products in all sectors of the beauty business: hair colour, hair styling and skin care, cleansers and fragrance; the company's products are found in a wide variety of distribution channels, from hair salons and perfumeries to hyper - and supermarkets, health/beauty outlets and direct mail. L'Oréal has six worldwide development centres: two in France: Aulnay and Chevilly.
S.: Clark, New Jersey. A future facility in the US will be in New Jersey. From 1988 to 1989, L'Oréal controlled the film company Paravision, whose properties included the Filmation and De Laurentiis libraries. StudioCanal acquired the Paravision properties in 1994. L'Oréal purchased Synthélabo in 1973 to pursue its ambitions in the pharmaceutical field. Synthélabo merged with Sanofi in 1999 to become Sanofi-Synthélabo. Sanofi-Synthélabo merged with Aventis in 2004 to become Sanofi-Aventis. On 17 March 2006, L'Oréal purchased cosmetics company The Body Shop for £562 million. L'Oréal's advertising slogan is "Because I'm worth it". In the mid 2000s, this was replaced by "Because you're worth it". In late 2009, the slogan was changed again to "Because we're worth it" following motivation analysis and work into consumer psychology of Dr. Maxim Titorenko; the shift to "we" was made to create stronger consumer involvement in L'Oréal philosophy and lifestyle and provide more consumer satisfaction with L'Oréal products.
L'Oréal owns a Hair and Body products line for kids called L'Oréal Kids, the slogan for, "Because we're worth it too". In 1987, during the growth years of the mail order business, L'Oréal and 3 Suisses founded Le Club des Créateurs de Beauté for mail-order sales of cosmetic products, with brands including Agnès b. Cosmence and Professeur Christine Poelman among others. In March 2008, L'Oréal acquired 3 Suisse's stake. In November 2013, L'Oréal announced that Le Club des Créateurs de Beauté would cease activity in the first half of 2014. In November 2012, L'Oréal inaugurated the largest factory in the Jababeka Industrial Park, Indonesia, with a total investment of US$100 million; the production will be absorbed 25 percent by domestic market and the rest will be exported. In 2010, significant growth occurred at Indonesia with 61 percent increase of unit sales or 28 percent of net sales. In January 2014, L'Oréal finalised the acquisition of major Chinese beauty brand Magic Holdings for $840 million.
On 11 February 2014 it was announced that L'Oreal had sealed a deal worth €3.4bn to buy back 8% of its shares from Swiss consumer goods giant Nestle. As a result of the deal, Nestle's stake in L'Oreal will be reduced from 29.4pc to 23.29pc while the Bettencourt Meyers family's stake will increase from 30.6pc to 33.2pc. Nestle has owned a stake in L'Oreal since 1974 when it bought into the company at the request of Liliane Bettencourt, the daughter of the founder of L'Oreal and world's richest woman, trying to prevent the French state's intervention in the company. On 20 February 2014, Shiseido agreed to sell its Carita and Decléor brands to L'Oréal for €227.5 million. On 18 June 2014, L'Oréal agreed to acquire NYX Cosmetics for an undisclosed price, bolstering its makeup offer in North America where its consumer-products unit has faltered. In September 2014, L'Oréal announced it had agreed to purchase Brazilian hair care company Niely Cosmeticos Group for an undisclosed amount. In October 2014, L'Oréal acquired multi-cultural brand Carol's Daughter.
In May 2018, L'Oréal announce a brand-new fragrance partnership with Valentino. In 2015, Soo Joo Park became L'Oréal's first Asian-American global spokesmodel. In 2015, Kristina Bazan became L'Oreal's first international e-spokesperson. In July 2016, L'Oréal announced it had agreed to acquire IT Cosmetics for $1
Kering S. A. is an international luxury group based in France. It owns luxury goods brands, including Gucci, Yves Saint Laurent, Alexander McQueen, Bottega Veneta, Boucheron and Pomellato; the company was founded in 1963. It was known as Pinault S. A. until 1994, as Pinault-Printemps-Redoute from 1994 to 2005, as PPR from 2005 to 2013, as Kering since 2013. It has been quoted on Euronext Paris since 1988 and has been a constituent of the CAC 40 index since 1995; the company has been headed by François-Henri Pinault since 2005. In 1963, with a loan from his family and a bank, François Pinault opened the Établissements Pinault in Brittany and specialized in timber trading; the company grew organically and through successful acquisitions. In 1988, Pinault S. A. was listed on the Paris Stock Exchange. In 1989, it purchased 20 % of a French distribution conglomerate active throughout Africa. In 1990, Pinault S. A. and CFAO merged, François Pinault became head of the newly formed group. This accelerated its acquisitions in the retail sector: Conforama in 1991, Printemps in 1992, which owned 54% of La Redoute, Fnac in 1994.
To align the group’s identity with its new activities, it was renamed Pinault-Printemps-Redoute in 1994. In 1999, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute purchased a controlling 42% stake of the Gucci group for $3 billion. Through the Gucci deal, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute acquired the brand Yves Saint Laurent, it confirmed this new strategy with its following acquisitions, which included the French high-jewelry house Boucheron, the Italian leather goods maker Bottega Veneta, the fashion house Balenciaga. In 2001, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute signed strategic partnerships with ex-Givenchy fashion designer Alexander McQueen and with Stella McCartney. With a new strategy for the group, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute offloaded its assets in the retail sector one after the other: Pinault Bois et Matériaux, upon which the whole group developed and grew, was acquired in 2003 by the British group Wolseley. In 2003, François Pinault handed over the helm of Artémis, the family holding company that controlled Pinault-Printemps-Redoute and other assets, to his son François-Henri.
In 2004, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute acquired all of the remaining shares of the Gucci group to reach a 99.4% ownership of the Italian luxury company. In 2005, François-Henri Pinault chose a hands-on approach to managing Pinault-Printemps-Redoute and decided to take over the position of CEO; the group changed its name to PPR. The divestment of the group’s retail assets continued: Le Printemps, Conforama, CFAO and Fnac, La Redoute. In the meantime, PPR acquired the Sowind Group and the Italian bespoke tailor Brioni, the Italian group Pomellato, the Chinese jeweler Qeelin, the fashion designer Christopher Kane, luxury watch manufacturer Ulysse Nardin. PPR developed a Sport & Lifestyle portfolio with the acquisition of Puma in 2007, Cobra Golf in 2010, Volcom in 2011. On March 22, 2013, PPR changed its name to Kering in order to achieve the group’s shift towards luxury goods. Pronounced, to sound like the English word "caring", the new name is a reference to the Pinault family’s region of origin, where kêr means "home".
The new logo has an owl as its emblem, a bird that can rotate its head 270 degrees, giving it extraordinary vision, François Pinault’s favorite animal. In December 2014, Alessandro Michele, an unknown accessories designer, was named creative director of Gucci, revitalized the brand’s creativity, fashion relevance, profitability. From 2014 to 2017, Gucci's sales doubled from 3,497.2 million euros to 6,211.2 million euros. In 2015, following Hedi Slimane’s four-year success at the creative helm of Yves Saint Laurent, Kering named a new creative director, Anthony Vaccarello, to pursue the evolution of the brand while maintaining its growth pace. In October 2015, Kering named Georgian-born designer Demna Gvasalia as creative director of Balenciaga. In 2013, the group launched Kering Eyewear. In March 2017, Richemont acquired 30% of Kering Eyewear and allowed Kering to acquire Cartier's eyewear plant in Sucy-en-Brie. In March 2018, Kering announced it has agreed to sell its shares of Stella McCartney to its eponymous owner.
In April 2018, Kering announced its intention to sell the sportswear company Volcom. In May 2018, Kering offloaded its shares of Puma, retaining a minor 15.7%, thus becoming a pure player in luxury. In November 2018, the group announced the end of its collaboration with Yoox to open its proprietary ecommerce platform by 2020, launched a partnership with Apple to create new instore mobile applications for the luxury sector; the group announced its intention to branch into high-end jewelry by mid-2019. In April 2019, Kering sold Volcom to the Authentic Brands Group and opened the Torre Kering, its new Italian offices in a 11,000 m² building in Milan. In April 2012, Kering committed to a 4-year plan aiming to reducing its impact on the environment; the group defined a set of quantifiable targets covering both environmental and social issues, developed the Environmental Profit & Loss account to measure its progress. After publishing its 2016 sustainability report, Kering announced its new sustainability program, targeting a 40% reduction of its global environmental impact by 2025, a
Catherine Fabienne Dorléac, known professionally as Catherine Deneuve, is a French actress as well as an occasional singer and producer. She gained recognition for her portrayal of icy and mysterious beauties for various directors, including Luis Buñuel, François Truffaut and Roman Polanski. In 1985, she succeeded Mireille Mathieu as the official face of Marianne, France's national symbol of liberty. A 14-time César Award nominee, she won for her performances in Truffaut's The Last Metro, for which she won the David di Donatello for Best Foreign Actress, Régis Wargnier's Indochine, she is noted for her support for a variety of liberal causes and sometimes controversial statements. Deneuve made her film debut in 1957 and first came to prominence in Jacques Demy's 1964 musical The Umbrellas of Cherbourg, before going on to star for Polanski in Repulsion and for Buñuel in Belle de Jour and Tristana, she was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress for Belle de Jour, the Academy Award for Best Actress for Indochine.
She won the 1998 Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival for Place Vendôme. Her English-language films include The April Fools, The Hunger and Dancer in the Dark. Deneuve was born Catherine Fabienne Dorléac in Paris, the daughter of French stage actors Maurice Dorléac and Renée Simonot. Deneuve has two sisters, Françoise Dorléac and Sylvie Dorléac, as well as a maternal half-sister, whom their mother had out of wedlock in 1937 with Aimé Clariond, but, adopted by Maurice and took his surname. Deneuve was her mother's maiden name, which she chose for her stage name, in order to differentiate herself from her sisters. Deneuve attended Catholic schools. Deneuve made her film debut with a small role in André Hunebelle's Les Collégiennes with her younger sister Sylvie Dorléac who, like their older half-sister Danielle, was an occasional child actress, she subsequently appeared in several films for director Roger Vadim as well as in L'Homme à femmes, which caught the eye of Jacques Demy, who cast Deneuve in his 1964 musical Les Parapluies de Cherbourg, the film that brought her to stardom.
Deneuve played the cold but erotic persona, for which she would be nicknamed the "ice maiden", in Roman Polanski's horror classic Repulsion, reinforcing it in Luis Buñuel's Belle de Jour, reaching a peak in Tristana. Her work for Buñuel would be her most famous. Further prominent films from this early time in her career included Jean-Paul Rappeneau's A Matter of Resistance, Demy's musical Les Demoiselles de Rochefort and François Truffaut's romantic thriller Mississippi Mermaid. Deneuve remained active in European films during the 1960s and 1970s, though she limited her appearances in American films of the period to The April Fools, a romantic comedy with Jack Lemmon, Hustle, a crime drama with Burt Reynolds, her starring roles at the time were featured in such films as A Slightly Pregnant Man with Marcello Mastroianni and Le Sauvage with Yves Montand. In the 1980s, Deneuve's films included François Truffaut's Le Dernier métro, for which she won the César Award for Best Actress, Tony Scott's The Hunger as a bisexual vampire, co-starring with David Bowie and Susan Sarandon, a role which brought her a significant lesbian and cult following among the gothic subculture.
She made her debut film as a producer in 1988, Drôle d'endroit pour une rencontre, alongside frequent co-star Gerard Depardieu. In the early 1990s, Deneuve's more significant roles included 1992's Indochine opposite Vincent Perez, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress and won a second César Award for Best Actress. In 1997, Deneuve was the protagonist in the music video for the song N'Oubliez Jamais sung by Joe Cocker. In 1998 she won acclaim and the Volpi Cup at the Venice Film Festival for her performance in Place Vendôme. In the late 1990s, Deneuve continued to appear in a large number of films such as 1999's five films Est-Ouest, Le temps retrouvé, Pola X, Belle maman, Le Vent de la nuit. In 2000, Deneuve's part in Lars von Trier's musical drama Dancer in the Dark alongside Icelandic singer Björk was subject to considerable critical scrutiny; the film was selected for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. She made another foray into Hollywood the following year.
In 2002, she shared the Silver Bear Award for Best Ensemble Cast at the Berlin International Film Festival for her performance in 8 Women. In 2005, Deneuve published her diary A l'ombre de moi-meme, she provided the voice role of Marjane Satrapi's mother in Satrapi's animated autobiographical film Persepolis, based on the graphic novel of the same name. In 2008, she appeared in Un conte de Noël. Deneuve's recent work includes Potiche with frequent co-star Depardieu, Les Bien-aimés, alongside former co-stars Ludivine Sagnier and Chiara Mastroianni, the popular French adventure comedy Asterix and Obelix: God Save Britannia with Gerard Depardieu and Valérie Lemercier and director Emmanuelle Bercot's On My Way, Palme D'or winning writer/director Pierre Salvadori's comedy drama In the Courtyard, André Téchiné's drama In the Name of My Daughter. In 2017, she co-starred alongside Catherin
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Madison Avenue is a north-south avenue in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States, that carries northbound one-way traffic. It runs from Madison Square to meet the southbound Harlem River Drive at 142nd Street. In doing so, it passes through Midtown, the Upper East Side, East Harlem, Harlem, it is named after and arises from Madison Square, itself named after James Madison, the fourth President of the United States. Madison Avenue was not part of the original Manhattan street grid established in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, was carved between Park Avenue and Fifth Avenue in 1836, due to the effort of lawyer and real estate developer Samuel B. Ruggles who had purchased and developed New York's Gramercy Park in 1831, in part responsible for the development of Union Square, who named Lexington Avenue. Since the 1920s, the street's name has been metonymous with the American advertising industry. Therefore, the term "Madison Avenue" refers to the agencies and methodology of advertising.
"Madison Avenue techniques" refers, according to William Safire, to the "gimmicky, slick use of the communications media to play on emotions." Madison Avenue carries one-way traffic uptown from East 23rd Street to East 135th Street, with the changeover from two-way traffic taking place on January 14, 1966, at which time Fifth Avenue was changed to one way downtown. Between East 135th Street and East 142nd Street, Madison Avenue carries southbound traffic only, runs parallel to the Harlem River Drive; the term "Madison Avenue" is used metonymically for advertising, Madison Avenue became identified with the American advertising industry after the explosive growth in this area in the 1920s. According to "The Emergence of Advertising in America", by the year 1861, there were twenty advertising agencies in New York City. Among various depictions in popular culture, the portion of the advertising industry which centers on Madison Avenue serves as a backdrop for the AMC television drama Mad Men, which focuses on industry activities during the 1960s.
In recent decades, many agencies have left Madison Avenue, with some moving further downtown and others moving west. The continued presence of large agencies in the city makes New York the third largest job market per capita in the U. S. in 2016 according to a study by marketing recruitment firm MarketPro. Today, several agencies are still located in the old business cluster on Madison Avenue, including StrawberryFrog, TBWA Worldwide, Inc. and DDB Worldwide. However, the term is still used to describe the agency business as a whole and large, New York–based agencies in particular. Madison Square is formed by the intersection of Fifth Broadway at 23rd Street; the square was named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States. The focus of the square is Madison Square Park, a 6.2-acre public park, bounded on the east by Madison Avenue, which starts at the park's southeast corner at 23rd Street. Madison Square Garden takes its name from the location of the first building of that name, which in turn takes its name from its location on the northeast corner of Madison Square at 26th Street and Madison Avenue.
The first Garden was a former rail station, converted into an open-air circus venue by P. T. Barnum in 1871 and was renamed "Madison Square Garden" in 1879; the original Garden was demolished in 1889 and replaced by a new indoor arena designed by Stanford White that opened the following year. The second Garden had a bronze statue of the Roman goddess Diana on the tower of the sports arena; when it moved to a new building at 50th Street and Eighth Avenue in 1925 it kept its old name. Madison Square Garden is now located at Eighth Avenue between 33rd Street. Retail brands with locations on Madison Avenue include: Alexander McQueen, Hermès, Tom Ford, Céline, Proenza Schouler, Valentino, Stuart Weitzman, Emporio Armani, Chloé, Roberto Cavalli, Dolce & Gabbana, Calvin Klein, Christian Louboutin, La Perla, Jimmy Choo, Mulberry, Victoria's Secret, Barneys New York, Emanuel Ungaro, Giorgio Armani, Oliver Peoples, Vera Wang, Anne Fontaine, Carolina Herrera, Ralph Lauren and others. Madison Avenue is served by M2, M3, M4 and Q32 local New York City Transit buses.
These buses use a double exclusive bus lane between 42nd and 59th Streets, which comprise the only exclusive bus lane along the avenue. Although no New York City Subway stations are named after Madison Avenue, the Fifth Avenue/53rd Street station on the E and M trains has an entrance on Madison Avenue. Pursuant to Section 4-12 of the New York City Traffic Rules, driving a vehicle other than a bus in the bus lane on Madison Avenue to turn right during the restricted hours specified by sign between 42nd Street and 59th Street is prohibited permitted at 60th Street, but a taxicab carrying a passenger may use the bus lane to turn right at 46th Street. Bikes are excluded from this prohibition. In July 1987 New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning