National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina
National Statistics and Censuses Institute is the Argentine government agency responsible for the collection and processing of statistical data. The institute analyses economic and social indicators such as inflation rate, consumer price index and unemployment, among others; the INDEC is supervised by different federal agencies, is under the direct oversight of the Secretaría de Programación Económica y Regional of the Ministerio de Economía y Producción. The INDEC coordinates the Sistema Estadístico Nacional through which the national and local statistical services work together; each provincial government has a statistics bureau called Dirección de Estadística, that collects and processes information. The Argentine Constitution does not provide for a national census; these were conducted only generationally until 1947, every decade since then. National censuses were taken in 1869, 1895, 1914, 1947, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010. Demographic and economic information is permanently updated with off-year censuses, such as the Economic and Agricultural Censuses, the sampled surveys published in Encuesta Permanente de Hogares.
Monthly releases include figures on inflation, trade balances, industrial production, retail sales, GDP. The first national statistics' centre was the Dirección General de Estadística, established in 1894 as a division of the Ministry of Public Finances. Fifty years in 1944, the Consejo Nacional de Estadística y Censos was created, with dependencies on both the Ministry of the Interior and the National Presidential Office. Other agencies were formed in 1950, 1952, 1956 before the final creation of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos in 1968 by Law 17622 and Decrees 3110/70 and 1831/93; the bureau's headquarters are located in a downtown, rationalist building designed by Arturo Dubourg, commissioned by President Juan Perón for use as the Ministry of Labour, completed in 1956. Although nominally independent, INDEC is subject to strong political pressure from the government, its statistics are no longer considered trustworthy; because INDEC's statistics have been reported as being manipulated by the Kirchner government, it is considered "discredited".
Controversy arose when the government of President Néstor Kirchner replaced Graciela Bevacqua, the Consumer Prices Indicator director. Bevacqua is reported to have arrived at a consumer price increase figure of 2.0% for January 2007 from internal data but the rate reported to the public was 1.1%. The head of INDEC resigned in March, a new board of directors led by Ana María Edwin was installed by the Ministry of Economy. A group of employees protested publicly at what they saw as a violation of INDEC's autonomy, an attempt by the Economy Ministry under Felisa Miceli to illegally keep inflation indicators under one percent a month. Prosecutors gathered evidence that high government officials had inquired of statistical staff how to get lower inflation numbers, that in early 2007 managers of the price indexes had excluded products whose prices had risen more than 15% in the survey and changed price data after it came in from the field workers. Prices and the official record have continued to part ways since former Commerce Secretary Guillermo Moreno's decision to intervene in the statistics institute in 2007.
Private-sector economists and statistical offices of provincial governments show inflation two to three times higher than INDEC's number. Unions, including those from the public sector, use these independent estimates when negotiating pay rises. Surveys by Torcuato di Tella University show inflation expectations running at 25-30%. Since INDEC's headline inflation statistics have been lower than estimates from analysts in the private sector and lower than INDEC's implicit private consumption price index, incorporated in the measurement of real GDP. Taken from the first quarter of 2007, each index has read as follows: The discrepancy has led to exchanged accusations of politically motivated statistical legerdemain between the ruling party and most of the political opposition, on both left and right. Officials facing election have an incentive to understate the headline CPI figure. Opposition figures relied on estimates made by figures such as Orlando Ferreres; the practice yielded the ruling party no political benefit, helped contribute to their loss in the October 2009 mid-term elections.
An alternative explanation for the policy could rest on government finances: the national government has issued around US$100 billion in government bonds. Payments on US$50 billion of this are indexed to inflation. Other government bonds are tied in value to GDP growth. A 7-point underestimate in inflation could save the Central Bank of Argentina US$3 billion in inflation-indexed interest payments, while higher economic growth would cost added interest on bonds tied to GDP. Since 2007, when Guillermo Moreno, the secretary of internal trade
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Mar del Plata
Mar del Plata is an Argentine city in the southeast part of Buenos Aires Province located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the head of General Pueyrredón Partido. Mar del Plata is the second largest city in Buenos Aires Province; the name "Mar del Plata" has the meaning of "sea of the Plate region" or "adjoining sea to the Plate region". Mar del Plata is the biggest seaside beach resort in Argentina. With a population of 614,350 as per the 2010 census, it is the 7th largest city in Argentina; as part of the Argentine recreational coast, tourism is Mar del Plata's main economic activity with seven million tourists visiting the city in 2006. Mar del Plata has a sophisticated tourist infrastructure with numerous hotels, casinos and other tourist attractions. Mar del Plata is an important sports centre with a multi-purpose Olympic style stadium, five golf courses and many other facilities; as an important fishing port, industry concentrates on fish processing and at least two large shipyards.
The area is host to other light industry, such as textile, food manufacturing and polymers. There is a well-developed packaging machines industry, its quality being recognized in international markets. One of these companies was one of the pioneers in the automatic packaging of tea bags, exporting its original machine-designs abroad. Another company exports its products and has sold royalties to other countries. During the mid-1980s, Mar del Plata saw the birth of electronics factories, focused on the telecommunications field, with two of them and DelSat, succeeding in the international market. By the 2010s, a local technology company, PCBOX, was manufacturing and developing personal computers, tablet computers and action-cams. During the decade of 2010, the development of the software industry resulted in the formation of 92 companies and 440 microbusiness. One of these companies, Making Sense, opened offices at San Antonio and Boston, in the United States. Along with the American COPsync, the company developed in 2013 the software for VidTac, an in-car video system for law enforcement, the internet landing page application Lander, bought by the Silicon Valley company QuestionPro in 2016.
Since the 2000s, a local company builds and develops oil industry equipment, with customers in the United States, Russia and Egypt. Located southwest of the city there are quartzite quarries; the stone is traditionally used in construction. There is a huge area of farms in the rural areas surrounding the city, specialized in the cultivation of vegetables. In 2012, Mar del Plata became a wine-producing area, when a wine company from Mendoza province produced 20,000 lt from a vineyard at Chapadmalal beach from grape varieties such as Sauvignon blanc, Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer. Since the local winery turned into a tourist attraction. Microbeweries flourished during the 2010s, amounting by 2016 to one third of the national production. Although the area had suffered from a high rate of unemployment from 1995 to 2003, Mar del Plata has seen 46,000 new jobs created from the third quarter of 2003 to the third quarter of 2008, representing an increase of 22%; the 2008 Davis Cup Final was held in Mar del Plata and, after being shut for a decade the Gran Hotel Provincial was reopened by the Madrid-based NH Hotels, in 2009.
Mar del Plata continues to lead Argentina's room availability: of 440,000 registered hotel rooms nationwide in early 2009, the city was home to nearly 56,000. Mar del Plata is served by Astor Piazzolla International Airport with daily flights to Buenos Aires served by Aerolíneas Argentinas and Sol Líneas Aéreas and weekly flights to Patagonia served by LADE. Highway 2 connects Mar del Plata with Buenos Aires and Route 11 connects it through the coastline, ending at Miramar, 40 km south of Mar del Plata. Route 88 connects to Necochea and Route 226 to Balcarce and Olavarría; the city has a train station serving most cities in Argentina. There are two daily trains to Buenos Aires' Constitución station using new trains operated by Trenes Argentinos; these services are part of the General Roca Railway, owned by the government company Nuevos Ferrocarriles Argentinos. Notes Its tracks were extended to connect with the bus terminal opened in 2009 building new train platforms. Operated as the bus terminal of the city until 2009.
Pre-Spanish era: The region was inhabited by Günuna Kena nomads. They were strongly influenced by the Mapuche culture. 1577–1857: First European explorers. Sir Francis Drake made a reconnaissance of its sea lion colonies. In 1742, during the War of Jenkins' Ear, eight survivors of HMS Wager, part of Admiral Anson expedition, led by Isaac Morris, lived through a ten-months ordeal before being decimated and captured by the Tehuelches, who handed them to the Spaniards. After holding the Englishmen as prisoners, they returned Morris and his companions to London in 1746. First colonization attempt by Jesuit Order near Laguna de los Padres ended in disaster. 1857–1874: The Portuguese entrepreneur José Coelho de Meirelles, taking advantage of the country's abundance of wild cattle, built a pier and a factory for salted meat near Cabo Corrientes, but the business only lasted a few years.1874–1886: Patricio Peralta Ramos acquired the now abandoned factory along with the surrounding terrain, founded the town on February 10, 1874.
Basque rancher Pedro L
Tandil is the main city of the homonymous partido, located in Argentina, in the southeast of Buenos Aires Province, just north-northwest of Tandilia hills. The city was founded in 1823 and its name originates from the Piedra Movediza which fell in 1912; the city is the birthplace of many notable sports personalities, as well as the current president of Argentina Mauricio Macri. Tandil is located 180 metres above sea level and its coordinates are 37°19′08″S 59°08′05″W; the city borders Rauch and Azul and Balcarce, Lobería, Necochea and Benito Juárez and Azul and Benito Juárez. Tandil is situated midway between La Plata, 330 km to its NE, Bahía Blanca, lying the same distance to its SW. Tandil is in a zone known as the Humid Pampa. According to the 2010 census, Tandil had a population of 116,916; the total area of the Tandil partido is 4,935 km2. Tandil's climate is mild and humid, with an average temperature of 13.8 °C and 888.6 millimetres of precipitation annually. Mornings are cold in autumn and spring, fresh in the summer.
Fog is common in autumn and winter, when frosts are common. Minimum temperatures below −5 °C have been recorded in the winter months. Rainfall occurs throughout the year but more in summer. Snow and heat waves are not common; the climatological data in the table below is from the period 1981–2010: It is believed that the name of the city comes from the Mapuche words tan, lil. It is a reference to the Piedra Movediza, a large boulder which stood miraculously balanced on the edge of a rocky foothill. In order to demonstrate the slight movements of the boulder, it was common practice to place bottles under its base to watch them shatter; the "Moving Stone" toppled on February 29, 1912, split into two pieces at the bottom of the hill. In May 2007, a replica was set up in the same place; the replica, made by engineering students, is cemented in place and does not teeter the way the original did. The town was founded by Martín Rodríguez on April 4, 1823, named Fuerte Independencia. In time the original natives became mingled with the increasing European population.
The vast majority of immigrants came from Spain and Italy, but Danish people settled, the latter constituting a active community. Tandil was designated a city in 1895 and became a popular tourist destination attracting people from Buenos Aires and other parts of Argentina; the Piedra Movediza split in two below. Although it is impossible after the fact to ascertain the reason it fell, it is possible that the delicately balanced rock was thrown off balance by the common practice of placing glass bottles under it and watching them explode; this was the way the locals would prove to visitors that the rock, in fact, since the movement was too subtle to be detected by the naked eye. There have been projects to restore the rock, a replica stone was placed where the original used to be. Other similar stones like El Centinela are attractions, but none has the astonishing quality of teetering so like the "moving rock" once did; the National University of Central Buenos Aires Province is a public university located in Tandil.
It was founded in 1974 as part of University of Buenos Aires Professor Alberto Taquini's plan to geographically diversify Argentina's National University system. Established with the unification of a private school and a campus of the National University of the South, with more than 11,000 students, the university includes 10 schools offering 21 undergraduate, 58 graduate, 19 post-graduate degrees, it maintains secondary campuses in Olavarría. Rodolfo González Pacheco, playwright, anarchist journalist and activist Víctor Laplace, actor René Lavand, illusionist Maria Cristina Kiehr, soprano Facundo Cabral, artist Diego Bossio, Executive Director of ANSES, the national social security agency, from 2009 to 2015 Mauricio Macri, President of Argentina Juan Martín del Potro, tennis player, 2009 US Open winner and bronze and silver medalist in the Summer Olympics, nicknamed the'Tower of Tandil' Mauro German Camoranesi, football player, 2006 Football World Cup Champion with the Italian national team María Irigoyen, tennis player Matias Rueda, South American and Argentine champion of professional boxing Juan Eduardo Eluchans, football player Guillermo Pérez Roldán, tennis player Mariana Pérez Roldán, tennis player Ariel Garcé, football player Esteban Saveljich, football player Mariano Pernía, football player Jorge Iván Pérez, football player Alejandro Agustín Domenez, football player Mariano González, football player Pablo Andrés González, football player Vicente Pernía, football player Máximo González, tennis player Diego Junqueira, tennis player Juan Mónaco, tennis player Bernardo Daniel Romeo, football player Mariano Zabaleta, tennis player Jorge Baliño, football referee Official government website Tourism and information about Tandil Argentina
This page contains information about the town of Berazategui. See Berazategui Partido for the wider neighbourhood. Berazategui is a city in Buenos Aires Province, located to the south-east of Quilmes, it is the head town of the Berazategui Partido. It is part of the Gran Buenos Aires metropolitan area; the city has the nickname "Capital Nacional del Vidrio", because of the high concentration of glassmaking industries in the area. Guia comercial de Juan María GutiérrezMunicipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Berazategui website
Greater Buenos Aires
Greater Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area or Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos in the Province of Buenos Aires. Thus, it does not constitute a single administrative unit; the conurbation spreads south and north of Buenos Aires city. To the east, the River Plate serves as a natural boundary. Urban sprawl between 1945 and 1980, created a vast conurbation of 9,910,282 inhabitants in the 24 conurbated partidos, as of 2010, a total of 12,801,365 including the City of Buenos Aires, a third of the total population of Argentina and generating more than half of the country's GDP; the term Gran Buenos Aires was first used in 1948, when Governor of Buenos Aires Province Domingo Mercante signed a bill delineating as such an area covering 14 municipalities surrounding the City of Buenos Aires. The term is related to other expressions that are not well-defined: the "Buenos Aires' conurbation", the "Greater Buenos Aires Agglomeration", the "Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires".
The National Institute of Statistics and Censuses has defined Greater Buenos Aires. There are three main groups within the Buenos Aires' Conurbation; the first two groups comprise the traditional conurbation, or the "conurbation proper". The third group of six partidos is in process of becoming integrated with the rest. Fourteen urbanized partidos Ten partidos urbanized Six partidos not yet conurbatedAs urbanization continues and the conurbation grows, six additional urbanized partidos now are connected with the conurbation: Buzai, G. D. and Marcos, M.. "The social map of Greater Buenos Aires as empirical evidence of urban models". Journal of Latin American Geography. Volume 11 Number 1, pp. 67–78, DOI 10.1353/lag.2012.0012 Keeling, D.. Buenos Aires: Global Dreams, Local Crisis. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun