The ispán or count was the leader of a castle district in the Kingdom of Hungary from the early 11th century. Most of them were heads of the basic administrative units of the kingdom, called counties, from the 13th century the latter function became dominant; the ispáns were appointed and dismissed by either the monarchs or a high-ranking royal official responsible for the administration of a larger territorial unit within the kingdom. They fulfilled administrative and military functions in one or more counties. Heads of counties were represented locally by their deputies, the vice-ispáns from the 13th century. Although the vice-ispáns took over more and more functions from their principals, the ispáns or rather, according to their new title, the lord-lieutenants of counties remained the leading officials of county administration; the heads of two counties and Temes were included among the "barons of the realm", along with the palatine and other dignitaries. On the other hand, some of these high-ranking officials and some of the prelates were ex officio ispáns of certain counties, including Esztergom, Fehér and Pest until the 18th or 19th centuries.
Between the middle of the 15th century and the 18th century, neither was unusual an other type of perpetual ispánate, namely the group of counties where the office of ispán was hereditary in noble families. Election of the vice-ispáns by the assembly of the counties was enacted in 1723, although the noblemen could only choose among four candidates presented by the lord-lieutenant. Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, vice-ispáns took over the responsibility for the management of the whole county administration, but lord-lieutenants presided the most important representative or supervising bodies of the counties. Both offices were abolished with the introduction of the Soviet system of local administration in Hungary in 1950; the term župan was first recorded in the charter of foundation of the Kremsmünster Abbey as the title of an Avar dignitary. The Hungarian word is first attested as a proper name from 1269, as a title from around 1282. No doubt, the Hungarian word ispán is connected to the term župan in the Croatian and the modern Slovakian languages, to the synonymous Old Church Slavonic expression, županъ.
Accordingly, the title seems to be a Slavic loanword in the Hungarian language. However, Dorota Dolovai sees a direct borrowing problematic from phonological perspective and András Róna-Tas says that the omission of the vowel u during the procedure suggests an intermediate language. Several Slavists have a different opinion. Slovak Slavist Šimon Ondruš explains the intermediate form špán as derived from žьpan by the extinction of Proto-Slavic ь and phonetic assimilation of the first letter; this is supported by the fact that the form župan is not documented in the Slovak language and the form used until the 15th century was špán. Ondruš does not exclude the possibility of borrowing from South Slavic languages instead of Slovak, but according to Pukanec Croatian and Slovenian are less probable candidates since they preserved the form župan; the office had existed under Stephen I at the latest, crowned the first king of Hungary in 1000 or 1001. The new king introduced an administrative system based on fortresses.
Most of the fortresses were "simple earthworks crowned by a wooden wall and surrounded by a ditch and bank" in the period. Stone castles were only erected at Székesfehérvár and Veszprém. Archaeological evidence shows that a few castles had existed in the last quarter of the 10th century, implying that the new system of local administration was set up in the reign of Stephen I's father, Grand Prince Géza; the monarch appointed a royal official styled comes in contemporary documents at the head of each fortress. A comes was the chief administrator of royal estates attached to the castle under his command, he was the principal of all who owned services to the head of that castle. Most comes had authority over the population of the wider region surrounding the castle, including those who lived in their own properties or in lands owned by other individuals or ecclesiastic bodies; each district of this type formed an administrative unit with "well defined boundaries" known under the name of vármegye or "county".
Some of the castles and accordingly the counties around them were named after their first counts. For instance, both the fortress of Hont and Hont County received the name of a knight of foreign origin, a staunch supporter of Stephen I; each castle district served multiple purposes, accordingly their comes fulfilled several tasks. First of all, the military of the kingdom was for centuries based on troops raised in the castle districts, each commanded by the comes under his own banner, he was assisted by the castellan and other officers recruited among the "castle warriors". Castle warriors were commoners who owned military service to the comes as the local representative of royal power in regard to their landholding in the castle district. Castles and the estates attached to them were important economic units. A significant part of all lands in the kingdom belonged to a royal castle. However, not all parcels in the "castle lands" was part of the royal domain (the monar
The Kačić family was one of the most influential Croatian noble families, was one of the Croatian "twelve noble tribes" described in the Pacta conventa and Supetar Cartulary. The historical sources refer to members of this family as nobles in the area of the Luka županija in the Zadar-Biograd hinterland, as the lords of Omiš, as the lords of the Makarska Riviera. Another prominent branch of the family, was part of the Hungarian nobility and from it branched many families including Szécsényi. Family members of the Omiš branch were known for piracy in the Adriatic Sea, clashes with Venice, were accused of Patarene heresy. To the Makarska branch belonged the Croatian poet and Franciscian monk, Andrija Kačić Miošić, whose work Razgovor ugodni naroda slovinskog was one of the most popular Croatian literary works for more than a century. Notable members of the Hungarian branch were Bans of Slavonia; the family derives from the Slavic kača. Based on etymology, it is that the Hungarian Kačićs are of Slavic rather than Hungarian origin.
Latin sources refer to the name as de genere Chacittorum, generatione Cacich, genus Chacittorum, nobiles de Cacich, Caçici, Cacicli, Cazethi, Cazziki and Kazzeti. The Kačić name is distinct from the similar-sounding name of another noble family, Kašić, its derivations; the Kačić's family can be traced to the Pacta conventa, an agreement dating from 1102, according to which the Kačićs were one of the twelve Croatian noble tribes who accepted the Hungarian king Coloman as the new king of Croatia. They were represented by comes Juraj Kačić. According to the Supetar Cartulary, they were one of six tribes which selected bans who, in turn, elected a new king in a case where the prior king died without leaving heirs; the first mention of Kačićs is considered 1165, when the Byzantine chronicler John Kinnamos said that 57 cities in Croatia and Dalmatia as well the "nation Kačićs" came under the Byzantine rule. The Kačićs were recorded in the scope of sales contracts and lands disputes, or as witnesses.
In 1182, the first explicitly mentioned noblemen as members of the genus Kačić are Miroš Kačić and his son Dobroš also Miroš's father Toljen, the judge of Tinj, Toliš Kačić with sons Juraj and Deško, Premko Kačić with sons Dragoš and Pribislav, Otra with his son Dragoslav. The Kačić family originated in the Zadar hinterland near the Krka river, when King Petar Krešimir IV mastered the Pagania, some members of the family relocated to the area between the Cetina and Neretva rivers; the social distinction between noble Kačićs in the Zadar-Biograd hinterland and the princely Kačićs from Omiš remains uncertain, but the two families are considered to be related. The clearest established connection is the noble Hodimir, mentioned in 1207 in a charter of St. Peter's Church in Bubnjani near Tinj, whose son Nikola was an Omiš knez. In the 12th and 13th centuries Kačićs possessed lands in the Zadar hinterland, in the wider area of Tinj, Nadin, Kačina Gorica, Kokićani and Kamenjani. From the mid-14th to 15th century, their holdings expanded to include Podnadin, Butina, Kačina Gorica, Suhovaram and Krneza, the wider area around those villages.
The center of the genus was in Nadin, for some Zadar and Pag, where "dominum Caçigh" is mentioned. According to M. Marković, in the early 11th century, the lands West of Nadin were ruled by the tribe Lapčan, while in the East by family Kašić; the family name of the Kačićs can be found in the toponyms Kačina Gorica, Kačišćina, Kačićić and Kačić. In the 14th century the family members began to identify themselves by family names with the adjective "de generatione Cacich". In the next period the Kačićs can be traced through three families. In the 15th to 17th centuries a branch settled in the wider area of Cazin and Bosanska Krupa, where in 1487 there was a dispute between them and the Babonić noble family; the last mention of Nadin Kačićs dates back to 1527, when Šimun was in the citadel of Zadar, after pressure from the Ottoman conquest. The first known knez of Omiš, was mentioned, along with his relatives and everyone under his lordship, in a peace treaty with Kotor from 1167. Knez Nikola's power and independence was strong enough to have Rogerije, the Archbishop of Split, executed in 1180.
Family political influence at that time included Brač and Hvar, Breueco —also of genus Kačić—as well as the previous Šibenik iupanus. Archbishop Rogerije, who served Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos as representative governor of Croatia, had become involved in a dispute about an estate around Mosor. A conte Nicola Aprico, identified in two dispute settlements of Split during 1178–79, is considered to be the same knez Nikola. In 1190, Nikola established a peace treaty with Dubrovnik. Like the 1167 treaty with Kotor, the 1190 treaty granted safe and free navigation to Dubrovnik ships from Molunat to Orebić; the area of Omiš principality seems to have included the islands of Brač, Hvar and Vis, at some point Korčula, but it is uncertain whether the land included coastal Poljica and Žrnovnica to the North and Makarska coast to the South. In the 13th century the center of the principality was Omiš, with the title of Omiš knez the sources mentioned the title of knez for the islands. In the 13th century the terms Kačićs (
Aladár Körösfői-Kriesch was a Hungarian Art Nouveau painter. He was born in the son of hydro-biologist and zoologist János Kriesch, he was a co-founder with Sándor Nagy of the Gödöllő Art Colony, which introduced Art Nouveau style in Hungary. Kovalovszky, Márta: A modern magyar festészet remekei: 1896-2003. Corvina, Budapest, 2005. "Körösfői-Kriesch Aladár" p. 23..
Balog or Balogh was a medieval family or clan of Hungarian nobles, believed to have been founded by the German knight Altmann von Friedberg, somewhat around 1046, when he settled in the Kingdom of Hungary. The family branches spread over time all throughout the Kingdom of Hungary and within the Austrian Empire and Austro-Hungarian Monarchy during the centuries. Notable members: Paul from the kindred Balog, Bishop of Pécs Notable families deriving their ancestry from the Balog: Derencsényi Szécsi Balogh de Mankó Bük Balogh de Galantha
Pok, Pók or Puk is the name of a Hungarian kindred in the Kingdom of Hungary. The first known ancestor of the family was mentioned in 1220 called Mór. Mór participated in the Battle of Mohi. 88 domains are known as Clan Pok possessions in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Puky, Mórocz and Meggyesi families belong to this genus. Maurice I, Master of the stewards Maurice II, Master of the treasury Nicholas, Voivode of Transylvania, oligarch
Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third son of King Władysław I and Duchess Jadwiga of Kalisz, the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty. Kazimierz inherited a kingdom made it prosperous and wealthy, he doubled the size of the kingdom. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian". Kazimierz founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish university, he confirmed privileges and protections granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers. Kazimierz left no lawful male heir to his throne; when Kazimierz died in 1370 from an injury received while hunting, his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, succeeded him as king of Poland in personal union with Hungary. When Kazimierz attained the throne in 1333, his position was in danger, as his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków"; the kingdom was depopulated and exhausted by war, the economy was ruined.
In 1335, in the Treaty of Trentschin, Casimir was forced to relinquish his claims to Silesia "in perpetuity". Kazimierz rebuilt and his kingdom became prosperous and wealthy, with great prospects for the future, he waged many victorious wars and doubled the size of the kingdom through addition of lands in modern-day Ukraine. Kazimierz built extensively during his reign, ordering the construction of over 40 castles, including many castles along the Trail of the Eagle's Nests, he reformed the Polish army. At the Sejm in Wiślica, on 11 March 1347, Kazimierz introduced reforms to the Polish judicial system and sanctioned civil and criminal codes for Great and Lesser Poland, earning the title "the Polish Justinian", he founded the University of Kraków, the oldest Polish University, he organized a meeting of kings in Kraków in 1364 at which he exhibited the wealth of the Polish kingdom. Kazimierz is the only king in Polish history to both receive and retain the title of "Great". In 1355, in Buda, Kazimierz designated his nephew Louis I of Hungary as his successor should he produce no male heir, as his father had with Charles I of Hungary to gain his help against Bohemia.
In exchange Kazimierz gained a favourable Hungarian attitude, needed in disputes with the hostile Teutonic Order and Kingdom of Bohemia. Kazimierz at the time was still in his early years and having a son did not seem to be a problem. Kazimierz left no legal son, begetting five daughters instead, he tried to adopt Casimir IV, Duke of Pomerania, in his last will. The child had been born to his second daughter, Duchess of Pomerania, in 1351; this part of the testament was invalidated by Louis I of Hungary, who had traveled to Kraków after Kazimierz died and bribed the nobles with future privileges. Kazimierz III had a son-in-law, Louis VI of Bavaria and Prince-elector of Brandenburg, considered a possible successor, but he was deemed ineligible as his wife, Kazimierz's daughter Cunigunde, had died in 1357 without issue, thus King Louis I of Hungary became successor in Poland. Louis was proclaimed king upon Kazimierz's death in 1370, though Kazimierz's sister Elisabeth held much of the real power until her death in 1380.
Casimir was facetiously named "the Peasants' King". He introduced the codes of law of Greater and Lesser Poland as an attempt to end the overwhelming superiority of the nobility. During his reign all three major classes — the nobility and bourgeoisie — were more or less counterbalanced, allowing Casimir to strengthen his monarchic position, he was known for siding with the weak. He even supported a peasant whose house had been demolished by his own mistress, after she had ordered it to be pulled down because it disturbed her enjoyment of the beautiful landscape. On 9 October 1334, he confirmed. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism, he inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. While Jews had lived in Poland since before his reign, Casimir allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as people of the king. Casimir III was born in Kowal, he married four times. Casimir first married the daughter of Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania.
The marriage produced two daughters, married to Louis VI the Roman, the son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Elisabeth, married to Duke Bogislaus V of Pomerania. Aldona died in 1339, Casimir married Adelaide of Hesse, he divorced Adelaide in 1356, married Christina, divorced her, while Adelaide and Christina were still alive, he married Hedwig of Głogów and Sagan. He had three daughters by his fourth wife, they were still young when he died, regarded as of dubious legitimacy because of Casimir's bigamy. On 30 April or 16 October 1325, Casimir married Aldona of Lithuania, she was a daughter of Gediminas of Jewna. They had two children: Elisabeth of Poland. Casimir remained a widower for two years. On 29 September 1341, Casimir married Adelaide of Hesse, she was a daughter of Henry II, Lan
Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin
The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin Hungarian conquest or Hungarian land-taking, was a series of historical events ending with the settlement of the Hungarians in Central Europe at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. Before the arrival of the Hungarians, three early medieval powers, the First Bulgarian Empire, East Francia and Moravia, had fought each other for control of the Carpathian Basin, they hired Hungarian horsemen as soldiers. Therefore, the Hungarians who dwelt on the Pontic steppes east of the Carpathians were familiar with their future homeland when their "land-taking" started; the Hungarian conquest started in the context of a "late or'small' migration of peoples". Contemporary sources attest that the Hungarians crossed the Carpathian Mountains following a joint attack in 894 or 895 by the Pechenegs and Bulgarians against them, they first took control over the lowlands east of the river Danube and attacked and occupied Pannonia in 900. They exploited internal conflicts in Moravia and annihilated this state sometime between 902 and 906.
The Hungarians strengthened their control over the Carpathian Basin by defeating a Bavarian army in a battle fought at Brezalauspurc on 4 July 907. They launched a series of plundering raids between 899 and 955 and targeted the Byzantine Empire between 943 and 971. However, they settled in the Basin and established a Christian monarchy, the Kingdom of Hungary around 1000. Byzantine authors were the first to record these events; the earliest work is Emperor Leo the Wise's Tactics, finished around 904, which recounts the Bulgarian-Byzantine war of 894–896, a military conflict directly preceding the Hungarians' departure from the Pontic steppes. Nearly contemporary narration can be read in the Continuation of the Chronicle by George the Monk. However, De Administrando Imperio provides the most detailed account, it was compiled under the auspices of Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in 951 or 952. Works written by clergymen in the successor states of the Carolingian Empire narrate events connected to the conquest.
The Annals of Fulda which ends in 901 is the earliest among them. A letter from Archbishop Theotmar of Salzburg to Pope John IX in 900 refers to the conquering Hungarians, but it is regarded as a fake. Abbot Regino of Prüm who compiled his World Chronicle around 908 sums up his knowledge on the Hungarians in a sole entry under the year 889. Another valuable source is Bishop Liutprand of Cremona's Antapodosis from around 960. Aventinus, a 16th-century historian provides information not known from other works, which suggests that he used now-lost sources. However, his reliability is suspect. An Old Church Slavonic compilation of Lives of saints preserved an eyewitness account on the Bulgarian-Byzantine war of 894–896; the first Life of Saint Naum, written around 924, contains nearly contemporary information on the fall of Moravia caused by Hungarian invasions, although its earliest extant copy is from the 15th century. Late manuscripts offer the text of the Russian Primary Chronicle, a historical work completed in 1113.
It provides information based on Moravian sources. The Hungarians themselves preserved the memory of the major events in "the form of folk songs and ballads"; the earliest local chronicle was compiled in the late 11th century. It exists now in more than one variant, its original version several times extended and rewritten during the Middle Ages. For instance, the 14th-century Illuminated Chronicle contains texts from the 11th-century chronicle. An anonymous author's Gesta Hungarorum, written before 1200, is the earliest extant local chronicle. However, this "most misleading" example "of all the early Hungarian texts" contains much information that cannot be confirmed based on contemporaneous sources. Around 1283 Simon of Kéza, a priest at the Hungarian royal court wrote the next surviving chronicle, he claims that the Hungarians were related to the Huns, earlier conquerors of the Carpathian Basin. Accordingly, in his narration, the Hungarian invasion is in fact a second conquest of the same territory by the same people.
Graves of the first generations of the conquering Hungarians were identified in the Carpathian Basin, but fewer than ten Hungarian cemeteries have been unearthed in the Pontic steppes. Most Hungarian cemeteries include 25 or 30 inhumation graves. Adult males were buried together with either parts of their horses or with harness and other objects symbolizing a horse; the graves yielded decorated silver belts, sabretaches furnished with metal plates, pear-shaped stirrups and other metal works. Many of these objects had close analogues in the contemporaneous multiethnic "Saltovo-Mayaki culture" of the Pontic steppes. Most cemeteries from the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries are concentrated in the Upper Tisza region and in the plains along the rivers Rába and Vág, for instance, at Tarcal, Tiszabezdéd, Naszvad and Gyömöre, but early small cemeteries were unearthed at Kolozsvár, Marosgombás and other Transylvanian sites; the Continuation of the Chronicle by George the Monk contains the earliest certain reference to the Hungarians.
It states that Hungarian warriors intervened in a conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarians on the latter's behalf in the Lower Danube region in 836 or 837. The first known Hungarian raid in Central Europe was recorded in the Annals of St. Bertin, it writes of "enemies