Barbara (TV series)
Barbara is an English sitcom starring Gwen Taylor in the title role. A pilot was broadcast in 1995, three series were televised on ITV from 1999 to 2003, it was made by Central Television, filmed at their Lenton Lane studios in Nottingham in front of a live studio audience. The majority of location scenes for the series were filmed in various suburbs of Nottingham, including Mapperley and West Bridgford, with other scenes filmed around Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire; the series is repeated on ITV3. Barbara was first shown as a pilot within the Comedy Firsts series on 10 July 1995. Four years on 27 June 1999 the first of three series was presented, with some of the cast and names of the characters being changed from when the programme first appeared. Unusually for an English sitcom, Barbara was written by a team of writers. Barbara Liversidge is a no-nonsense, nosey, middle-aged doctor's receptionist with a sharp tongue, she has been married to a mild-mannered taxi driver, for 40 years. Barbara is by far the dominant figure in the relationship, but Ted does stand up to her.
The pair live in Pudsey, West Yorkshire with their twenty-something son Neil, who drifts between jobs and a succession of short-term relationships. Their daughter, the long-suffering Linda, is married to Martin Pond, a TV presenter who has his own slot on the local news, Pond Life, which involves him making a fool of himself. Jean is Barbara's appearance-obsessed sister. Barbara's colleague at the doctor's surgery, Doreen regales Barbara with tales of the bizarre situations she and her never-seen husband Clive find themselves in. Much of the humour revolves around Barbara's tactlessness and her family's fear of getting on the wrong side of her. While the family complain about her, they find they struggle to manage when Barbara doesn't take charge. Although the show appears to have a traditional sitcom setting, surreal humour is used, such as Barbara baking a cake that looks like Judi Dench and a taxidermist friend of Ted's stuffing and mounting his dead wife. There were some more drama-based plots, such as Linda's discovery she can't have any more children after the birth of her son George.
In a dark development, the final episode ends with an unseen assailant shooting Barbara from behind - a cliffhanger, never resolved. "Job" All Sunday, 8 pm, ITV except Scattering, shown at 7 pm "Birthday" Ratings: 9.8m "Rivals" Ratings 8.21m "Amour" Ratings: 7.44m "Friends" Ratings: 6.4m "Coffee" Ratings: 7.18m "Scattering" Ratings: 5.02m "Kids" Ratings: 7.55m "Massage" Ratings: N/A "Mum" Ratings: 8.70m "Christening" Ratings: 7.56m "Tyres" Ratings: 6.89m "Fox" Ratings: 7.59m "Sisters" Ratings: 5.80m "Mate" Ratings: N/A "Wedding" Ratings: 5.97m "Sheep" Ratings: N/A The twelve episodes making up Series Three were recorded as a complete series in 2001, but were split into two separate series upon broadcast - six airing in 2002 and the remaining six airing in 2003. The 2002 episodes were shown Tuesdays at 8.30 pm, apart from "Flood", shown at 8.00 pm and "Valentine", shown on a Saturday at 7.45 pm. All 2003 episodes were shown Sundays at 7.00 pm. The Series Three DVD release contains the full twelve episodes.
"Queenie" Ratings: 6.97m "Flood" Ratings: 5.4m "Valentine" Ratings: 4.8m "Crime" Ratings: 6.74m "Weekend" Ratings: 4.7m "Baby" Ratings: 4.97m "Honeymoon" Ratings: 5.34m "Neighbours" Ratings: 5.42m "Guy Fawkes" Ratings: 5.94m "Kirsty" Ratings: 5.02m "Cottage" "Who Shot Barbara?" The majority of location scenes for the series were filmed in various suburbs of Nottingham, including Mapperley and West Bridgford. The exterior location for the Liversidge house is located on Sandford Road in Mapperley, whilst the exterior used for Barbara's workplace is the West Oak Surgery on nearby Westdale Lane. Martin's news studio is the exterior of Carlton's Lenton Lane studios. Initial reactions to the pilot were lukewarm. While The Guardian described Taylor as'ever-watchable', it felt there was too much focus on character at the expense of plot, summing up'whether or not there's a series in here remains to be seen'. Critics remained ambivalent. I believe them. It's not a crowded field, is it?'. However, every episode of the 1999 and 2002 series was in ITV's top 30 weekly ratings as compiled by BARB and audience figures averaged around 5-7 million viewers, 17 of the episodes winning their slots, meaning they were the most watched shows at the time of broadcast.
The Independent Television Commission's annual report for 2001 labelled Barbara'a rare exception' to the otherwise unimpressive'commitment to come
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? is an international television game show franchise of British origin, created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight. In its format owned and licensed by Sony Pictures Television, contestants tackle a series of multiple-choice questions to win large cash prizes, with the format being a twist on the game show genre – only one contestant plays at a time, similar to radio quizzes; the maximum cash prize offered in most versions of the format is one million of the local currency. The original British version debuted on 4 September 1998 on the ITV network and was aired until its final episode on 11 February 2014; the revival received positive reviews from critics and fans, as well as high viewing figures, leading ITV to renew the show for another series. Since its debut, international variants of the game show have been aired in around 160 countries worldwide; the format of the show was created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight, who had earlier created a number of the promotional games for Tarrant's morning show on Capital FM radio, such as the bong game.
Tentatively known as Cash Mountain, the show took its finalised title from a song written by Cole Porter for the 1956 film High Society, starring by Frank Sinatra and Celeste Holm. Since the original version launched, several individuals have claimed that they originated the format and that Celador had breached their copyright and took the production company to court, but each claim was settled out-of-court on an agreement/settlement. In March 2006, original producer Celador announced that it was seeking to sell the worldwide rights to Millionaire, together with the rest of its British programme library, as the first phase of a sell-off of the company's format and production divisions; the idea to transform the UK programme into a global franchise was conceived by British television producer Paul Smith. He laid out a series of rules that the international variants in the franchise were to follow: for example, all hosts were required to appear on-screen wearing Armani suits, as Tarrant did in the UK.
However, some of Smith's rules have been relaxed over the years as the franchise's history has progressed. Millionaire and all of Celador's other programmes were acquired by Dutch company 2waytraffic. Two years Sony Pictures Entertainment purchased 2waytraffic for £137.5 million. The format of the show is owned and licensed by Sony Pictures Television. S. version is distributed not by Sony but by the Walt Disney Company's in-home sales and content distribution firm, Disney–ABC Domestic Television. A group of contestants on each episode play a preliminary round called "Fastest Finger First". All are given a question by the host and four answers which must be placed within a particular order. If any contestants are visually impaired, the host reads the question and four choices all at once repeats the choices after the music for this round begins; the contestant who not only answers but in the fastest time, goes on to play the main game. In the event that no one gets the question right, another question is given.
This round is only used when a new contestant is being chosen to play the main round, can be played more than once in an episode amongst those remaining within the group seeking to play the main game. In celebrity editions, the round is not used. Once a contestant enters the main game, they are asked difficult general knowledge questions by the host; each features four possible answers. Doing so wins them a certain amount of money, with tackling much tougher questions increasing their prize fund. During their game, the player has a set of lifelines that they may use only once to help them with a question, as well as two "safety nets" – if a contestant gets a question wrong, but had reached a designated cash value during their game, they will leave with that amount as their prize. While the first few questions are easy, subsequent ones after them will prompt the host to ask if the answer they gave is their "final answer" – if it is it is locked in and cannot be changed. If a contestant feels unsure about an answer, does not wish to play on, they can walk away with the money they have won, to which the host will ask them to confirm this as their final decision.
During the British original, between 1998 and 2007, the show's format focused on fifteen questions. The safety nets in this format were set to £1,000 and £32,000 with the payout structure being as follows: For the first group of five questions: £100 -> £200 -> £300 -> £500 -> £1,000 For the second group of five questions: £2,000 -> £4,000 ->
Waterloo Road (TV series)
Waterloo Road is a British television drama series set in a comprehensive school of the same name, broadcast on BBC One and also on BBC Three. The school was set in Rochdale, England from series one until the end of series seven, from the beginning of series eight until the end of the show in series ten, the school was set in Greenock, Scotland. In 2014, it was confirmed; the first episode was broadcast on BBC One on 9 March 2006 and the final episode on BBC Three on 9 March 2015. Waterloo Road ran for 10 series, 200 episodes and 9 years. Reruns aired on CBS Drama in the UK; the first series contained eight episodes and ended on 27 April 2006. The show was subsequently commissioned for a second series consisting of twelve episodes; the second series began on 18 January 2007 and ended on 26 April 2007. A third series was commissioned, consisting of twenty episodes, premiering on 11 October 2007 and ending on 13 March 2008; the show's fourth series contained twenty episodes and aired from 7 January 2009 to 20 May 2009.
Production was scheduled to move locations in 2009, with storylines in the fourth and fifth series designed to coincide with the planned move. However, these plans did not go ahead and the show remained in its original location for three more years. Series 5 and 6 filmed back to back from 2009 to 2010; the fifth series started on 28 October 2009 and aired its finale on 15 July 2010. The sixth series ran from 1 September 2010 to 6 April 2011. A seventh series was commissioned in April 2010 and was expanded to thirty episodes, which began airing on 4 May 2011 and ended on 25 April 2012. Following the seventh series, the show was commissioned for a further fifty episodes to air over two series and relocated to Greenock Academy in Scotland as part of a BBC initiative to produce more programming outside of England. At its new location, Waterloo Road Comprehensive became an independent school as opposed to it being a comprehensive school in the past seven series; the eighth series ran for thirty episodes between 23 August 2012 and 4 July 2013.
The school benefactor left Waterloo Road at the end of series eight and thus once more the school is a comprehensive. The ninth series ran for twenty episodes between 5 September 2013 and 12 March 2014. On 19 September 2013, a tenth series was commissioned, it was announced on 2 April 2014. The final scenes were filmed on 22 August 2014. On 11 December 2014, it was announced that the final 10 episodes would be aired on BBC Three in 2015, however a repeat is aired on BBC One in the evening; the final episode of Waterloo Road, was the 200th episode, aired on 9 March 2015 on BBC Three and BBC One. In the story the school remains open after a lengthy battle against a school merger; the show is an ensemble drama, with a large cast of up to forty main characters, including students and parents. Due to their appearance on the opening credits, teachers receive top billing for the main cast. From term to term the cast changes; the original teaching cast consisted of headteacher Jack Rimmer. The cast of students included Donte Charles, Chlo Grainger, Janeece Bryant, Yasmin Deardon, Mika Grainger and Lewis Seddon.
The final, Series 10 cast consisted of Head Teacher Vaughan Fitzgerald, Deputy Head Lorna Hutchinson, Head of English Christine Mulgrew, Head of Modern Languages George Windsor, Home Economics Teacher and Housemistress Maggie Budgen. An extensive set of pupils were prominent in the final series, including Rhiannon Salt, Lenny Brown, Lisa Brown, Darren Hughes, Shaznay Montrose, Justin Fitzgerald, Leo Fitzgerald, Kenzie Calhoun, Scott Fairchild, Carrie Norton, Bonnie Kincaid, Dale Jackson and Abdul Bukhari; the first episode of Waterloo Road was broadcast on 9 March 2006, having been filmed the previous autumn in 2005. Characters included head Teacher Jack Rimmer, deputy head Andrew Treneman and pastoral care teacher Kim Campbell. A common theme throughout Series One was the threat of the school's closure by the governors owing to falling pupil numbers, bad pupil behaviour, the bad publicity it had been receiving prior to Jack's appointment as headmaster. Rimmer deputy head, became headmaster when the previous head Brian Vasey had a nervous breakdown after 30 years at the school.
Other storylines included the death of pupil Adam Deardon in a car crash. Donte Charles, driving the car involved, blamed himself for Deardon's death and was remanded into custody for three
Bombshell (TV series)
Bombshell is a British television military drama series, produced by Shed Productions, the company behind Footballers' Wives, Bad Girls and Waterloo Road. The series commissioned by Shed Productions in early 2004, focuses on the day-to-day workload of officers and soldiers in the British Army, was subsequently given the nickname Army Wives by the British press; the series was first teased by the creators in March 2002, was described as "a focus on how the army is changing with the recruitment of more women and a more lenient attitude to homosexuality." The series was offered to the BBC, but the producers were unhappy with the rights deal offered by the channel. The series attracted a strong initial casting, with Zöe Lucker, Bertie Carvel and Rosie Marcel among the first cast members confirmed to star in the series. After filming completed, ITV announced that the series was scheduled to be aired in February 2005. After the series failed to materialise, there was suggestion that the series could launch on ITV2 instead, but this did not happen, the series has never been broadcast in the UK.
An ITV spokesperson claimed that the reason the series was shelved was due to the "undeniable similarities" between the series and Ultimate Force, which at the time, was struggling in the ratings, with two series having been cancelled mid-run due to poor ratings. However, just over a year the series was shown on TV One in New Zealand in 2006, on the Hallmark Channel in Australia in 2008. A DVD of the series was released on 3 March 2007 in New Zealand. A spin-off series, entitled Bombshell Bootcamp, which followed the cast as they trained at an Army Boot Camp in Bracknell in preparation for their roles in the series, was due to air on ITV2. Zöe Lucker — Captain Jenna Marston Andrew McKay — Gunner Luke Bates Robert Beck — Bombardier Boyd Billington Emma Rydal — Cheryl Cotter Rosie Marcel — Gunner Stacey Dawes Lucy Cohu — Valerie Welling Bertie Carvel — Lieutenant Roddy Frost Felix Scott — Gunner Adam Hodges Jeremy Sheffield — Major Nicholas Welling Michael Obiora — Gunner Jackson Clark Daisy Dunlop — Gunner Karina Fuller Chris Geere — Gunner Dean McGowan Alicya Eyo — Gunner Gaynor Harvey Simon Sherlock — Lance Bombardier Terry Cotter Bob Cryer — Guy Corderey Alix Wilton Regan — Sophie Welling Bombshell on IMDb
Vanessa Gold is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders. She is portrayed by Zöe Lucker, has appeared in EastEnders since 4 June 2010. A "dynamic and assured" businesswoman, Vanessa was created by series consultant Simon Ashdown to be "a Zöe Lucker-type". Lucker accepted the role on a seven-episode contract, extended after she impressed the series producers with her performance. In April 2011, it was announced, she departed on 6 October 2011, after the conclusion of her storylines. EastEnders focusses on working class life in the fictional London borough of Walford. Vanessa was introduced as a love interest for local car salesman Max Branning, intended to facilitate a reunion between Max and his former wife Tanya. Concurrent to their romance, extended to span Lucker's increased tenure, Vanessa separates from her husband Harry, reveals that he is not the father of her teenage daughter Jodie. Lucker describes Vanessa as a glamorous risk-taker, who does not fit into the soap's Albert Square setting.
She received critical praise for her comic timing in the role, was nominated Most Popular Newcomer at the 2010 Inside Soap Awards. Vanessa arrives in Albert Square to purchase a car from salesman Max Branning; when she returns to sign her paperwork, the two are seen by Max's daughter Abi. Max's employee and lodger Darren Miller begins dating Vanessa's daughter Jodie, unaware of the connection between them. Upon realising that they are mother and daughter, he and Max toss a coin to decide which one of them will terminate their new relationship. Max continues to see Vanessa regardless. Suspicious that Max may still be in love with his estranged wife Tanya, Vanessa returns to her controlling husband Harry in Chigwell; the two reconcile, Vanessa moves in with Max when Harry discovers the affair and breaks up with her. Jodie disowns her mother over her infidelity, but recants after they narrowly escape a fire in the local pub. Jodie plans to separate from Darren, as she feels uncomfortable spending time in his and Max's home while her father is alone in Chigwell.
Instead, Vanessa sacrifices her relationship with Max, moves back in with Harry. The following week, Vanessa gets on well with Tanya. On Vanessa's birthday, Tanya interrupts her celebration dinner to tell her Max misses her and that she should go back to him. Jodie agrees. Vanessa returns to Max, Harry serves her with divorce papers, his claim that Jodie has always been a "daddy's girl" prompts Vanessa to reveal he is not her father. Harry begins a series of escalating attacks against Vanessa. Having learned that Harry is not her father, Jodie disowns Vanessa again, before forgiving her. Vanessa tells Jodie. Harry's attacks continue: he throws a brick through their window, slashes the tyres at Max's car lot and all of Vanessa's clothes, kills Jodie's cat. Max and his brother Jack threaten Harry, who retaliates by having Jack locked in the boot of his car on the night of his wedding. Unbeknownst to Vanessa, Max's feelings for Tanya resurface. Although she remarries, he kisses her on her wedding day and continues to harbour hope that they will reconcile.
Max's one year anniversary with Vanessa passes, Max upsets her with his disinterest. She soon realises that he is still not over Tanya, when she comforts him, Max makes a spur of the moment marriage proposal, which Vanessa accepts; however and Tanya continue to have an affair, secretly meeting in a bedsit. Vanessa finds perfume that she knows is not hers or Jodie's, tells Tanya she knows Max is cheating. Tanya says it is her perfume that Lauren borrowed, tells Vanessa that Max is not cheating. Vanessa takes off her engagement ring to clean the house and she panics when she cannot find it, though it is revealed that Max has it. Vanessa is led to believe that Max is on board with the idea of a double wedding with Darren and Jodie, so cooks a candle-lit dinner for Max, unaware that he is meeting up with Tanya again because they are preparing to inform their partners of their affair. However, Tanya breaks up with Max and he returns home deflated, he tells Vanessa that he breaks up with her. Vanessa is heartbroken, accusing another woman of being involved.
When Max's daughter Lauren Branning overhears this, she informs Vanessa, along with the rest of the family, that Tanya is the other woman. Vanessa confronts Tanya, slapping her, reveals the affair to Tanya's husband Greg Jessop. Max leaves Vanessa believes he will come back to her. Vanessa discovers the bedsit and is stunned when Tanya tells her she broke up with Max and she does not know where he is, saying that if he has left Vanessa, it is because he no longer loves her. Vanessa returns home and loses control, smashing up the house. Max's sister Carol Jackson and Jack agree to throw Vanessa out so Tanya and her family can live there, but find her smashing Max's photos, so Carol throws her out onto the street. Michael and his father Eddie Moon go to help. Vanessa tells Michael. However, plotting revenge against his father, informs Vanessa that Eddie destroyed his mother's life, before offering Vanessa cash to do the same to Eddie. Vanessa reluctantly agrees. Vanessa gets back in touch with Harry after several months without contact, asks if he will help pa
Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. The programme centres on Coronation Street in Weatherfield, a fictional town based on inner-city Salford. In the show's fictional history, the street was built in 1902 and named in honour of the coronation of King Edward VII; the show airs six times a week: Monday and Friday 7:30-8 pm and 8:30-9 pm. Since 2017, ten sequential classic episodes of the series from 1986 onwards have been broadcast weekly on ITV3; the programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warren's initial kitchen sink drama proposal was rejected by the station's founder Sidney Bernstein, but he was persuaded by producer Harry Elton to produce the programme for 13 pilot episodes. Within six months of the show's first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, is now a significant part of British culture; the show has been one of the most lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television and wider ITV network.
Coronation Street is made by Granada Television at MediaCityUK and shown in all ITV regions, as well as internationally. On 17 September 2010, it became the world's longest-running television soap opera and was listed in Guinness World Records. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITV's sixtieth anniversary. Influenced by the conventions of the kitchen sink drama, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth, working-class community, combined with light-hearted humour and strong characters; the show averages 8 million viewers per episode. The first episode was aired on 9 December 1960 at 7 pm, was not a critical success. Granada Television had commissioned only 13 episodes, some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned production run. Despite the criticism, viewers were drawn into the serial, won over by Coronation Street's ordinary characters; the programme made use of Northern English language and dialect. Early episodes told the story of student Kenneth Barlow, who had won a place at university, thus found his working-class background—as well as his parents and Ida —something of an embarrassment.
The character was one of the few to have experienced life outside of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, the decline of similar communities. In an episode from 1961, Barlow declares: "You can't go on just thinking about your own street these days. We're living with people on the other side of the world. There's more to worry about than Elsie Tanner and her boyfriends." Roache is the only remaining member of the original cast, which makes him the longest-serving actor in Coronation Street, in British and global soap history. At the centre of many early stories, there was Ena Sharples, caretaker of the Glad Tidings Mission Hall, her friends: timid Minnie Caldwell, bespectacled Martha Longhurst; the trio were likened to the Greek chorus, the three witches in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, as they would sit in the snug bar of the Rovers Return, passing judgement over family and each other. Headstrong Ena clashed with Elsie Tanner, whom she believed espoused a dauntlessly loose set of morals.
Elsie resented Ena's gossip, which most of the time had little basis in reality. In April 1961, Jed Stone made his first appearance and returned the following year in 1962, he left in 1963, but returned three years in 1966. He left again and returned 42 years in 2008. In March 1961, Coronation Street reached No. 1 in the television ratings and remained there for the rest of the year. Earlier in 1961, a Television Audience Measurement showed that 75% of available viewers tuned into Corrie, by 1964 the programme had over 20 million regular viewers, with ratings peaking on 2 December 1964, at 21.36 million viewers. Storylines throughout the decade included a mystery poison-pen letter received by Elsie Tanner, the 1962 marriage of Ken Barlow and Valerie Tatlock, the death of Martha Longhurst in 1964, the birth of the Barlow twins in 1965, Elsie Tanner's wedding to Steve Tanner and a train crashing from the viaduct, Steve Tanner's murder in 1968, a coach crash in 1969. In spite of rising popularity with viewers, Coronation Street was criticised by some for its outdated portrayal of the urban working class, its representation of a community, a nostalgic fantasy.
After the first episode in 1960, the Daily Mirror printed: "The programme is doomed from the outset... For there is little reality in this new serial, which we have to suffer twice a week." By 1967, critics were suggesting that the programme no longer reflected life in 1960s Britain, but reflected how life was in the 1950s. Granada hurried to update the programme, with the hope of introducing more issue-driven stories, including Lucille Hewitt becoming addicted to drugs, Jerry Booth being in a storyline about homosexuality, Emily Nugent having an out-of-wedlock child, introducing a black family, but all of these ideas were dropped for fear of upsetting viewers; the show's production team was tested when many core cast members left the programm
Rhumba known as ballroom rumba, is a genre of ballroom music and dance that appeared in the East Coast of the United States during the 1930s. It combined American big band music with Afro-Cuban rhythms the son cubano, but conga and rumba. Taking its name from the latter, ballroom rumba differs from Cuban rumba both in its music and dance. Hence, authors prefer the Americanized spelling of the word to distinguish between them. Although the term rhumba began to be used by American record companies to label all kinds of Latin music between 1913 and 1915, the history of rhumba as a specific form of ballroom music can be traced back to May 1930, when Don Azpiazú and his Havana Casino Orchestra recorded their song "El manisero" in New York City; this single, released four months by Victor, became a hit, becoming the first Latin song to sell 1 million copies in the United States. The song, composed by Moisés Simons, is a son-pregón arranged, in this case, for Azpiazú's big band featuring 3 saxophones, 2 cornets, guitar, violin and trap drums.
With vocals by Antonio Machín and a trumpet solo by Remberto Lara, the recording attempted to adapt the Cuban son to the style of ballroom music prevalent at the time in the East Coast. Soon, Azpiazú's style was followed by other Cuban artists such as Armando Oréfiche and the Lecuona Cuban Boys, which had extensive international tours in the 1930s, their style has been described as ballroom conga, since they used to borrow conga rhythms in songs such as "Para Vigo me voy". Among their numerous hits were boleros and canciones such as "Amapola" and "Siboney"; this music movement, which included many American big bands which covered Latin standards, was dubbed the rhumba craze. Notable bandleaders of the rhumba craze include Xavier Cugat, Jimmy Dorsey, Nathaniel Shilkret, Leo Reisman and Enric Madriguera. Rhumba was incorporated into classical music as exemplified by symphonic pieces by composers such as George Gershwin, Harl McDonald and Morton Gould; the kind of rhumba introduced into dance salons in America and Europe in the 1930s was characterized by variable tempo, sometimes nearly twice as fast as the modern ballroom rumba, developed as a dance in the 1940s and'50s, when the original music movement had died down.
Nonetheless, the rhumba craze would be the first of three Latin music crazes in the first half of the 20th century, together with the mambo craze and the cha-cha-cha craze. Two variations of rhumba with opposing step patterns are danced around the world. American style rumba was imported to America by band directors like Emil Coleman and Don Aspiazú between 1913 and 1935; the film Rumba, released in 1935, brought the style to the attention of the general public. American style rhumba is taught in a box step, known for its slow-quick-quick pattern danced on the 1, 3, 4 beats of 4-beat music. International style rhumba was developed in Europe by Monsieur Pierre after he compared the established American style with contemporary Cuban dancers. International style is taught in a quick-quick-slow pattern danced on the 2, 3, 4 beats of 4 beat music, similar in step and motion to the cha-cha-cha. Both styles were canonized in 1955. Rhumba is one of the ballroom dances which occurs in international competitions.
Of the five competitive international Latin dances, it is the slowest. This ballroom rumba was derived from a Cuban dance called the bolero-son; the modern international style of dancing the rumba derives from studies made by dance teacher Monsieur Pierre, who partnered Doris Lavelle. Pierre from London, visited Cuba in 1947, 1951, 1953 to find out how and what Cubans were dancing at the time; the international ballroom rumba is a slower dance of about 120 beats per minute which corresponds, both in music and in dance, to what the Cubans of an older generation called the bolero-son. It is easy to see why, for ease of reference and for marketing, rhumba is a better name, however inaccurate. All social dances in Cuba involve a hip-sway over the standing leg and, though this is scarcely noticeable in fast salsa, it is more pronounced in the slow ballroom rumba. In general, steps are kept compact and the dance is danced without any rise and fall; this style is authentic. The basic figures derive from dance moves observed in Havana in the pre-revolutionary period, have developed their own life since then.
Competition figures are complex, this is where competition dance separates from social dance. Details can be obtained from standard texts. There is a variant danced in the United States, with box-like basic figures. Son cubano Cuban rumba Conga Mambo / Mambo Cha-cha-cha / Cha-cha-cha