Art Gallery of Ontario
The Art Gallery of Ontario is an art museum in Toronto, Canada. Its collection includes close to 95,000 works spanning the first century to the present day; the gallery has 45,000 square metres of physical space, making it one of the largest galleries in North America. Significant collections include the largest collection of Canadian art, an expansive body of works from the Renaissance and the Baroque eras, European art and Oceanic art, a modern and contemporary collection; the photography collection is a large part of the collection, as well as an extensive drawing and prints collection. The museum contains many significant sculptures, such as in the Henry Moore sculpture centre, represents other forms of art like historic objects, frames and medieval illuminations and video art, graphic art, installations and ship models. During the AGO's history, it has hosted and organized some of the world's most renowned and significant exhibitions, continues to do so, to this day; the Art Gallery was founded in 1900 as the Art Museum of Toronto.
The Gallery was renamed to the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919, the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1966. Since 1974, the gallery has seen four major expansions and renovations considered a high number and unseen by most galleries of the world, continues to add spaces; the renovated and renamed J. S. McLean Centre for Indigenous & Canadian Art opened in July 2018. Prior recent renovations by Hariri Pontarini Architects include the Weston Family Learning Centre, which opened in October 2011 and the South Entrance and lounge outside the library, which opened in July 2017; the David Milne Research Centre, which opened in April 2012, was designed by KPMB Architects. Earlier major renovations were designed by noted architects John C. Parkin, Barton Myers and KPMB Architects, Frank Gehry. In addition to display galleries, the structure houses an extensive library, student spaces, gallery workshop space, artist-in-residence, a restaurant, café, espresso bar, research centre and lecture hall, Gehry-designed gift shop, an event space called Baillie Court, which occupies the entirety of the third floor of the contemporary tower.
The gallery is located in the Downtown Grange Park district, on Dundas Street West between McCaul and Beverley Streets, between Chinatown and Little Japan. The Art Gallery of Ontario is the second most visited museum in Toronto after the Royal Ontario Museum in 2014; the museum was founded in 1900 by a group of private citizens, members of the Ontario Society of Artists, who incorporated the institution as the Art Museum of Toronto. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario subsequently enacted An Act respecting the Art Museum of Toronto in 1903; the museum was renamed the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919, subsequently the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1966. The current location of the AGO dates to 1909, when Harriet Boulton Smith bequeathed her historic 1817 Georgian manor, the Grange, to the gallery upon her death. In 1911, the museum leased lands to the south of the manor to the City of Toronto in perpetuity so as to create Grange Park. In 1920, the museum allowed the Ontario College of Art to construct a building on the grounds.
The museum's first formal exhibitions opened in the Grange in 1913. In 1916, the museum drafted plans to construct a small portion of a new gallery building. Designed by Darling and Pearson in the Beaux-Arts style, excavation of the new facility began in 1916, the first galleries opened in 1918. Expansion throughout the 20th century added various galleries, culminating in 1993, which left the AGO with, the 100,00-square feet of new space and 190,000-square feet of renovations—usable space was increased by 30 per cent, including 30 new and 20 renovated galleries; the AGO was and continues to be a major supporter of local arts, which have included shows for the Group of Seven, Betty Goodwin, David Milne, Shary Boyle. The AGO's First Founders include: George A. Cox, Lady Eaton, Sir Joseph W. Flavelle, J. W. L. Forster, E. F. B. Johnston, Sir William Mackenzie, Hart A. Massey, Prof. James Mavor, F. Nicholls, Sir Edmund Osler, Sir Henry M. Pellatt, George Agnew Reid, Sir Byron Edmund Walker, Mrs. H. D.
Warren, E. R. Wood, Frank P. Wood. Under the direction of its CEO Matthew Teitelbaum, the AGO embarked on a $254 million redevelopment plan by architect Frank Gehry in 2004, called Transformation AGO; the new addition would require demolition of the 1992 Post-Modernist wing by Barton Myers and Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects. Although Gehry was born in Toronto, as a child had lived in the same neighbourhood as the AGO, the expansion of the gallery represented his first work in Canada. Gehry was commissioned to revitalize the AGO, not to design a new building. Kenneth Thomson was a major benefactor of Transformation AGO, donating much of his art collection to the gallery, in addition to providing $50 million towards the renovation, as well as a $20 million endowment. Thomson died in 2006; the project drew some criticism. As an expansion, rather than a new creation, concerns were raised that the new AGO would not look like a Gehry signature building, that the opportunity to build an new gallery on Toronto's waterfront, was being squandered.
During the course of the redevelopment planning, board member and patron J
The Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen is the art collection of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, in Düsseldorf. United by this institution are three different exhibition venues: the K20 at Grabbeplatz, the K21 in the Ständehaus, the Schmela Haus; the Kunstsammlung was founded in 1961 by the state government of North Rhine-Westphalia as a foundation under private law for the purpose of displaying the art collection and expanding it through new acquisitions. During its 50-year history, the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen has earned an international reputation as a museum for the art of the 20th century. For some time now, the chronological spectrum of the collection—which was initiated through the purchase of works by Paul Klee—has extended up to the immediate present; the building at Grabbeplatz, with its characteristic black granite façade, was inaugurated in 1986. An extension building was completed in 2010. With major works by Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Piet Mondrian, among others, as well as a wide-ranging ensemble of circa 100 drawings and paintings by Paul Klee, the permanent collection of the Kunstsammlung offers a singular perspective of classical modernism.
The collection of postwar American art includes works by Jackson Pollock and Frank Stella and by pop artists Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Andy Warhol. Opened in spring of 2002 as an additional venue of the Kunstsammlung was the Ständehaus set alongside the Kaiserteich, a building which served as the seat of the Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia. Among the highlights on view there are a number of artist's rooms and large-scale installations, a special focus of this portion of the collection; the Schmela Haus, in Düsseldorf's historic district, joined the Kunstsammlung in 2009 as a "rehearsal stage" and lecture venue. When it first opened in 1971, this protected landmark by Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck was home to the Galerie Alfred Schmela and was the first building to be erected in the Federal Republic of Germany expressly as an art gallery. Since spring of 2011, the Schmela Haus is used again for exhibitions; as an institution with three locations, the Kunstsammlung has more than 10,000 m2 of exhibition surface at its disposal.
With its accompanying programs and special projects, the Education Department strives to make the works held in the Regional Collection accessible to visitors of all ages. Available for this purpose are a number of studios, a media workshop, a "laboratory", integrated into the exhibition galleries; the history of the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen begins in 1960 with the purchase of 88 works by Paul Klee from the collection of Pittsburgh steel manufacturer G. David Thompson; the purchase—brokered by Basel art dealer Ernst Beyeler and overseen by state premiere Franz Meyer—forms the nucleus of the collection, founded in 1961 under the title "Stiftung Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen". Between 1962 and his retirement in 1990, Werner Schmalenbach served as the first director of the newly founded collection, he assembled an extraordinarily high-quality collection of classical modernist artworks, thereby creating the only regional collection in Germany specializing in modern art. To begin with, the collection was housed in Jägerhof Palace.
Soon after it opened, space limitations prompted plans for a new building. Announced in 1975 was a competition for its design; the building – which resides within architectural history at the transition from postwar modernism to postmodernism – was inaugurated on 14 March 1986 in the presence of the German President Richard von Weizsäcker, has served since as an emblem of the city. With its curved façade of polished, natural black stone, the building gives Grabbeplatz its special character, it sits on the square directly across from the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, whose building serves as the headquarters of the Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen. In 1990, Schmalenbach was succeeded as Director by Armin Zweite head of the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus in Munich. While Schmalenbach had expanded the museum's holdings for the most part through the addition of masterworks of painting, it was contemporary sculptures and photographs of international rank which entered the collection beginning in 1990 through the efforts of his successor.
On 1 September 2009, Marion Ackermann – former director of the Kunstmuseum Stuttgart – assumed artistic directorship of the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen. She has taken a dynamic approach to the collection, seeks to relate contemporary art and classic modern to one another more closely. Together with Hagen Lippe-Weißenfeld, who joined the team on 1 November 2008 as Director of Finance and Business Affairs, Ackermann serves on the Chairmanship of the Foundation. On 12 November 2009, the Kunstsammlung inaugurated the former home of the Galerie Schmela, located at Mutter-Ey-Straße 3 in Düsseldorf-Altstadt, as a venue for exhibitions and other activities. After remaining closed for more than two years during comprehensive renovations and the erection of an extension building, the K20 at Grabbeplatz resumed operations as an exhibition venue in July 2010. Available now for the collection and for temporary exhibitions is a generous surface area; the first artists to exhibit there were Belgian illustrator Kris Martin and German sculptor Michael Sailstorfer, who created accessible installations for the two galleries of the new building, namely the Klee Halle and the Konrad und Gabri
Douarnenez, is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. It is located at the mouth of the Pouldavid River, an estuary on the southern shore of Douarnenez Bay in the Atlantic Ocean, 25 kilometres north-west of Quimper; the population in 2008 was 15,066. It has declined since the mid-20th century because of jobs lost from declines in the fishing industry, but it still has fish canning facilities although sardine fishing, for which the town became famous, has fallen off in recent years. Douarnenez has a growing tourist industry, with numerous visitors attracted annually to its pleasant location and warm climate, because of its marinas, maritime museum and sandy beaches; the island of Tristan off Douarnenez can be reached by foot at low tide. It is linked to the legend of Iseult from the times of King Arthur; the legendary city of Ys, of Breton folklore, is believed to lie beneath Douarnenez Bay. The port is associated with the Arthurian medieval story of Tristan, lover of Iseult, for whom Tristan Island is named.
The island was named St Tutuarn Island after the priory founded there in the 12th century. Douarnenez has several 16th and 17th-century churches, including the Church of Ploaré, which has a Gothic steeple, the chapels of Sainte-Croix, Sainte-Hélène, Saint-Michel; the written history of Douarnenez begins around 1118 when, according to a charter dated 1126, Robert de Locuvan, Bishop of Cornouaille, donated the Island of St Tutuarn and the lands belonging to it to the Abbey of Marmoutier. As a result, a priory was built on the island. In the 14th century, the island became known as Tristan; the hamlet which grew up at today's Port of Rosmeur was part of the parish of Ploaré. It did not become a commune in its own right until 1790. In 1945, Douarnenez was expanded to include Pouldavid and Tréboul; the fishing history of Douarnenez goes back at least to Gallo-Roman times when, as archeological finds demonstrate, fish were salted along the cliffs of Plomarc'h. In the late 18th century and the years before the French Revolution, sardines became the driving force for the local economy.
By the beginning of the 20th century, there were huge canning activities at the port. The strikes in the 1920s in favour of better working conditions for the factory women or Penn Sardin were the main reason why Douarnenez became one of the first communist municipalities in France. Today, the canning trade continues. Douarnenez is still a centre of repair work. Douarnenez owes much of its prosperity and expansion to the construction of railways at the end of the 19th century, which provided services for passengers and goods, connecting the port to other markets. From the end of the nineteenth century. From the railway station at the centre of Tréboul, the SNCF operated a service to Quimper; the route began operations in 1884. In the mid-20th century, many former passengers had shifted to owned vehicles and passenger trains were discontinued in 1972. Goods traffic and shipping by rail continued until the railway was closed in 1988; the old line has been converted into an 18 km cycling and walking track, providing an excellent means of discovering the surrounding countryside.
The so-called Youtar was a small-gauge railway out of Dounarnenez to Audierne via Pont-Croix. Inaugurated in 1894, it was shut down in 1936 during the Great Depression, it was reopened during the Second World War and was closed after the war in 1946. The old track between Audierne and Pont-Croix has been converted into a footpath along the River Goyen; the town centre is located at the top of a peninsula, with the Port of Rosmeur on the eastern side and Port Rhu to the west. The steep, narrow cobbled streets which climb up to the town from the harbors have changed little over the past century, they reveal a wide range of places of interest, including old chapels, the Halles or covered market at the town square, traditional houses once inhabited by local fishermen. The main square has the local market and is the center of other retail shopping and the local economy. A number of hotels and restaurants are located here as well as the post office and the tourist office; the road along the sea front at the Port of Rosmeur is lined with cafés and restaurants specialising in seafood.
The commercial harbour, including some of the fish processing and canning facilities, is at the northern end of the peninsula. Tristan Island can be reached by foot at low tide; the Plage des Dames, a quiet sandy beach surrounded by rocky cliffs, is in this area. Port Rhu is noted for its boat cemetery and for its Port-Musée or Museum Port, an open-air museum where visitors may go on a number of fishing vessels dating to the early 20th century, it includes an innovative indoor museum with exhibits on its history and challenges. Tréboul, situated on the other side of the estuary has a harbour for pleasure boats; the shore is lined with creperies. Les Sables blancs, a wide, sandy beach, is one of the main attractions. Douarnenez is a haven for water sports enthusiasts. In addition, there are facilities for horse-riding, walking, cycling and golf, all within a short distance of the town. Since 1986, Douarnenez has organised maritime festivals every two years; these festivals attract all types of traditional sailing, with competitors from the four corners of the earth.
In 2004, a record year, there were 2000 sailing ships, 17,000 sailors, 30 participating countries. Do
Katherine Linn Sage known as Kay Sage, was an American Surrealist artist and poet. She was active between 1936 and 1963. A member of the Golden Age and Post-War periods of surrealism, she is recognized for her artistic works, which contain themes of an architectural nature. Sage was born in Albany, New York, into a wealthy family that had made its money in the timber industry, her father, Henry M. Sage, was a state assemblyman the year after her birth and was a five-term state senator, her mother was Anne Wheeler Sage. Sage had Anne Erskine Sage. Anne Wheeler Ward Sage left her husband and older daughter soon after Kay's birth to live and travel in Europe with Kay as her companion, she and Henry Sage divorced in 1908, but Henry Sage continued to support his ex-wife and younger daughter, Katherine visited him and his new wife in Albany from time to time and wrote him frequent letters. Katherine and her mother established a home in Rapallo, but visited many other places as well, including Paris. Katherine became fluent in French and Italian, speaking colloquial versions of these languages that she learned from the servants who helped to raise her.
She attended a number of schools, including the Foxcroft School in Virginia, where she became a lifelong friend of the heiress Flora Payne Whitney. Young Katherine both drew and wrote as hobbies, but her first formal training in painting was at the Corcoran Art School in Washington, D. C. in 1919–1920. After she and her mother went back to Italy in 1920, she studied art in Rome for several years, learning conventional techniques and styles, she enjoyed painting outdoors in the Roman Campagna with teacher Oronato Carlandi and fellow students. Much Sage stated that "these were the happiest days of my life", she told friend and gallery owner Julien Levy in 1961 that her campagna experience shaped her "perspective idea of distance and going away." Nonetheless, in years Sage claimed that she was self-taught because, as one of her biographers, Judith Suther, most of what she had learned in Rome bore so little relationship to the kind of painting she did that "she felt as if she had studied with no one."Sage met a young Italian nobleman, Prince Ranieri di San Faustino, in Rome around 1923 and fell in love with him, believing at first, as she wrote to a friend in 1924, that he was "me in another form."
They married on March 30, 1925. For ten years the couple lived the idle life of upper-class Italians, which Sage described as "a stagnant swamp." She looked back on that time as years that she "threw away to the crows. No reason, no purpose, nothing." Her husband was content with their lifestyle, but Sage was not: as she wrote in her autobiography, China Eggs, "Some sort of inner sense in me was reserving my potentialities for something better and more constructive." Spurred by the deaths of her father in 1933 and her sister, from tuberculosis, in 1934, Sage left her husband in 1935 with plans to build an independent life as an artist. In December 1936, as she prepared to leave Italy and move to Paris, Sage had her first solo art exhibit, six oil paintings shown at the Galleria del Milione in Milan. In A House of Her Own, her 1997 biography of Sage, Judith Suther describes these works as "experimental abstract compositions."Sage moved to Paris in March 1937 and rented a luxurious apartment there.
In early 1938 she saw the International Surrealist Exhibit at Galerie Beaux-Arts, 299 pieces by 60 artists from 14 countries. She was struck by the paintings of Italian artist Giorgio de Chirico, which featured what Magdalena Holzhey, in a book devoted to de Chirico, calls "empty squares and receding depths, shadowy arcades and soaring towers." Sage bought one of de Chirico's paintings, La Surprise, kept it all her life. This exposure to Surrealism inspired Sage to begin painting in earnest, she exhibited six of her new oils in the Salon des Surindépendants show at the Porte de Versailles in the fall of 1938. These semiabstract paintings, including Afterwards and The World Is Blue, borrowed motifs and styles from de Chirico and the Surrealists but showed hints of Sage's own future work as well. Art historian Whitney Chadwick states that Sage's paintings were "imbued with an aura of purified form and a sense of motionlessness and impending doom found nowhere else in Surrealism." Around this time the artist began signing her works "Kay Sage."Several stories are told about Sage's meeting with her future husband, Surrealist artist Yves Tanguy.
One came from Greek poet Nicolas Calas, who recalled that he and Tanguy accompanied Surrealist leader André Breton to the Surindépendants exhibit and were impressed enough by Sage's paintings to seek her out. Calas claimed. Tanguy at the time was married to Jeannette Ducroq, but they were separated, he and Sage fell in love. Breton and most of the other Surrealists were much less welcoming. Sage, still well off, was generous with her money, the group of impoverished artists badly needed such support, but they resented her wealth and what they felt was a haughty attitude that fitted her former title of "Princess" all too well, her alliance with Tanguy caused a rift between Tanguy and Breton, close friends. Shrugging off this rejection, Sage went on calling herself a Surrealist. Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, beginning World War II, Sage sailed back to the United States a month later, she set up plan
Cleveland Museum of Art
The Cleveland Museum of Art is an art museum in Cleveland, located in the Wade Park District, in the University Circle neighborhood on the city's east side. Internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of Asian and Egyptian art, the museum houses a diverse permanent collection of more than 45,000 works of art from around the world; the museum provides general admission free to the public. With a $755 million endowment, it is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the United States. With about 770,000 visitors annually, it is one of the most visited art museums in the world; the Cleveland Museum of Art was founded as a trust in 1913 with an endowment from prominent Cleveland industrialists Hinman Hurlbut, John Huntington, Horace Kelley. The neoclassical, white Georgian Marble, Beaux-Arts building was constructed on the southern edge of Wade Park, at the cost of $1.25 million. Wade Park and the museum were designed by the local architectural firm, Hubbell & Benes, with the museum planned as the park's centerpiece.
The 75-acre green space takes its name from philanthropist Jeptha H. Wade, who donated part of his wooded estate to the city in 1881; the museum opened its doors to the public on June 6, 1916, with Wade's grandson, Jeptha H. Wade II, proclaiming it, "for the benefit of all people, forever". Wade, like his grandfather, had a great interest in art and served as the museum's first vice-president. Today, the park, with the museum still as its centerpiece, is on the National Register of Historic Places. In March 1958, the first addition to the building opened; this addition, on the north side of the original building, was designed by the Cleveland architectural firm of Hayes and Ruth. They designed a new art library; the museum again expanded in 1971 with the opening of the North Wing. With its stepped, two-toned granite facade, the addition designed by modernist architect Marcel Breuer provided angular lines in distinct contrast with the flourishes of the 1916 building's neoclassical facade; the museum's main entrance was shifted to the North Wing.
The auditorium and lecture halls were moved into the North Wing, allowing their spaces in the Original Building to be renovated as gallery space. In 1983, a West Wing, designed by the Cleveland architectural firm of Dalton, van Dijk, Johnson, & Partners, was completed; this provided larger library space, as well as nine new galleries. Between 2001 and 2012, the 1958 and 1983 additions were demolished. A new wrap-around building, east and west wings were constructed. Designed by Rafael Viñoly, this $350 million project doubled the museum's size to 592,000 square feet. To integrate the new east and west wings with the Breuer building to the north, a new structure was built along the south side of the 1971 addition, creating extensive new gallery space on two levels, as well as providing for a museum store and other amenities. Viñoly covered the space created by the demolition of the 1958 and 1983 structures with a glass-roofed atrium; the east wing opened in 2009, the north wing and atrium in 2012.
The West Wing opened on January 2, 2014. The museum's building and renovation project, "Building for the Future", began in 2005 and was targeted for completion in 2012 at projected costs of $258 million; the museum celebrated the official completion of the renovation and expansion project with a grand opening celebration held on December 31, 2013, additional activities that continued through the first week of 2014. The $350 million project—two-thirds of, earmarked for the complete renovation of the original 1916 structure—added two new wings, was the largest cultural project in Ohio's history; the new east and west wings, as well as the enclosing of the atrium courtyard under a soaring glass canopy, have brought the museum's total floor space to 592,000 square feet. The first phase of the project had $9.3 million in cost overruns. Museum director Timothy Rub assured the public that the increase in quality would be worth both the wait and expense. In June 2008, after being closed for nearly three years for the overhaul, the museum reopened 19 of its permanent galleries to the public in the renovated 1916 building main floor.
On June 27, 2009, the newly constructed East Wing opened to the public. On June 26, 2010, the ground level of the 1916 building reopened, it now houses the collections of Greek, Egyptian, Sub-Saharan African and Medieval art. The expanded museum includes enhanced visitor amenities, such as new restrooms, an expanded store and café, a sit-down gourmet restaurant, parking capacity increased to 620 spaces, a 34,000 square feet glass-covered courtyard. Wade Park includes an outdoor gallery displaying part of the museum's holdings in the Wade Park Fine Arts Garden; the bulk of this collection is located between the original 1916 main entrance to the building and the lagoon. Highlights of the public sculpture include the large cast of Chester Beach's 1927 Fountain of the Waters. Rodin's The Thinker in installed at the top of the museum's main staircase. After being destroyed in a 1970 bombing, the statue was never restored. Art historians knew that Rodin was involved in the original casting of
Style (visual arts)
In the visual arts, style is a "...distinctive manner which permits the grouping of works into related categories" or "...any distinctive, therefore recognizable, way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought to be performed and made". It refers to the visual appearance of a work of art that relates it to other works by the same artist or one from the same period, location, "school", art movement or archaeological culture: "The notion of style has long been the art historian's principal mode of classifying works of art. By style he selects and shapes the history of art". Style is divided into the general style of a period, country or cultural group, group of artists or art movement, the individual style of the artist within that group style. Divisions within both types of styles are made, such as between "early", "middle" or "late". In some artists, such as Picasso for example, these divisions may be marked and easy to see, in others they are more subtle. Style is seen as dynamic, in most periods always changing by a gradual process, though the speed of this varies between the slow development in style typical of prehistoric art or Ancient Egyptian art to the rapid changes in Modern art styles.
Style develops in a series of jumps, with sudden changes followed by periods of slower development. After dominating academic discussion in art history in the 19th and early 20th centuries, so-called "style art history" has come under increasing attack in recent decades, many art historians now prefer to avoid stylistic classifications where they can. Any piece of art is in theory capable of being analysed in terms of style. Whether the artist makes a conscious choice of style, or can identify his own style, hardly matters. Artists in recent developed societies tend to be conscious of their own style, arguably over-conscious, whereas for earlier artists stylistic choices were "largely unselfconscious". Most stylistic periods are identified and defined by art historians, but artists may choose to define and name their own style; the names of most older styles are the invention of art historians and would not have been understood by the practitioners of those styles. Some originated as terms of derision, including Gothic and Rococo.
Cubism on the other hand was a conscious identification made by a few artists. Western art, like that of some other cultures, most notably Chinese art, has a marked tendency to revive at intervals "classic" styles from the past. In critical analysis of the visual arts, the style of a work of art is treated as distinct from its iconography, which covers the subject and the content of the work, though for Jas Elsner this distinction is "not, of course, true in any actual example. Classical art criticism and the few medieval writings on aesthetics did not develop a concept of style in art, or analysis of it, though Renaissance and Baroque writers on art are concerned with what we would call style, they did not develop a coherent theory of it, at least outside architecture. Giorgio Vasari set out a hugely influential but much-questioned account of the development of style in Italian painting from Giotto to his own Mannerist period, he stressed the development of a Florentine style based on disegno or line-based drawing, rather than Venetian colour.
With other Renaissance theorists like Leon Battista Alberti he continued classical debates over the best balance in art between the realistic depiction of nature and idealization of it. The theorist of Neoclassicism, Johann Joachim Winckelmann, analysed the stylistic changes in Greek classical art in 1764, comparing them to the changes in Renaissance art, "Georg Hegel codified the notion that each historical period will have a typical style", casting a long shadow over the study of style. Hegel is attributed with the invention of the German word Zeitgeist, but he never used the word, although in Lectures on the Philosophy of History, he uses the phrase der Geist seiner Zeit, writing "no man can surpass his own time, for the spirit of his time is his own spirit."Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th-century scholars in the new and mostly German-speaking field of art history, with important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continuing the debate in the 20th century.
Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space. This type of art history is known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. Semper, Wölfflin, Frankl, Ackerman, had backgrounds in the history of architecture, like many other terms for period styles, "Romanesque" and "Gothic" were coined to describe architectural styles, where major changes between styles can be clearer and more easy to define, not least because style in architecture is easier to replicate by following a set of rules than style in figurative art such as painting. Terms originated to describe architectural periods were o
Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The main museum building was completed in 1928 on Fairmount, a hill located at the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway at Eakins Oval; the museum administers collections containing over 240,000 objects including major holdings of European and Asian origin. The various classes of artwork include sculpture, prints, photographs and decorative arts; the Philadelphia Museum of Art administers several annexes including the Rodin Museum located on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the Ruth and Raymond G. Perelman Building, located across the street just north of the main building; the Perelman Building, which opened in 2007, houses more than 150,000 prints and photographs, along with 30,000 costume and textile pieces, over 1,000 modern and contemporary design objects including furniture and glasswork. The museum administers the historic colonial-era houses of Mount Pleasant and Cedar Grove, both located in Fairmount Park.
The main museum building and its annexes are owned by the City of Philadelphia and administered by a registered nonprofit corporation. Several special exhibitions are held in the museum every year, including touring exhibitions arranged with other museums in the United States and abroad; the attendance figure for the museum was 793,000 in 2017, which ranks it among the top one hundred most-visited art museums in the world. The museum is one of the largest art museums in the world based on gallery space. Philadelphia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with the Centennial Exposition in 1876. Memorial Hall, which contained the art gallery, was intended to outlast the Exposition and house a permanent museum. Following the example of London's South Kensington Museum, the new museum was to focus on applied art and science, provide a school to train craftsmen in drawing, painting and designing; the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art opened on May 10, 1877..
The museum's collection began with objects from the Exposition and gifts from the public impressed with the Exposition's ideals of good design and craftsmanship. European and Japanese fine and decorative art objects and books for the museum's library were among the first donations; the location outside of Center City, was distant from many of the city's inhabitants. Admission was charged until 1881 was dropped until 1962. Starting in 1882, Clara Jessup Moore donated a remarkable collection of antique furniture, carved ivory, metalwork, ceramics, books and paintings; the Countess de Brazza's lace collection was acquired in 1894 forming the nucleus of the lace collection. In 1893 Anna H. Wilstach bequeathed a large painting collection, including many American paintings, an endowment of half a million dollars for additional purchases. Works by James Abbott McNeill Whistler and George Inness were purchased within a few years and Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Annunciation was bought in 1899. In the early 1900s, the museum started an education program for the general public, as well as a membership program.
Fiske Kimball was the museum director during the rapid growth of the mid- to late-1920s, which included one million visitors in 1928—the new building's first year. The museum enlarged its print collection in 1928 with about 5,000 Old Master prints and drawings from the gift of Charles M. Lea, including French, German and Netherlandish engravings. Major exhibitions of the 1930s included works by Eakins, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh, Degas. In the 1940s, the museum's major gifts and acquisitions included the collections of John D. McIlhenny, George Grey Barnard, Alfred Stieglitz. Early modern art dominated the growth of the collections in the 1950s, with acquisitions of the Louise and Walter Arensberg and the A. E. Gallatin collections; the gift of Philadelphian Grace Kelly's wedding dress is the best known gift of the 1950s. Extensive renovation of the building lasted from the 1960s through 1976. Major acquisitions included the Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. and Samuel S. White III and Vera White collections, 71 objects from designer Elsa Schiaparelli, Marcel Duchamp's Étant donnés.
In 1976 there were celebrations and special exhibitions for the centennial of the museum and the bicentennial of the nation. During the last three decades major acquisitions have included After the Bath by Edgar Degas and Fifty Days at Iliam by Cy Twombly; the City Council of Philadelphia funded a competition in 1895 to design a new museum building, but it was not until 1907 that plans were first made to construct it on Fairmount, a rocky hill topped by the city's main reservoir. The Fairmount Parkway, a grand boulevard that cut diagonally across the grid of city streets, was designed to terminate at the foot of the hill, but there were conflicting views about whether to erect a single museum building, or a number of buildings to house individual collections. The architectural firms of Horace Trumbauer and Zantzinger and Medary collaborated for more than a decade to resolve these issues; the final design is credited to two architects in Trumbauer's firm: Howell Lewis Shay for the building's plan and massing, Julian Abele for the detail work and perspective drawings.
In 1902, Abele had become the first African-American student to be graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Architecture, presently known as Penn's School of Design. Abele adapted classical Greek temple columns for