The N-Class, or as popularly known, the Nan ship, was a line of non-rigid airships built by the Goodyear Aircraft Company of Akron, Ohio for the US Navy. This line of airships was developed through many versions and assigned various designators as the airship designation system changed in the post World War II era; these versions included airships configured for both anti-submarine warfare and airborne early warning missions. The initial version, designated ZPN-1, was a follow-on to the M-class blimp for patrol missions; the Nan ship used a larger envelope than the M-ship although their overall lengths were similar. Two Wright R-1300 Cyclone 7 single-row, air-cooled radial engines powered the N-Class blimps. An initial contract was awarded to the Goodyear Aircraft Company for the prototype N-class blimp in the late 1940s, with delivery of the first on in 1952; the ZPN-1 designation was changed to ZPG-1 in 1954, to SZ-1A in 1962. The envelope capacity for the ZPN-1 used the gas helium for lift.
The ZPN-1 was followed by an order for four improved N-class blimps that were delivered in 1954. These airships were designated ZP2N, re-designated in 1954 as the ZPG-2. Three of the ZP2N airships were modified for an airborne early warning mission in the mid-1950s and were designated ZP2N-1W but at delivery were designated ZPG-2W, their designation was changed to EZ-1B in 1962. The envelope capacity of these airships exceeded 1×10^6 cu ft; the ZPG-2W was equipped with the AN/APS-20 radar with its antenna installed beneath the gondola. An AN/APS-69 height-finding radar antenna was mounted on top of the envelope; the engines drove the propellers through extended shafts. The airship had an endurance capability of over 200 hours; the first ZPG-2W was delivered to the Navy at NAS Lakehurst in May 1955. Operationally the ZPG-2W was used to fill radar gaps in the North American early-warning network between the Contiguous Barrier and the Inshore Barrier during the Cold War. In a demonstration of the ability to stay on-station autonomously for extended periods, ZPG-2 "Snow Bird", pilot in command Cdr.
Jack R. Hunt USN, supported by a naval crew of 12 plus a civilian flight engineer from Goodyear, made a record-breaking non-stop flight across the Atlantic and back; the airship departed Naval Air Station South Weymouth, Massachusetts, on Monday 4 March 1957, reaching the south-west tip of Portugal by the evening of 7 March despite adverse headwinds for some of the way, passed by Casablanca, Morocco, on the morning of 8 March turned back westwards over the Cape Verde Islands towards the Caribbean landing at Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, on the evening of 15 March. The flight had covered a distance of 9,448 mi in 264.2 hours, in doing so had not only broken the lighter-than-air distance record of 6,980 mi set by the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship in 1929 but the aircraft endurance record without refuelling. One of the ZPG-2 airships was built or modified with external engines to test systems for the follow on ZPG-3W airships and is some times referred to as a ZPG-2 1/2; the follow-on and larger AEW blimp was the ZPG-3W, the largest non-rigid airship built to enter military service.
It was used to fill radar gaps in the North American early-warning network during the Cold War between the Contiguous Barrier and the Inshore Barrier. The popular name for the ZPG-3W was Vigilance; the ZPG-3W was unique in that the huge antenna for the early warning radar was enclosed inside the helium-filled envelope. Four airships were delivered to the U. S. Navy; the first flight of the ZPG-3W was in July 1958. The envelope of the blimp was used as a radome for the 42 ft radar antenna, thus providing the airship with a clean aerodynamic shape; the airship was 403 ft long and was 120 ft high, containing some 1,500,000 cubic feet. The endurance time of the airship could extend for days; this model of the N-class blimp was the largest non-rigid airship flown. The ZPG-3W Vigilance was the last of the airships built for the U. S. Navy; the July 6, 1960, crash of a Lakehurst-based airship east of Long Beach Island killed 18 sailors, a loss that added pressure on the program. The Navy subsequently decommissioned its airship units at Naval Air Station Glynco, Georgia, at Lakehurst on October 31, 1961.
On August 31, 1962, the last two ZPG-3W ships made a ceremonial last flight over Lakehurst — the base log noted, "This flight terminates operation of non-rigid airships at Lakehurst," Steingold said. The specially designed and built AN/APS-70 Radar with its massive 42 ft internal antenna was the best airborne radar system built for detecting other aircraft because its low frequency penetrated weather and showed only the more electronically visible returns. A large radome on top of the envelope held the height-finding radar. In 1986, a ZPG-2W envelope was used for the construction of the Piasecki PA-97 Helistat. Two N-class blimp control cars are located at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida; the cockpit from the control car for ZPG-2, BuNo 141561 known as Snow Bird, has been restored and is on display at the museum. Launching from Naval Air Station South Weymouth, Massachusetts in March 1957, this airship made two crossings of the Atlantic before touching down at NAS Key West, Florida.
All told, Snow Bird spent just over eleven days aloft in covering 9,448 miles without refueling. For his performance on the flight, the airship commander, CDR Jack R. Hunt, USN, received the Harmon International Trophy for Aeronautics. Following its deflat
The BMW Z1 is the first model in BMW's line of Z series roadsters, was produced in limited numbers from 1989 to 1991. The Z1 is unique for its plastic body panels and vertically sliding doors which drop into the door sills, it is one of the first BMWs to use a multi-link rear suspension. The sole drivetrain specification is the 2.5-litre straight-six engine and 5-speed manual transmission from the E30 325i. In 1996, the Z1's successor, the mass-produced Z3, began production. At the start of 1985, BMW set up a division called BMW Technik GmbH to develop concepts for new vehicles and technologies; the director of BMW Technik GmbH was Ulrich Bez. Control of the project was turned over to Klaus Faust when Bez left BMW in October 1988; the lead designer was Harm Lagaay. In August 1985, the BMW board gave approval to further develop the BMW Technik's first concept vehicle, the Z1. A year the first road-going prototype was produced and BMW publicly revealed the project. A coupe model was the subject of a design study, but it did not reach production.
In early 1987, BMW announced that the Z1 would enter production and in September 1987, the production form of the Z1 was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Production began in October 1988; the original price target was DM 80,000, however by the time production began, the base price had increased to DM 83,000. The doors are unique in that they retract vertically, instead of traditional designs which swing outward or upward; the body with its high sills, offers crash protection independent of the doors, it is possible for the Z1 to be driven with the doors lowered. The windows may be operated independently of the doors, although they do retract automatically if the door is lowered. Both the window and door are driven by electric motors through toothed rubber belts and may be moved manually in an emergency. In addition to the unique door design, the Z1 body featured several other innovations: removable plastic body panels, a flat undertray, a roll-hoop integrated into the windscreen surround and continuously zinc welded seams.
The side panels and doors are made of GE's Xenoy thermoplastic. The bonnet and roof cover are GRP components made by Seger + Hoffman AG; the car is painted in a special flexible lacquer finish developed jointly by AKZO Coatings and BMW Technik GmbH. During the Z1s launch, BMW suggested that owners purchase an additional set of body panels and change the color of the car from time to time; the car could be driven with all of the panels removed, similar to the Pontiac Fiero. BMW noted that the body could be replaced in 40 minutes, although Z1 owners have reported that this may be way too optimistic. Aerodynamics were a focus of the vehicle design; the flat plastic undertray is used for ground effect aerodynamics and the rear bumper - in conjunction with the aerodynamically shaped muffler - forms a diffuser to reduce rear lift. The front end induces a high-pressure zone just forward of the front wheels to increase front-wheel traction; the Z1 has a drag coefficient of 0.43 Cd with it down. The rear suspension, called the Z Axle, was specially designed for the Z1.
It was one of the first BMWs to feature a multi-link design. In the 1990s, the Z Axle would be used on a variety of BMW Group vehicles, including the E36 3 Series and the R40 Rover 75. Front suspension is as per the E30 325i. Wheels, similar to the E30 325i, are 15-inch-diameter by 7-inch-wide wheels on both the front and rear, equipped with 205/55VR-15 tires; the sole drivetrain configuration is a 2.5 Litre M20) straight-six engine and five-speed Getrag 260/5 manual transmission, sourced from the E30 325i. The engine is a 2,494 cc SOHC straight-six engine, which produces 125 kW at 5,800 rpm and 222 N⋅m of torque; the engine sits tilted 20 degrees to the right. The "Z" in Z1 stood for Zukunft, the German word for future. Cars in the Z Series are the Z3, Z4, Z8, which were all available as 2-seat convertibles; the Z1 was produced from March 1989 to June 1991, all at BMW's plant in Munich, 8,000 cars were produced. All the cars were left-hand drive, the majority were sold in BMW's native German market.
The country to receive the second-greatest number of Z1s, received less than 7% of the total sold domestically. BMW Z1 vehicles imported to France for sale there have yellow headlights instead of the clear ones found elsewhere. Initial demand was strong, with BMW receiving orders for 3,500 vehicles. However, demand dropped around 1988 and BMW ended production in 1991. There is speculation that the drop in demand was due to the early inflated demand from speculative investors. In 1988, however, BMW was quoted as saying that they had 35,000 orders for the Z1. BMW was unable to build more than 10 to 20 Z1 vehicles each day. More than half of all Z1 vehicles were produced for the 1990 model year. Seventy-eight Z1 vehicles were used as test mules, although most were sold without a warranty and at a lower price. None of the Z1 vehicles were sold with air conditioning; the vehicle's dashboard is small and there was no room for both heat and cooling units. The Z1 was available in four interior colours. Red is the most common exterior color.
Most were black, or green with a dark grey interior. Light yellow exterior (fun-gelb in German or fun yel
The Z1 was a mechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse from 1936 to 1937 and built by him from 1936 to 1938. It was a binary electrically driven mechanical calculator with limited programmability, reading instructions from punched celluloid film; the Z1 was the first programmable computer in the world which used Boolean logic and binary floating-point numbers, however it was unreliable in operation. It was completed in 1938 and financed from private funds; this computer was destroyed in the bombardment of Berlin in December 1943, during World War II, together with all construction plans. The Z1 was the first in a series of computers, its original name was "V1" for VersuchsModell 1. After WW2, it was renamed "Z1" to differentiate from the flying bombs designed by Robert Lusser; the Z2 and Z3 were follow-ups based on many of the same ideas as the Z1. The Z1 contained all the parts of a modern computer, i.e. control unit, micro sequences, floating-point logic and input–output devices. The Z1 was programmable via punched tape and a punched tape reader.
There was a clear separation between the punched tape reader, the control unit for supervising the whole machine and the execution of the instructions, the arithmetic unit, the input and output devices. The input tape unit read perforations in 35-millimeter film; the Z1 was a 22-bit floating-point value adder and subtracter, with some control logic to make it capable of more complex operations such as multiplication and division. The Z1's instruction set had nine instructions and it took between one and twenty cycles per instruction; the Z1 had a 64-word floating-point memory, where each word of memory could be read from – and written to – the control unit. The mechanical memory units were unique in their design and were patented by Konrad Zuse in 1936; the machine was only capable of executing instructions while reading from the punched tape reader, so the program itself was not loaded in its entirety into internal memory in advance. The input and output were in decimal numbers, with a decimal exponent and the units had special machinery for converting these to and from binary numbers.
The input and output instructions would be written as floating-point numbers. The program tape was 35 mm film with the instructions encoded in punched holes. "Z1 was a machine of about 1000 kg weight. It was a programmable computer, based on binary floating-point numbers and a binary switching system, it consisted of thin metal sheets, which Zuse and his friends produced using a jigsaw." "The input device was a keyboard... The Z1’s programs were stored on punch tapes by means of an 8-bit code"Construction of the Z1 was financed. Zuse got money from his parents, his sister Lieselotte, some students of the fraternity AV Motiv and Kurt Pannke to do so. Zuse constructed the Z1 in his parents' apartment. In 1936, Zuse quit his job in airplane construction in order to build the Z1. Zuse is said to have used "thin metal strips" and "metal cylinders" or glass plates to construct Z1. There were no commercial relays in it; the only electrical unit was an electric motor to give the clock frequency of 1 Hz to the machine.'The memory was constructed from thin strips of slotted metal and small pins, proved faster and more reliable, than relays.
The Z2 used relay-based arithmetic. The Z3 was experimentally built of relays; the Z4 was the first attempt at a commercial computer, reverting to the faster and more economical mechanical slotted metal strip memory, with relay processing, of the Z2, but the war interrupted the Z4 development.'The Z1 was never reliable in operation due to poor synchronization due to internal and external stresses on the mechanical parts. The original Z1 was destroyed by the Allied air raids in 1943, but in 1980s Zuse decided to rebuild the machine. First sketches of the Z1 reconstruction were drawn in 1984, he constructed thousands of elements of the Z1 again, finished rebuilding the device in 1989. The rebuilt Z1 is displayed at the German Museum of Technology in Berlin. Konrad Zuse: "There is a replica of this Model in the Museum of Traffic and Technology in Berlin. Back it didn't function well, in that regard the replica is reliable -- it doesn't work well." History of computing hardware Analytical Engine Difference engine Z2 Z3 Z4 Zuse, Konrad.
The Computer - My Life. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-56453-9. Rojas, Raul. "The Design Principles of Konrad Zuse's Mechanical Computers". ArXiv:1603.02396. Paper describes the design principles of Zuse Z1. Zuse, Horst. "The life and work of Konrad Zuse". EPEmag. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010. "Zuse Z1 detailed information". Horst Zuse. Retrieved 9 February 2015. "An informative website about Zuse Z1"
Sony Xperia Z1
The Sony Xperia Z1 is an Android smartphone produced by Sony. The Z1, at that point known by the project code name "Honami", was unveiled during a press conference in IFA 2013 on 4 September 2013; the phone was released in China on 15 September 2013, in the UK on 20 September 2013, entered more markets in October 2013. On 13 January 2014, the Sony Xperia Z1s, a modified version of the Sony Xperia Z1 exclusive to T-Mobile US, was released in the United States. Like its predecessor, the Sony Xperia Z, the Xperia Z1 is waterproof and dustproof, has an IP rating of IP55 and IP58; the key highlight of the Z1 is the 20.7 megapixel camera, paired with Sony's in-house G lens and its image processing algorithm called BIONZ. The phone comes with Sony's new camera user interface, dedicated shutter button and has an aluminium and glass unibody design; the Sony Xperia Z1's design is "Omni-Balance", according to Sony, focused on creating balance and symmetry in all directions. Xperia Z1 has subtly rounded edges and smooth, reflective surfaces on all sides, which are held together by a skeleton frame made from aluminium.
The phone features tempered glass, Sony's own and they claim is tougher than Gorilla Glass and back, covered by shatterproof film on front and back. The aluminium power button is placed on the right side of the device. A dedicated hardware shutter key for easy access to camera is provided on the lower right side; the location is said to make operation easier. The metallic look and positioning of the power button is inspired by luxury watch crown design. Easy access to external memory card and sim card slots are provided; the sim card can be removed with bare hands. The phone is available in three colours: black and purple; the Xperia Z1 is thicker and heavier and has thicker screen bezels than the Xperia Z though the two phones share the same screen size. Sony said; the camera sensor size is 1/2.3" same as are used in bridge camera. The phone is certified waterproof to 1.5 m for up to 30 minutes. The Z1 is dust resistant with an IP rating of 55 and 58. Unlike the Xperia Z, the Xperia Z1 doesn't have a flap covering its headphone jack, but maintains its waterproofing, a move welcomed by many due to the waterproofing warranty on the Sony Xperia Z being reliant on all ports being sealed.
Additional less obvious connectivity includes support for USB OTG allowing for the connection of external USB devices as well as support for MHL output connection. The Xperia Z1 comes with 2GB of RAM and Qualcomm's quad-core Snapdragon 800 processor clocked at 2.15 GHz. It contains a 5.0 inch Sony Triluminos and its X-Reality Engine for better image and video viewing, the displays resolution is 1920x1080 with 441 pixels per inch. The Sony Xperia Z1 has a 3000mAh battery; the Xperia Z1 was shipped with Android 4.2 with Sony's custom launcher on top. Some notable additions to the software include Sony's Media applications – Walkman and Videos. NFC is a core feature of the device, allowing'one touch' to mirror what is on the smartphone to compatible TVs or play music on a NFC wireless speaker. Additionally, the device includes a battery stamina mode which increases the phone's standby time up to 4 times. Several Google applications come preloaded. Sony radically changed its camera user-interface; as of firmware update.290 the bootloader can be unlocked without losing camera functionality.
On 28 January 2014 Sony began the roll out of firmware update.136, in addition to bug fixes Sony included the White Balance feature which allows the user to customize the white balance of their display. On 7 November 2013, Sony Mobile announced via their blog that the Xperia Z1 would receive the Android 4.3 update in December. It announced that the Android 4.4 update will be released for the Xperia Z1. On 19 March 2014, the Xperia Z1 received the Android 4.4.2 update. On 27 June 2014, the Xperia Z1 received the Android 4.4.4 update, which corrected various bugs introduced in the previous Android 4.4.2 update. On 18 November 2014, the Xperia Z1 got an update that removed the "What's new" application when swiping up, because of user complaints. On 15 April 2015, Sony Mobile released the Android 5.0.2 Lollipop update for the Xperia Z1 starting with build number 14.5. A.0.242. The PlayStation App on the Xperia Z1 came preinstalled on the Lollipop update, whereas it was not preinstalled on earlier Jelly Bean and KitKat updates.
In September 2015, Sony Mobile released the Android 5.1.1 Lollipop update for the Xperia Z1 starting with build number 14.6. A.0.368 On November 5, 2015, Sony Mobile released another update to newly released Android 5.1.1 Lollipop for the Xperia Z1 bearing the build number 14.6. A.1.216 On December 4, 2015, Sony Mobile released another small bug-fixing update for the Xperia Z1 models with build number 14.6. A.1.236. Initial reports suggest. With a focus on camera, Xperia Z1 introduces many new camera modes and apps. Social live, developed in cooperation with Bambuser, allows users to broadcast their video live via Facebook and gets comments from their friends in real time. Info-eye gives information about the objects captured by Xperia Z1's camera. Timeshift-burst captures 61 frames within 2 seconds, starting before the shutter button is pressed, allowing users to select the best picture, but shooting in 1080p resolution. AR Effect switches cam
Admiralty scaffolding known as Obstacle Z.1 or sometimes given as beach scaffolding or anti-tank scaffolding, was a British design of anti-tank and anti-boat obstacle made of tubular steel. It was deployed on beaches of southern England, eastern England and the south western peninsula during the invasion crisis of 1940-1941. Scaffolding was used, though more sparingly, inland. Of a number of similar designs, by far the most common was designated obstacle Z.1. This design comprised upright tubes 9 feet high and 4 feet 10 inches apart, these were connected by up to four horizontal tubes; each upright was braced at about 45 °, to the rear. 20-foot wide sections were preassembled and carried to the sea to be placed in position at the half tide mark as an obstacle to boats. However, trials found that a 250-ton barge at 5 1⁄2 knots or an 80-ton trawler at 7 1⁄2 knots would pass through the obstacle as if it were not there and a trawler pulled out one bay with an attached wire rope. Tests in October 1940, confirmed that tanks could only break through with difficulty, as a result Z.1 was adopted as an anti-tank barrier for beaches thought suitable for landing tanks.
As an anti-tank barrier it was placed at or just above the high water point where it would be difficult for tanks to get enough momentum to break through the barrier. In some places, two sets of scaffolding were set up, one in the water against boats and one at high water against tanks; the problem of securing the barriers on sand was overcome by the development of the sword picket by Stewarts & Lloyds – this device was known at the Admiralty as the Wallace Sword. Barriers varying in length from a couple of hundred feet to three miles were constructed consuming 50% of Britain's production of scaffolding steel at an estimated cost of £6,600 per mile. Despite this, many miles of Admiralty scaffolding were erected using more than 15,000 miles of scaffolding tube. After the war, the scaffolding got in the way of swimmers. Soon, the scaffolding was removed for scrap and any remaining traces are now rare, but are revealed by storms. British anti-invasion preparations of World War II British hardened field defences of World War II Foot, William.
Beaches, fields and hills... the anti-invasion landscapes of England, 1940. Council for British Archaeology. ISBN 1-902771-53-2. Ruddy, Austin. British Anti-Invasion Defences 1940–1945. Official Handbook of the Pillbox Study Group. Historic Military Press. ISBN 1-901313-20-4. Wills, Henry. Pillboxes: A Study of UK Defences. Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-436-57360-1. "The National Archives". Repository of UK government records. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2007. Mark Harrison. "Forgotten Frontline". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2010
Flow of funds
Flow of funds accounts are a system of interrelated balance sheets for a nation, calculated periodically. There are two types of balance sheets: those showing The aggregate assets and liabilities for financial and nonfinancial sectors, What sectors issue and hold financial assets of a given type; the sectors and instruments are listed below. These balance sheets measure levels of assets and liabilities. From each balance sheet a corresponding flows statement can be derived by subtracting the levels data for the preceding period from the data for the current period; the change in a level item between two adjacent periods is known as a "fund flow". Total debt broken down by issuer and holder Connection to national accounts, derivation of measures of aggregate saving Fund flows originating in each sector Levels: Assets and liabilities for broad sectors and for specific financial sectors Sectors issuing and holding instruments of a given class Miscellaneous aggregate financial data The flow of funds accounts of the United States are prepared by the Flow of Funds section of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, published quarterly in a publication called the Z.1 Statistical Release.
Current and historical releases available in csv, or xml format. Data frequency is annual from yearend 1945 and quarterly beginning in 1952Q1. Detailed interactive documentation is available; the flow of funds accounts follow from double-entry bookkeeping. A fundamental fact about any economic sector is its balance sheet, a breakdown of its physical and financial assets, of its liabilities; the only physical assets noted in the FF accounts are those of private nonfinancial sectors. Nonfinancial sectors: Households and nonprofit organizations Nonfinancial firms Corporations, farms excepted Unincorporated firms, farms excepted Farms Government Federal State & local Rest of the world Financial sector: Firms Instruments The UK flow of funds accounts are prepared by the Office for National Statistics in a series of matrices; the first tables will be published in Blue Book 2014, to be released in September 2014. They contain the sectors and instruments shown below: Public Corporations Private non-Financial Corporations Monetary Financial Institutions Other Financial Institutions Insurance Corporations and Pension Funds Central Government Local Government Households and NPISH UK total economy Rest of the World Monetary Gold and Special Drawing Rights Currency and Deposits Currency Transferable Deposits With UK MFIs With Rest of the World MFIs Other depositsDebt securities Short term debt securities issued by UK Central Government by UK Local Government by UK MFIs MMIs by other UK residents MMIs by rest of the world Long term debt securities issued by UK Central Government by UK Local Government Medium term bonds by UK MFIs Medium and long-term bonds by other UK residents Long term bonds by rest of the worldLoans Short term loans by UK MFIs by ROW MFIs Long term loans Direct Investment loans Secured on dwellings Finance leasing Other long term loans by UK residents Other long term loans by rest of the worldEquity and investment fund shares/units Shares and other equity, excluding mutual funds shares Listed UK shares Unlisted UK shares Other UK equity UK shares and bonds issued by other UK residents Shares and other equity issued by the rest of the world Investment fund shares/units UK investment funds' shares Rest of the world mutual funds' sharesInsurance technical reserves Non-life insurance technical reserves Life insurance and annuity entitlements Pension schemes Provisions for calls under standardised guaranteesFinancial derivates and employee stock options of which.
Great Northern Railway (U.S.)
The Great Northern Railway was an American Class I railroad. Running from Saint Paul, Minnesota, to Seattle, Washington, it was the creation of 19th-century railroad entrepreneur James J. Hill and was developed from the Saint Paul & Pacific Railroad; the Great Northern's route was the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the U. S. In 1970 the Great Northern Railway merged with three other railroads to form the Burlington Northern Railroad, which merged in 1996 with the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway; the Great Northern was the only funded – and built – transcontinental railroad in U. S. history. No federal subsidies were used unlike all other transcontinental railroads; the Great Northern was built in stages to create profitable lines, before extending the road further into the undeveloped Western territories. In a series of the earliest public relations campaigns, contests were held to promote interest in the railroad and the ranchlands along its route.
Fred J. Adams used promotional incentives such as feed and seed donations to farmers getting started along the line. Contests were all-inclusive, from largest farm animals to largest freight carload capacity and were promoted to immigrants and newcomers from the East; the earliest predecessor railroad to the GN was the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, a bankrupt railroad with a small amount of track in the state of Minnesota. James Jerome Hill convinced John S. Kennedy, Norman Kittson, Donald Smith, George Stephen, others to invest $5.5 million in purchasing the railroad. On March 13, 1878, the road's creditors formally signed an agreement transferring their bonds and control of the railroad to Hill's investment group. On September 18, 1889, Hill changed the name of the Minneapolis and St. Cloud Railway to the Great Northern Railway. On February 1, 1890, he transferred ownership of the StPM&M, Montana Central Railway, other rail systems he owned to the Great Northern; the Great Northern had branches that ran north to the Canada–US border in Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana.
It had branches that ran to Superior and Butte, connecting with the iron mining fields of Minnesota and copper mines of Montana. In 1898 Hill purchased control of large parts of the Messabe Range iron mining district in Minnesota, along with its rail lines; the Great Northern began large-scale shipment of ore to the steel mills of the Midwest. At its height, Great Northern operated over 8,000 miles; the railroad’s best known engineer was John Frank Stevens, who served from 1889 to 1903. Stevens was acclaimed for his 1889 exploration of Marias Pass in Montana and determined its practicability for a railroad. Stevens was an efficient administrator with imagination, he discovered Stevens Pass through the Cascade Mountains, set railroad construction standards in the Mesabi Range of northern Minnesota, supervised construction of the Oregon Trunk Line. He became the chief engineer of the Panama Canal; the logo of the railroad, a Rocky Mountain goat, was based on a goat William Kenney, one of the railroad's presidents, had used to haul newspapers as a boy.
The mainline began at Saint Paul, heading west and topping the bluffs of the Mississippi River, crossing the river to Minneapolis on a massive multi-piered stone bridge. The Stone Arch Bridge stands in Minneapolis, near the Saint Anthony Falls, the only waterfall on the Mississippi; the bridge ceased to be used as a railroad bridge in 1978 and is now used as a pedestrian river crossing with excellent views of the falls and of the lock system used to grant barges access up the river past the falls. The mainline headed northwest from the Twin Cities, across eastern Montana; the line crossed the Rocky Mountains at Marias Pass, followed the Flathead River and Kootenai River to Bonners Ferry, South to Sandpoint, west to Newport, Washington and to Spokane, passing by the extensive railroad facility of Hillyard, Washington. From here, the mainline crossed the Cascade Mountains through the Cascade Tunnel under Stevens Pass, reaching Seattle, Washington, in 1893, with the driving of the last spike at Scenic, Washington, on January 6, 1893.
The main line west of Marias Pass has been relocated twice. The original route over Haskell Pass, via Kalispell and Marion, Montana was replaced in 1904 by a more circuitous but flatter route via Whitefish and Eureka, joining the Kootenai River at Rexford, Montana. A further reroute was necessitated by the construction of the Libby Dam on the Kootenai River in the late 1960s; the Army Corp of Engineers built a new route through the Salish Mountains, including the 7-mile-long Flathead Tunnel, second-longest in the United States, to relocate the tracks away from the Kootenai River. This route opened in 1970; the surviving portions of the older routes (from Columbia Falls to Kalispell and Stryker to Eureka, are now operated by Watco as the Mission Mountain Railroad. The Great Northern mainline crossed the continental divide through Marias Pass, the lowest crossing of the Rockies south of the Canada–US border. Here, the mainline forms the southern border of Glacier National Park, which the GN promoted as a tourist attraction.
GN constructed stations at East Glacier and West Glacier entries to the park and timber lodges at the entries and other inns and lodges throughout the Park