The Eiger is a 3, 970-metre mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch to the Jungfrau at 4,158 m, constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. The most notable feature of the Eiger is its 1, 800-metre-high north face of rock and ice, named Eigerwand or Nordwand and this huge face towers over the resort of Kleine Scheidegg at its base, on the homonymous pass connecting the two valleys. The first ascent of the Eiger was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren and Irishman Charles Barrington, the north face, considered amongst the most challenging and dangerous ascents, was first climbed in 1938 by an Austrian-German expedition. The Eiger has been publicized for the many tragedies involving climbing expeditions. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand.
They are both part of the Jungfrau Railway line, running from Kleine Scheidegg to the Jungfraujoch, between the Mönch and the Jungfrau, at the highest railway station in Europe, the two stations within the Eiger are Eigerwand and Eismeer, at around 3,000 metres. The Eiger is mentioned in records dating back to the 13th century, the three mountains of the ridge are commonly referred to as the Virgin, the Monk, and the Ogre. The name has been linked to the Latin term acer, meaning sharp or pointed, the Eiger is located within the Bernese Oberland region of the canton of Bern, between the valleys and municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. It is located 2.2 km northeast of the Mönch and 5.6 km northeast of the Jungfrau, the nearest settlements are Grindelwald and Wengen. The Eiger has three faces, north and southeast, the east ridge from the summit to the Ostegg, named Mittellegi, is the longest on the Eiger. The north face overlooks the pass and resort of Kleine Scheidegg, or more precisely the region east of it, the latter mountain pass lies between the valleys of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald and connects the lower Männlichen-Tschuggen range to the Eiger.
All the aforementioned localities are connected to Interlaken via mountain railways, all sides of the mountain feed the same river, the Lütschine, through the Weisse Lütschine on the west side and through the Schwarze Lütschine on the east side. Although the north face of the Eiger is almost free of ice, on the east side, the Eismeer flows from the Mönch down to 1,300 m through the Lower Grindelwald Glacier system, which feeds the Schwarze Lütschine. The massive wall of the Jungfrau, Mönch and Eiger itself constitutes an emblematic sight of the Swiss Alps and is visible from many places on the Swiss Plateau. The higher Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn, which are located about 10 km to the south, are less visible. The whole area, the Jungfrau-Aletsch, comprising the highest summits, in July 2006, a piece of the Eiger amounting to approximately 700,000 cubic metres of rock fell from the east face. As it had been noticeably cleaving for several weeks and fell into an area, there were no injuries
Life was an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1936 as a humor magazine with limited circulation. Time owner Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936, solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name, Life was published weekly until 1972, as an intermittent special until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 to 2000. After 2000 Time Inc. continued to use the Life brand for special, Life returned to regularly scheduled issues when it became a weekly newspaper supplement from 2004 to 2007. The website life. com, originally one of the channels on Time Inc. s Pathfinder service, was for a time in the late 2000s managed as a joint venture with Getty Images under the name See Your World, LLC. On January 30,2012 the LIFE. com URL became a channel on Time. com. When Life was founded in 1883, it was developed as similar to the British magazine and it was published for 53 years as a general-interest light entertainment magazine, heavy on illustrations and social commentary. The Luce Life was the first all-photographic American news magazine, the magazines role in the history of photojournalism is considered its most important contribution to publishing.
Life was wildly successful for two generations before its prestige was diminished by economics and changing tastes, Life was founded January 4,1883, in a New York City artists studio at 1155 Broadway, as a partnership between John Ames Mitchell and Andrew Miller. Mitchell held a 75 per cent interest in the magazine with the remainder by Miller, both men retained their holdings until their deaths. Miller served as secretary-treasurer of the magazine and was very successful managing the side of the operation. Mitchell, a 37-year-old illustrator who used a $10,000 inheritance to invest in the weekly magazine, Mitchell created the first Life name-plate with cupids as mascots, he drew its masthead of a knight leveling his lance at the posterior of a fleeing devil. Mitchell took advantage of a new printing process using zinc-coated plates. This edge helped because Life faced stiff competition from the humor magazines Judge and Puck. Edward Sandford Martin was brought on as Lifes first literary editor, the motto of the first issue of Life was, While theres Life, theres hope.
The new magazine set forth its principles and policies to its readers and we shall try to domesticate as much as possible of the casual cheerfulness that is drifting about in an unfriendly world. The magazine was a success and soon attracted the leading contributors. Among the most important was Charles Dana Gibson, three years after the magazine was founded, the Massachusetts native first sold Life a drawing for $4, a dog outside his kennel howling at the moon. Encouraged by a publisher who was an artist, Gibson was joined in Life early days by such illustrators as Palmer Cox
The Mountaineers (club)
The Mountaineers is an outdoor recreation and conservation 501 nonprofit based in Seattle, founded in 1906. It has 7 branches in Western Washington,3 mountain lodges, and 2 program centers, one in Magnuson Park in Seattle, the Mountaineers publishes books and guides on outdoor education and conservation. There are no restrictions on who may join, the club constitution was officially adopted in 1907 by a membership of 151. Among these original members were Henry Landes, Edmond S. Meany, the famous photographer Asahel Curtis, the activities initially were local walks with the first trip being a hike through Fort Lawton to the West Point Lighthouse. The first mountain climbing trip was Mount Si, in 1907,65 members made a group climb of Mount Olympus and exploration of the Olympic Mountains. The next year a summit of Mount Baker was organized, followed by Mount Rainier in 1909, in 1915, a club outing became the first sizable group to hike around Mount Rainier and established the route that would become known as the Wonderland Trail.
The club organizes thousands of trips per year, has a library and historical archive, teaches instructional courses. From 1907 to 1995, new climbs in the Cascades were reported in the Mountaineers Annual, since 2004, the Northwest Mountaineering Journal, hosted by the Mountaineers, has recorded this information. The organization provides a forum for members to organize their own trips, many classes are offered beyond climbing skills including nature photography. A thirty-hour wilderness first aid course called Mountaineering Oriented First Aid was produced by the organization, in 2008, the Mountaineers moved from Lower Queen Anne to an old naval building in Magnuson Park, now leased from the City of Seattle. The new facility features indoor and outdoor climbing walls, including an ice climbing wall. The grounds feature native plants and an amphitheater for practicing scrambling. The Mountaineers Library was founded in 1915, as of 2011 it contains 6000 books and subscribes to 40 periodicals. It specializes in studies on climbing, environmental studies, biographies of exploratory mountaineers, the history of exploratory mountaineering, Mountaineers Books, based in Seattle, Washington, is the professional book publishing division of The Mountaineers.
Mountaineers Books was informally started in 1955 when a committee was formed to create a mountaineering training text from the materials that the Club was using for its classes. The editorial committee created Mountaineering, The Freedom of the Hills, the first edition of Freedom, as it is commonly called, was published in April 1960. Mountaineers Books has produced more than 1,000 titles since its foundation in 1960 and it shares the Clubs 501 nonprofit status. It publishes conservation advocacy titles under the Braided River imprint, Seattle 1900-1920, From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration
Piz Badile is a mountain of the Bregaglia range in the Swiss canton of Graubünden and the Italian region of Lombardy, the border between the two countries running along the summit ridge. Its north-east face, overlooking the Swiss Val Bregaglia near Soglio, is considered one of the six great north faces of the Alps. The first ascent of Piz Badile was by W. A. B. Coolidge with guides François Devouassoud, the mountain had first come to the notice of British alpinists from D. W. Freshfields writings of the 1860s. He gave the name the Grey Twins to Piz Badile and Piz Cengalo, the two classic routes on Piz Badile are the north ridge and the Cassin Route on the north-east face. The north ridge – the Badilekante – was first prospected solo by the Swiss guide Christian Klucker in 1892, after several unsuccessful attempts by Italian parties in 1911, the ridge finally fell to Alfred Zürcher with the guide Walter Risch on 4 August 1923. F. lOrsa and André Roch found a direct line on the ridge on the second ascent.
Molteni and Valsecchi were already on the face when Cassin and his party started out, in this famous alpine epic, Molteni died of exhaustion and exposure on the summit, whilst Valsecchi died on the descent by the south ridge just before reaching the hut. The name Badile means spade or shovel, giannetti hut Sasc Furä hut Sciora hut Piz Badile on SummitPost Piz Badile on Hikr An account of an ascent of the north-east face of Piz Badile in 1961
Vallorbe is a municipality in the district of Jura-Nord Vaudois in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Vallorbe is first mentioned in 1139 as de valle urbanensi, in 1148 it was mentioned as de valle urbe. Vallorbe has an area, as of 2009, of 23.2 square kilometers, of this area,5.12 km2 or 22. 1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 15.47 km2 or 66. 7% is forested. Of the rest of the land,2.17 km2 or 9. 4% is settled,0.28 km2 or 1. 2% is either rivers or lakes and 0.15 km2 or 0. 6% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 3. 5%, out of the forested land,64. 6% of the total land area is heavily forested and 2. 2% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,1. 4% is used for growing crops and 16. 6% is pastures and 3. 9% is used for alpine pastures, of the water in the municipality,0. 4% is in lakes and 0. 8% is in rivers and streams. The municipality was part of the Orbe District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, the municipality is located on the Swiss-French border.
It is surrounded on three sides with mountains and reaches from 610 to 1,480 m in elevation, on the east side, the valley opens up due to the Jougnenaz and Orbe rivers. It includes the hamlets of Le Day, Le Creux and Bellevue, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or, on a Bend wavy Azure a Trout proper bendwise. Vallorbe has a population of 3,654, as of 2008,23. 1% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 7. 2% and it has changed at a rate of 10% due to migration and at a rate of -1. 8% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with Italian being second most common, There are 74 people who speak German and 3 people who speak Romansh. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Vallorbe is,327 children or 9. 9% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 422 teenagers or 12. 7% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,418 people or 12. 6% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 391 people or 11. 8% are between 30 and 39,481 people or 14. 5% are between 40 and 49, and 460 people or 13. 9% are between 50 and 59.
As of 2000, there were 1,248 people who were single, There were 1,585 married individuals,245 widows or widowers and 169 individuals who are divorced. As of 2000, there were 1,385 private households in the municipality, There were 515 households that consist of only one person and 82 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 1,400 households that answered this question,36. 8% were households made up of just one person and there were 9 adults who lived with their parents
Aiguille du Dru
The Aiguille du Dru is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. It is situated to the east of the village of Les Praz in the Chamonix valley, the mountains highest summit is Grande Aiguille du Dru 3,754 m Another, slightly lower sub-summit is, Petite Aiguille du Dru 3,733 m. The two summits are located on the west ridge of the Aiguille Verte and are connected to other by the Brèche du Dru. The north face of the Petit Dru is considered one of the six great north faces of the Alps. Dent, in his description of the climb, Those who follow us, taken together, it affords the most continuously interesting rock climb with which I am acquainted. There is no wearisome tramp over moraine, no great extent of snow fields to traverse, sleeping out as we did, it would be possible to ascend and return to Chamonix in about 16 to 18 hrs. But the mountain is never safe when snow is on the rocks, the best time for the expedition would be, in ordinary seasons, in the month of August. The rocks are sound and are peculiarly unlike those of other mountains, from the moment the glacier is left, hard climbing begins, and the hands as well as the feet are continuously employed.
The difficulties are therefore enormously increased if the rocks be glazed or cold, the Petit Dru was climbed in the following year, on 29 August 1879, by J. E. Charlet-Straton, P. Payot and F. Follignet via the south face and the south-west ridge. The first traverse of both summits of the Drus was by E. Fontaine and J. Ravanel on 23 August 1901, the first winter traverse of the Drus was by Armand Charlet and Camille Devouassoux on 25 February 1938. In 1889 both peaks of the Dru were climbed for the first time from the Petit Dru to the Grand Dru by two parties. One party contained Katharine Richardson and guides Emile Rey and Jean-Baptiste Bich, and these 1000 m-high rock faces have seen serious rockfalls in 1950,1997,2003,2005 and 2011, which have considerably affected the structure of the mountain and destroyed a number of routes. Seven years later, from 24–26 July 1962, Gary Hemming and Royal Robbins climbed the American Direct, on 10–13 August 1965, Royal Robbins, this time accompanied by John Harlin, climbed the American Direttissima.
This route was destroyed by the 2005 rockfall, on 4 September 1913 a party of climbers led by Camille Simond and Roberts Charlet-Straton attempted to carry a hollow metal statue of Our Lady of Lourdes up the peak. The Aiguille du Dru on SummitPost
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa
Tre Cime di Lavaredo
The Tre Cime di Lavaredo, called the Drei Zinnen, are three distinctive battlement-like peaks, in the Sexten Dolomites of northeastern Italy. They are probably one of the mountain groups in the Alps. The three peaks, from east to west, Cima Piccola / Kleine Zinne Cima Grande / Große Zinne Cima Ovest / Westliche Zinne. The peaks are composed of well-layered dolostones of the Dolomia Principale formation, Carnian to Rhaetian in age, until 1919 the peaks formed part of the border between Italy and Austria. Now they lie on the border between the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Belluno and still are a part of the boundary between German-speaking and Italian-speaking majorities. The Cima Grande has an elevation of 2,999 metres and it stands between the Cima Piccola, at 2,857 metres, and the Cima Ovest, at 2,973 metres. The first ascent of the Cima Grande was on August 21,1869, the Cima Ovest was first climbed exactly ten years later, on August 21,1879, by Michel Innerkofler with G. Ploner, a tourist.
The Cima Piccola was first climbed on July 25,1881, by Michel, the routes of these three first ascents are still the normal ascent routes, the Cima Piccolas route is the most difficult of the three. Emilio Comici was the first to climb the face of the Cima Grande in 1933 in a party of three, after an ascent time of 3 days and 2 nights. This partly overhanging northern face is considered by climbers to be one of the north faces of the Alps. Numerous routes lead from the communities to and around the peaks. The most common route is from Paternkofel/Monte Paterno to the alpine hut Auronzo at 2,333 m, over Paternsattel to the alpine hut Dreizinnenhütte/Locatelli at 2,405 m, there are a number of other routes as well. Since the front line between Italy and Austria during World War I ran through these mountains, there are a number of fortifications, man-made caves, nearby communities include Auronzo di Cadore, Toblach/Dobbiaco, Sexten/Sesto, and the Puster Valley. The area has staged many finishes in Giro dItalia, List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes Lake Misurina Huber, Willi Schwenkmeier.
Die Kämpfe im Drei-Zinnen-Gebiet und am Kreuzberg bei Sexten 1915-1917, Auronzo di Cadore Cai Auronzo The Great War in the Dolomites 360° Panorama view Homepage of the Tourism Authority
The Grandes Jorasses is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif, on the boundary between Haute-Savoie in France and Aosta Valley in Italy. The first ascent of the highest peak of the mountain was by Horace Walker with guides Melchior Anderegg, Johann Jaun, one of the most famous walls in the Alps, it towers 1200 m above the Leschaux Glacier, stretching 1 km from end to end. The classic route on the face is the Walker Spur which leads directly to the summit of Pointe Walker, the other major buttress on the mountain is the Croz Spur, which leads to the summit of Pointe Croz. In her solo ascents of the six most difficult faces of the Alps. On the Italian side of the mountain, the face can be accessed from the Boccalatte cabin, above the hamlet of Planpincieux in the Italian Val Ferret. The ridge forms the French-Italian border, almost all of which is above 4,000 m, the High Mountains of the Alps. Grandes Jorasses on French IGN mapping portal Grandes Jorasses
Tampa Bay Times
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St. Petersburg Times through 2011, is an American newspaper published in St. Petersburg, Florida. It has won twelve Pulitzer Prizes since 1964, and in 2009, many issues are available through Google News Archive. A daily electronic version is available for the Amazon Kindle. The newspaper traces its origins to the West Hillsborough Times, a newspaper established in Dunedin. At the time, neither St. Petersburg nor Pinellas County existed, the paper was published weekly in the back of a pharmacy and had a circulation of 480. It subsequently changed ownership six times in seventeen years, in December 1884 it was bought by A. C. Turner, who moved it to Clear Water Harbor. In 1892 it moved to St. Petersburg, and by 1898 it was renamed the St. Petersburg Times. The Times became bi-weekly in 1907, and began six days a week in 1912. Paul Poynter, an originally from Indiana, bought the paper in September 1912 and converted to a seven-day paper. Pauls son, Nelson Poynter, became editor in 1939 and took majority control of the paper in 1947, Nelson Poynter controlled the paper until his death in 1978, when he willed the majority of the stock to the non-profit Poynter Institute.
In November 1986, the Evening Independent was merged into the Times, Poynter was succeeded by Eugene Patterson, Andrew Barnes, Paul Tash and Neil Brown. On January 1,2012, the St, as the newly rechristened Tampa Bay Times, the papers weekday tabloid tbt*, a free daily publication and which used as its subtitle, became just tbt when the name change took place. The St. Pete Times name lives on as the name for the Times neighborhood news sections in southern Pinellas County, serving communities from Largo southward. The Times has been an opponent to the Church of Scientology, since the churchs acquisition of the Fort Harrison Hotel in 1975. The Times has published reports and series critical of the church and its current leader. The newspaper operates PolitiFact. com, a project in which its reporters and editors fact-check statements by members of Congress, the site includes an Obameter, tracking U. S. President Barack Obamas performance with regard to his campaign promises. List of newspapers in Florida Media in the Tampa Bay Area James F.
Tracy, strikebusting in St. Petersburg, Nelson Poynters Postwar Assault on Union Printers. What will happen to the Tampa Bay Times, official website Todays Tampa Bay Times front page at the Newseum website PolitiFact. com website