Paradeplatz is a square at the Bahnhofstrasse in downtown Zürich. It is one of the most expensive pieces of real estate in Switzerland and has become synonymous with wealth and the Swiss banks, being the location of the headquarters of both UBS and Credit Suisse; the site of the square lay without the medieval city walls, was incorporated into the town with the construction of the new ramparts in 1642. During the 17th century, it served as a livestock market, known as Säumärt, renamed to Neumarkt "new market" in 1819 and to its current name following the construction of Bahnhofstrasse; the hotel Baur en Ville on the eastern end of the square opened in 1838. The Paradeplatz was the scene of clashes between insurgents and cantonal troops during the 1839 Züriputsch; the Confiserie Sprüngli at the southern end opened in 1859. The Credit Suisse building at the northern end dates to 1873, the UBS building at the western end to 1897–99; the first horse-drawn trams circulated in 1882 and were electrified in 1896.
Paradeplatz is one of the main nodal points of the Zürich tram network, the stop is served by lines 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17. Media related to Paradeplatz Zürich at Wikimedia Commons
Pfäffikon is a municipality in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. It is the seat of the district of the same name, it is not to be confused with Pfäffikon SZ in the canton of Schwyz. In Roman era, along Pfäffikersee there was built a Roman road from the vicus Centum Prata on Obersee–Lake Zürich via Vitudurum to Tasgetium to the Rhine. To secure this important transport route, the Irgenhausen Castrum was built; the native name of the fort is unknown, thus Irgenhausen was mentioned in 811 AD as Camputuna sive Irincheshusa. Maybe the castrum's name was the name of the neighbouring village of Kempten. Pfäffikon is first mentioned in 811 as faffinchova. In 965 it was mentioned as haffinchova. Pfäffikon has an area of 19.5 km2. Of this area, 43.3 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 16.7% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 11.9% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 11.4% of the area.
As of 2007 13.6% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. Pfäffikon is situated on Pfäffikersee in Zürcher Oberland southeasternly of the city of Zürich. Neighbouring municipalities are Bäretswil, Fehraltorf, Russikon, Seegräben, Uster and Wildberg; the town is divided into four districts, namely Auslikon and Rutschberg situated on Pfäffikersee, as well as the districts of Ober Balm, Unter Balm, Oberwil, Hermatswil, Schür, Rick, Ravensbühl, Faichrüti. Pfäffikon has a population of 11,864; as of 2007, 17.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 51 % female. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 12.1%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the CSP and the Green Party. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 23.5% of the population, while adults make up 62% and seniors make up 14.5%.
In Pfäffikon about 73.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 3954 households in Pfäffikon. Pfäffikon has an unemployment rate of 2.52%. As of 2005, there were 200 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 58 businesses involved in this sector. 1635 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 99 businesses in this sector. 2379 people are employed with 352 businesses in this sector. As of 2007 50% of the working population were employed full-time, 50% were employed part-time; as of 2008 there were 4771 Protestants in Pfäffikon. In the 2000 census, religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the census, 52.5% were some type of Protestant, with 48.6% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 4% belonging to other Protestant churches. 27.3% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 7.5% belonged to another religion, 2.4% did not give a religion, 9.5% were atheist or agnostic.
The historical population is given in the following table: Pfäffikon has an average of 139.3 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,162 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is August during which time Pfäffikon receives an average of 136 mm of precipitation. During the wettest month, there is precipitation for an average of 12.3 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is May, with an average of 13.4, but with only 112 mm of precipitation. Pfäffikon ZH railway station is a stop of the S-Bahn Zürich on the line S3. Bernhard Hirzel a Swiss theologian and Orientalist, became pastor in Pfäffikon in 1837 Jakob Heusser-Staub a Swiss industrialist and philanthropist Florian Froehlich a contemporary artist who creates paintings, stained-glass and installations Darije Kalezić a Bosnian-Herzegovinian and Swiss former footballer, 220 club caps Official Website of Gemeinde Pfäffikon ZH Statistics for Gemeinde Pfäffikon ZH Bernhard A. Gubler: Pfäffikon in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2002-10-21.
GIS Browser of the canton of Zürich: Pfäffikon
Fribourg or Freiburg is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district La Sarine. It is located on both sides of the river Saane/Sarine, on the Swiss Plateau, is a major economic and educational center on the cultural border between German and French Switzerland, its Old City, one of the best-maintained in Switzerland, sits on a small rocky hill above the valley of the Sarine. The region around Fribourg has been settled since the Neolithic period, although few remains have been found; these include some flint tools found near Bourguillon, as well as a stone hatchet and bronze tools. A river crossing was located in the area during the Roman Era; the main activity in the Swiss plateau bypassed the area to the north and was instead centered around the valley of the river Broye and Aventicum. Therefore, only a few remains from the Roman era have been found in Fribourg; these include the traces of a wall foundation on the plains near Pérolles. The town was founded in 1157 by Berthold IV, Duke of Zähringen.
Its name is derived from German frei and Burg. Its most ancient part is conveniently located on a former peninsula of the river Sarine, protected on three sides by steep cliffs; the defended city helped the Dukes of Zähringen to strengthen and extend their power in the Swiss plateau in the area between the Aare and La Sarine. Beginning at the time of its inception, Fribourg built a city-state; when the dukes of Zähringen died out in 1218, the city was transferred to the related Kyburg family. They granted the city its former privileges and wrote the municipal laws in the so-called Handfeste in 1249, in which the legal and economic organizations were established. Several treaties with neighbouring city-states, including Avenches and Morat, were signed at this time; the city was sold to the Habsburgs in 1277. Trade and industry began as early as the mid-13th century. In the early period, Fribourg consisted of four distinct inner city districts: Burg, Au, La Neuveville, Spital; the city developed which led to its first expansion: the Burg district expanded to the west in 1224, a town was established across the river in 1254, in 1280 development began near Place Python.
These expansions reflect the economic boom in Fribourg. The 14th century was dominated by trade, cloth and leather production, which brought the city renown in Central Europe by 1370. In 1339, Fribourg participated alongside the Habsburgs and the County of Burgundy in the Battle of Laupen against Bern and its Swiss Confederacy allies; the treaty with Bern was renewed in 1403. The leaders of the city began a territorial acquisition, in which they brought more nearby land under their control; this laid the ground-work for the Canton of Fribourg. By 1442 the city had control of all the land within about 20 kilometres, on both sides of the Saane, it was therefore directly controlled by the city leaders, not by any intermediate administration. The mid-15th century was shaped by various military conflicts. First, considerable losses in a war against Savoy had to be made good; the Savoyard influence on the city grew, the Habsburgs ceded it to them in 1452. It remained under the control of Savoy until the Burgundian Wars in 1477.
As an ally of Bern, Fribourg participated in the war against Charles I of Burgundy, thereby bringing more land under its control. After the city was released from the sphere of influence of Savoy, it attained the status of Free Imperial City in 1478; the city and its canton joined the Swiss Confederation in 1481, has long influenced Swiss and European Catholicism. In the 16th century, Fribourg continued to grow, first following the invasion of Waadtland in 1536 with the help of Bern, in 1554 through the annexation of land controlled by the Count of Greyerz. Several prominent families developed as a result of the cloth and leather trade, beginning in the 14th century, including Gottrau, Affry, von der Weid and Weck. Together with the local nobles they formed the 15th century patrician class; this contributed to the decline of the cloth trade, however, as the families involved in the industry began to be more concerned with governing the city and its surrounding possessions. An important milestone for the politics of the city was reached in 1627, when the patricians drew up a new constitution, in which they declared that they were the only people capable of ruling the city, thereby took control of all voting rights.
This consolidated the oligarchy which had begun to form as early as the 15th century. The monasteries of Fribourg have always formed a centre of religious culture, which includes architecture and painting, have contributed to the culture of the city; the Franciscan monastery was donated by Jakob von Riggisberg in 1256. In early times, it was associated with the city council, because it housed the city archives and its monastery church was used for town meetings until 1433; the Augustinian monastery was founded in the mid-13th century, enjoyed the support of the noble Velga family for a long time. Additionally, La Maigrauge Abbey has existed since 1255, has belonged to the Cistercians since 1262. An important institution was the public hospital, opened in the mid-
Gottfried Keller was a Swiss poet and writer of German literature. Best known for his novel Green Henry, he became one of the most popular narrators of literary realism in the late 19th century, his father was a lathe-worker from Glattfelden. The couple had six children. After his father died of tuberculosis, Keller's family lived in constant poverty, because of Keller's difficulties with his teachers, in continual disagreement with school authorities. Keller gave a good rendering of his experiences in this period in his long novel, Der grüne Heinrich, his mother seems to have brought him up in as carefree a condition as possible, sparing for him from her scanty meals, allowing him the greatest possible liberty in the disposition of his time, the choice of a calling, etc. With some changes, a treatment of her relations to him may be found in his short story, “Frau Regel Amrain und ihr jüngster”. Keller's first true passion was painting. Expelled in a political mix-up from the Industrieschule in Zürich, he became an apprentice in 1834 to the landscape painter Steiger and in 1837 to the watercolourist Rudolf Meyer.
In 1840, he went to Munich to study art for a time at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Keller returned to Zürich in 1842 and, took up writing, he published his first poems, Gedichte, in 1846. Jacob Wittmer Hartmann characterizes these six years at Zürich as a time of total inactivity, when Keller inclined toward radicalism in politics, was subject to much temptation and indulged himself. From 1848 to 1850 he studied at the University of Heidelberg. There he came under the influence of the philosopher Feuerbach, extended his radicalism to matters of religion. From 1850 to 1856, he worked in Berlin. Hartmann claims it was chiefly this stay in Berlin which molded Keller's character into its final shape, toned down his rather bitter pessimism to a more moderate form, prepared him, in the whirl of a large city, for an enjoyment of the more restricted pleasures of his native Zürich, it was in Berlin that he turned away from other pursuits and took up literature as a career. In this period, Keller published.
It is the most personal of all his works. Under the influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's doctrine of a return to nature, this book was at first intended to be a short narrative of the collapse of the life of a young artist, it expanded as its composition progressed into a huge work drawing on Keller's youth and career as a painter up to 1842. Its reception by the literary world was cool, but the second version of 1879 is a rounded and satisfying artistic product, he published his first collection of short stories, Die Leute von Seldwyla. It contains five stories averaging 60 pages each: “Pankraz der Schmoller,” “Frau Regel Amrain und ihr jüngster,” “Die drei gerechten Kammacher,” “Romeo und Julie auf dem Dorfe,” and “Spiegel das Kätzchen.” Hartmann characterizes two of the stories in Die Leute von Seldwyla as immortal: “Die drei gerechten Kammacher” he views as the most satyric and scorching attack on the sordid petit bourgeois morality penned by any writer, “Romeo und Julie auf dem Dorfe” as one of the most pathetic tales in literature.
Keller returned again to Zürich and became the First Official Secretary of the Canton of Zürich in 1861. The routine duties of this position were a sort of fixed point about which his artistic activities could revolve, but Hartmann opines that he produced little of permanent value in these years. In 1872, Keller published Seven Legends. After 15 years at this post, he was retired in 1876, began a period of literary activity, to last to his death, living the life of an old bachelor with his sister Regula as his housekeeper. In spite of his unsympathetic manner, his extreme reserve and idiosyncrasy in dealing with others, he had gained the affection of his fellow townspeople and an universal reputation before his death. Hartmann bases Keller's fame chiefly on 15 short stories, the five mentioned above; the milieu is always that of an orderly bourgeois existence, within which the most manifold human destinies, the most humorous relations are progressing, the most peculiar and hardy types of endurance and reticence being formed.
Some of the stories contained a note, new in German literature and that endeared them to Germans as embodying an ideal as yet unrealized in their own country: they narrate the development of character under the free conditions of little Switzerland, picturing an unbureaucratic civic life and an independence of business initiative that cannot but attract those who are denied these privileges. Noteworthy are his Collected Poetry, the novel Martin Salander. In 1890, shortly before the end of her tragic life, Lydia Escher i
Johannes Jacob Hegetschweiler
Johannes Jacob Hegetschweiler was a Swiss physician and botanist. He is remembered for his investigations of Alpine vegetation. In 1809 he studied medicine at the medical-surgical institute in Zurich, followed by medical studies at the University of Tübingen as a pupil of Johann Heinrich Ferdinand von Autenrieth. While at Tübingen, he attended lectures in natural sciences given by Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer. On, he worked as a physician at the typhus hospital in Rheinau, from 1814 to 1831, he served as a doctor in the town of Stafa. From 1831 to 1839 he held various posts with the cantonal government in Zürich. During the so-called Züriputsch of September 6, 1839, as a mediator between government militia and insurrectionists, he was wounded in the head from a bullet fired by the insurgents, died three days on September 9; the botanical genus Hegetschweilera Heer, Regel commemorates his name, as does taxa with the specific epithet of hegetschweileri. Among his better written efforts was an enumeration of Swiss plants, titled Beyträge zur einer kritischent aufzählung der Schweizer pflanzen, a new edition of Johann Rudolf Suter's Flora Helvetica.
After his death, Oswald Heer edited and published Hegetschweiler's Flora der Schweiz
David Friedrich Strauss was a German liberal Protestant theologian and writer, who influenced Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied. His work was connected to the Tübingen School, which revolutionized study of the New Testament, early Christianity, ancient religions. Strauss was a pioneer in the historical investigation of Jesus. Born and died in Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart. At age 12 he was sent to the evangelical seminary at Blaubeuren, near Ulm, to be prepared for the study of theology. Two of the principal masters in the school were Professors Friedrich Heinrich Kern and Ferdinand Christian Baur, who instilled in their pupils a deep appreciation for the ancient classics and the principles of textual criticism, which could be applied to texts in the sacred tradition as well as to classical ones. In 1825, Strauss entered the University of Tübingen—the Tübinger Stift; the professors of philosophy there failed to interest him, but the theories of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Jakob Böhme, Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel successively claimed his allegiance.
In 1830, he became an assistant to a country clergyman, nine months he accepted the post of professor in the Evangelical Seminaries of Maulbronn and Blaubeuren, where he would teach Latin and Hebrew. In October 1831, Strauss resigned his office to study under Hegel in Berlin. Hegel died just as he arrived, though Strauss attended Schleiermacher's lectures, it was only those on the life of Jesus that interested him. Strauss was not successful. While under the influence of Hegel's distinction between Vorstellung and Begriff, Strauss had conceived the ideas found in his two principal theological works: Das Leben Jesu and Christliche Glaubenslehre. Hegelians would not accept his conclusions. In 1832, Strauss returned to Tübingen, lecturing on logic, the history of philosophy and ethics with great success. However, in the fall of 1833, he resigned, to devote all his time to the completion of his Das Leben Jesu, published when he was 27 years old; the full original title of this work is Das Leben Jesu kritisch bearbeitet, it was translated from the fourth German edition into English by George Eliot and published under the title The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined.
Since the Hegelians in general rejected his Life of Jesus, Strauss defended his work in a booklet, Streitschriften zur Verteidigung meiner Schrift über das Leben Jesu und zur Charakteristik der gegenwärtigen Theologie, translated into English by Marilyn Chapin Massey and published under the title In Defense Of My'Life of Jesus' Against the Hegelians. The famous scholar Bruno Bauer led the attack of the Hegelians on Strauss, Bauer continued to attack Strauss in academic journals for years; when young Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche began criticizing Strauss, Bauer gave Nietzsche every support that he could afford. In the third edition of Das Leben Jesu, in Zwei friedliche Blätter, Strauss made important concessions to his critics, some of which he withdrew, however, in the fourth edition of Das Leben Jesu. Strauss's Das Leben Jesu, kritisch bearbeitet was a sensation. While not denying that Jesus existed, Strauss did argue that the miracles in the New Testament were mythical additions with little basis in actual fact.
Carl August von Eschenmayer wrote a review in 1835 called "The Iscariotism of our days," a review which Strauss characterised as'the offspring of the legitimate marriage between theological ignorance and religious intolerance, blessed by a sleep-walking philosophy.' The Earl of Shaftesbury called the 1846 translation by Marian Evans "the most pestilential book vomited out of the jaws of hell." When Strauss was elected to a chair of theology in the University of Zürich, the appointment provoked such a storm of controversy that the authorities decided to pension him before he began his duties. What made Das Leben Jesu so controversial was Strauss's characterization of the miraculous elements in the gospels as mythical. After analyzing the Bible in terms of self-coherence and paying attention to numerous contradictions, he concluded that the miracle stories were not actual events. According to Strauss, the early church developed these stories in order to present Jesus as the Messiah of the Jewish prophecies.
This perspective was in opposition to the prevailing views of Strauss' time: rationalism, which explained the miracles as misinterpretations of non-supernatural events, the supernaturalist view that the biblical accounts were accurate. Strauss's third way, in which the miracles are explained as myths developed by early Christians to support their evolving conception of Jesus, heralded a new epoch in the textual and historical treatment of the rise of Christianity. In 1840 and the following year Strauss published his On Christian Doctrine in two volumes; the main principle of this new work was that the history of Christian doctrines has been the history of their disintegration. With the publication of his Christliche Glaubenslehre, Strauss took leave of theology for over twenty years. In August 1841, he married Agnese Schebest, a cultivated and beautiful mezzo-soprano of high repute as an opera singer. Five years afterwards, they divorced. Straus