A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
Dornier Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer founded in Friedrichshafen in 1914 by Claude Dornier. Over the course of its long lifespan, the company produced many designs for both the civil and military markets. Dornier Metallbau, Dornier Flugzeugwerke took over Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen production facilities when it failed in 1923. Dornier was well known between the two world wars as a manufacturer of large, all-metal flying boats and of land based airliners; the record-breaking 1924 Wal was used on many long distance flights and the Do X set records for its immense size and weight. Dornier's successful landplane airliners, including the Komet and Merkur which were used by Lufthansa and other European carriers during the 1920s and early 30s. Dornier built its aircraft outside Germany during much of this period due to the restrictions placed on German aircraft manufacturers by the Treaty of Versailles: locations included Altenrhein, Switzerland, 12km from Zeppelin's Lindau location.
Foreign factories licence-building Dornier products included CMASA and Piaggio in Italy, CASA in Spain, Kawasaki in Japan, Aviolanda in the Netherlands. Once the Nazi government came to power and abandoned the treaty's restrictions, Dornier resumed production in Germany; the success of the Wal family encouraged the development of derivatives, of more advanced successors, such as the Do 18, Do 24 which saw service in several armed forces, including German, into World War II. Dornier's most important World War II military aircraft design was the Do 17, nicknamed The Flying Pencil, it first flew in 1934 as a mailplane for Lufthansa but due to its narrow fuselage it was not commercially viable and was passed over. Dornier developed it further as a military aircraft, with a prototype bomber flying in 1935, in 1937 it was used in by the German Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War. Production continued in Germany and it was developed to fill multiple roles for the Luftwaffe; as a medium bomber it saw service during the early part of World War II during the Battle of Britain.
It was developed into a nightfighter to counter the RAF bomber offensive. Dornier developed the similar looking Do 217 from the Do 17 but it was a larger and new design. Dornier developed the fastest piston-engined fighter of the war, the twin-engined Do 335, too late to see service. After WWII aircraft production was again forbidden in Germany, Dornier relocated to Spain and to Switzerland where the firm provided aeronautical consultancy services until returning to Germany in 1954. Post-war, Dornier re-established itself with successful small STOL Do 28 transports. In 1974 it joined in a joint venture with French aircraft manufacturers Dassault-Breguet to develop the Alpha Jet; the plane was ordered as the new standard NATO trainer during the 80s. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited bought a production licence for the Dornier Do 228 and manufactured the aircraft for the Asian market sphere. By 2013 a total of 117 Dornier DO-228 aircraft had been produced by HAL with plans to build 20 more during 2013-14.
In 1985, Dornier became a member of the Daimler-Benz group integrating its aeronautic assets with the parent company. As part of this transaction, Lindauer Dornier GmbH was spun off, creating a separate, family-owned firm, concentrating on textile machinery design and manufacturing; the rest of the company was split into several subsidiaries for defence, satellites and aircraft. In 1996, the majority of Dornier Aircraft was acquired by Fairchild Aircraft, forming Fairchild Dornier; this company became insolvent in early 2002. Production of its 328 Jet was acquired by US company Avcraft. Asian groups continued to show interest in its 728 version in August 2004, but production had not restarted; the other subsidiaries became part of the EADS. Dornier Medtech manufactures medical equipment, such as the Dornier S lithotriptor, HM3, Compact Delta to treat kidney stones. Dornier MedTech manufactures laser devices for a wide range of applications; the Dornier family have project, the Dornier Seastar. It is a turboprop-powered amphibious aircraft built of composite materials.
This was developed by Claudius Dornier Jr. Dornier Gs Precursor to Wal destroyed by Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control Dornier Do A Libelle Dornier Spatz Landplane version of Do A Dornier Do B Merkur Development of Do C Dornier Do C Komet Dornier Do C 2, 3, 4 Fighter unrelated to earlier Do C, redesignated Do 10 Dornier Do D Dornier Do E Dornier Do F Dornier Do G Grief Dornier Do H Falke Dornier Do I Dornier Do J Wal Dornier Do K Dornier Do L Delphin Dornier Do N Design for Japanese as Kawasaki Ka 87 Dornier Do O Wal Custom built version of Do J Dornier Do P Dornier Do R.2 and R.4 Superwal Dornier Do S Dornier Do T Dornier Do U Dornier Do X Dornier Do Y Additional unbuilt projects include 3 different Schneider Trophy racers from 1924, 1928 and 1931 and a large multi-engine seaplane similar to the Do X
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a large multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung. Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; the history of the company started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik on 15 November 1886. One year Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines. Twenty years the first magneto for automobiles followed; the first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901. In 1906, the company produced its 100,000-th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers. In 1910, the Feuerbach plant was built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913. In 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation. In 1926, Bosch started to produce windshield wipers, in 1927, injection pumps for diesel.
Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company presented its first car radio; as early as the end of 1933, negotiations between Robert Bosch AG and the National Socialists began on relocating parts of armaments production to the interior of Germany. Bosch founded two such alternative plants in 1935 and 1937: Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin and Elektro- und Feinmechanische Industrie GmbH in Hildesheim. Both plants were used for armaments production; these "shadow factories" were built under great secrecy and in close cooperation with the Nazi authorities. In 1937, Bosch AG became a limited liability company; the Bosch subsidiary Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin employed around 5,000 people, more than half of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war, female concentration camp prisoners, including many women from the Warsaw Uprising. They had to produce accessories for German Luftwaffe aircraft.
In Hildesheim, a secret plant for the entire electrical equipment of tanks and trucks of the Wehrmacht was built. In 1944, 4,290 men and women worked in the Trillke factory, 2,019 of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war and military internees. During the Second World War, a total of 2,711 people, deported to Germany from the occupied countries had to work at the Bosch plant in Hildesheim. In the last years of the war, no new German tank drove without the starter elements from the Bosch factory in Hildesheim. Bosch had a monopoly position in the outfitting of German Luftwaffe aircraft. During the war, production was further decentralized, Bosch produced in an larger number of factories, relocated parts of its production to 213 plants in more than 100 locations. On 12 March 1942, the company's founder, Robert Bosch, died at the age of 80. Angela Martin and Ewa Czerwiakowski interviewed numerous former forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners of Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH and Trillke-Werke as part of a Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt project, researched the history of the two shadow factories, published several books and exhibitions on the subject.
In 2016, they published the website z. B. Bosch. Zwangsarbeit im Hildesheimer Wald. After the second world war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso. In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded. Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970. In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH, renamed Telenorma in 1985, acquired in 1987. In 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH; the most relevant inventions of the company until 2000 were the oxygen sensor, the electric motor control, the traction control system, the xenon light for cars, the electronic stability control, the common rail direct fuel injection, the direct fuel injection. In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area. In 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG, which they renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG. In the same year, the company opened a new testing centers in Vaitoudden close to Arjeplog in north Sweden.
A new developing center in Abstatt, Germany followed in 2004. In 2002, Bosch acquired Philips CSI, which at the time was manufacturing a broad range of professional communication and security products and systems including CCTV, congress and public address systems. Important inventions in these years were the electric hydraulic brake in 2001, the common rail fuel injection with piezo-injectors, the digital car radio with a disc drive, the cordless screwdriver with a lithium-ion battery in 2003. Bosch received the Deutsche Zukunftspreis from the German president in 2005 and 2008. A new development center was planned in 2008 in Renningen. In 2014, the first departments moved to the new center, while the remaining departments followed in 2015. In 2006, Bosch acquired Electro-Voice. In 2009, Bosch invested about 3.6 billion Euro in research. 3900 patents are published per year. In addition to increasing energy efficiency by employing renewable energies, the company plans to invest into new areas such as biomedical engineering.
China has developed into an important manufacturing base for Bosch. In 2
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Microcar is a term used for the smallest size of cars, with three or four wheels and an engine smaller than 700 cc. Specific types of microcars include bubble cars, cycle cars and voiturettes, the Japanese equivalent is the kei car. Microcars are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, having relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Most microcars are powered by petrol or diesel engines, however electric-powered microcars have become more common in recent years. Voiturette is a term used by some small cars and tricycles manufactured from 1895 to 1910. Cyclecars are a type of small and inexpensive car manufactured between 1910 and the late 1920s; the first cars to be described as microcars were built in the United Kingdom and Germany following World War II and remained popular until the 1960s. These cars were called minicars, however they became known as microcars. France produced large numbers of similar tiny vehicles called voiturettes, however these were sold abroad. A common characteristic of these microcars is an engine displacement of less than 700 cc, although several cars with engines up to 1,000 cc are considered to be microcars.
The engine was designed for a motorcycle. Microcars have four wheels; the origin of these microcars is in the years following World War II. To provide better weather protection, three-wheeled microcars began increasing in popularity in the United Kingdom, where they could be driven using a motorcycle licence. Microcars became popular in Europe, due to their greater fuel efficiency than larger cars. One of the first microcars was the 1949 Bond Minicar. Micro cars became popular in Europe at that time as a demand for cheap personal motorised transport emerged and fuel prices were high due in part to the 1956 Suez Crisis. Most of them were three-wheelers, which in many places qualified them for inexpensive taxes and licensing as motorcycles; the microcar boom lasted until the late 1950s, when larger cars regained popularity The 1959 introduction of the Mini, which provided greater size and performance at an affordable price, contributed to the decline in popularity of microcars. Production of microcars had ceased by the end of the 1960s, due to competition from the Mini, Citroen 2CV, Fiat 500 and Renault 4.
Several microcars of the 1950s and 1960s— produced in Germany— were nicknamed bubble cars. This was due to the aircraft-style bubble canopies of cars like the Messerschmitt KR175, Messerschmitt KR200 and the FMR Tg500. Other microcars, such as the Isetta had a bubble-like appearance. German manufacturers bubble cars included former military aircraft manufacturers Messerschmitt and Heinkel. BMW manufactured the Italian Iso Rivolta Isetta under licence, using an engine from one of their own motorcycles; the United Kingdom had licence-built right-hand drive versions of the Isetta. The British version of the Isetta was built with only one rear wheel instead of the narrow-tracked pair of wheels in the normal Isetta design in order to take advantage of the three-wheel vehicle laws in the United Kingdom. There were indigenous British three-wheeled microcars, including the Peel Trident. Examples include the Citroën Prototype C, FMR Tg500, Heinkel Kabine, Messerschmitt KR175, Messerschmitt KR200, Peel P50, Peel Trident and Trojan 200.
Kleinschnittger F125. Recent microcars include the 2001 Aixam 5xx series; the Smart Fortwo is called a microcar in the United States. Electric-powered microcars which have reached production include the 1987 CityEl, the 1990 Automobiles ERAD Spacia, the 1999 Corbin Sparrow, the 2001 REVAi, the 2009 Tazzari Zero and the 2011 Peel P50; the European Union introduced the quadricycle category in 1992. In several European countries since microcars are classified by governments separately to normal cars, sometimes using the same regulations as motorcycles or mopeds. Therefore, compared with normal cars, microcars have relaxed requirements for registration and licensing, can be subject to lower taxes and insurance costs. Kei car is the Japanese legal category for the smallest and most limited power, highway-legal motor vehicles, including passenger cars and Kei trucks. There are a variety of microcar trucks of the "forward control" or van style to provide more cargo room; these might be used for local deliveries on narrow streets.
The Piaggio Ape is a three-wheeled example. Car classification Economy car Neighborhood Electric Vehicle
Cars 2 is a 2011 American computer-animated action-adventure comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It is the sequel to 2006's Cars, features the voices of Owen Wilson, Larry the Cable Guy, Michael Caine, Emily Mortimer, John Turturro, Eddie Izzard. In the film, race car Lightning McQueen and tow truck Mater head to Japan and Europe to compete in the World Grand Prix, but Mater becomes sidetracked with international espionage; the film was directed by John Lasseter, written by Ben Queen, produced by Denise Ream. With Lasseter's exit from Pixar in 2018, it marks the final film directed by him. Cars 2 was released in the United States on June 24, 2011; the film was presented in Disney Digital 3D and IMAX 3D, as well as traditional two-dimensional and IMAX formats. The film was first announced in 2008, alongside Up, Brave, it is the 12th animated film from the studio, it grossed $562 million worldwide. A sequel, Cars 3, was released on June 16, 2017. Finn McMissile, a British spy, infiltrates the world's largest untapped oil reserves owned by a group of lemon cars to rescue a fellow spy.
He witnesses the lemons led by Professor Zündapp, load an electromagnetic pulse emitter, disguised as a camera onto a shipping crate. After being discovered, he fakes his death. Lightning McQueen, now a four-time Piston Cup champion, returns to Radiator Springs. However, Italian formula race car, Francesco Bernoulli, challenges McQueen to the newly created World Grand Prix, led by its creator, Sir Miles Axlerod. McQueen and his best friend Mater — along with Luigi, Guido and Sarge — depart for Tokyo for the first race of the Grand Prix. At a World Grand Prix promotional event, Mater makes a scene after leaking oil and eating a bowl of Wasabi, angering McQueen. While cleaning up, Mater interrupts a fight between American spy, Rod "Torque" Redline and lemons Grem and Acer. Redline passes his information Mater, who Holley mistakes as a spy. Meanwhile, Redline is killed by Professor Zündapp and the other lemons. Zündapp informs his superior, an unknown mastermind. At the first race, three cars are ignited by the camera.
McQueen places second in the race after Bernoulli, due to Mater accidentally giving him bad racing advice while evading Zündapp's henchmen with help from Holley and Finn. McQueen snaps at Mater, abducted by Finn while attempting to return to Radiator Springs. After traveling to Paris to collect more information from Finn's old friend Tomber, they travel to Porto Corsa, where the next race is being held. During the race, Mater infiltrates the criminals' meeting, just as the camera is used on a few more cars, causing a multi-car pileup, while McQueen finishes first. Due to increased fears over Allinol's safety, Axlerod lifts the requirement to use it for the final race. However, when McQueen decides to continue using it, the criminals plot to kill McQueen in the next race in London; this spooks Mater, causing him to blow his cover and allow him and Holley to be captured. Mater and Holley are taken to and tied up inside the clock tower of the Big Ben. Mater learns that the camera did not function on McQueen, but the criminals tell him they planted a bomb in his pits as a backup plan, spurring him to break free and escape.
Finn and Holley realize that the bomb is on Mater's air filter. Mater has arrived at the pits when they tell him this, so he flees down the race course while McQueen chases after him. Finn apprehends Professor Zündapp; the other lemons arrive and outnumber Finn, Mater, McQueen, but they are soon rescued by the arrival of the other Radiator Springs residents. Mater uses evidence he has seen to reveal that Axlerod is the mastermind of the plot who placed the bomb on Mater. Mater forces Axlerod to deactivate the bomb, he and the other lemons are arrested. Mater receives an honorary knighthood from the Queen, while Sarge reveals that he changed McQueen's fuel from Allinol to Fillmore's organic biofuel, explaining why the camera did not work on him. Finn and Holley ask if Mater can join them on another mission, but he declines, participates with the World Grand Prix competitors in a race at Radiator Springs. Much of the cast from the original Cars remained intact for the sequel, but three voice actors of the original film have died since its release.
Joe Ranft died in an automobile accident on August 2005, ten months before Cars was released. The first film was dedicated in memoriam to him. Red appears in this film. George Carlin died of heart failure on June 22, 2008. Paul Newman died of cancer on September 26, 2008. After Newman's death, Lasseter said they would "see how the story goes with Doc Hudson." Doc was written out, with a few references to the character, where he is thought to have died before the events of the movie, as Mater says that he would have been proud for McQueen's Piston Cups, which have been renamed after Doc. In international versions of the film, the character Jeff Gorvette is replaced with race car drivers better known in the specific countries in his dialogue scenes. Mark Winterbottom as Frosty Fernando Alonso as Fernando Alonso Vitaly Petrov as Vitaly Petrov (Russian relea