Geneva Motor Show
The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport; the Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, is considered an important major international auto show. First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition; the show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own. Areas of the show: Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels. Electric cars and alternative powered cars.
Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, engineering. Converted cars. Accessories and parts for motor cars OEM: original equipment manufacturers Workshop installations for the repair and maintenance of motor cars Miscellaneous products and services related to the car industry Animation / Attractions; the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 89th Geneva Motor Show was held between 7 and 17 March 2019; the 88th Geneva Motor Show was held on 8 to 18 March 2018. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017; the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015; the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014. The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013; the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011; the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010.
Over 80 introductions were expected for the show. Press days for the show started on 2 March 2010; the 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009. The following vehicles were introduced: The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 6–16 March 2008; the following vehicles were introduced: The following were scheduled to be introduced at the 2007 Geneva Auto Show: In addition, Subaru introduced its new boxer diesel engine, Honda showed its next generation clean diesel engine. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas. Ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP 1.6l natural gas engine. Serial production will be evaluated. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small electric city car, with a battery that can be 80% recharged in just 15 minutes; the following introductions were featured at the 2006 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2005 Geneva show: The following introductions were made from 4 to 14 March 2004 at the Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2003 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2002 Geneva show: The following major introductions were made at the 2001 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2000 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1999 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1998 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1997 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1996 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1995 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1994 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1993 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1992 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1991 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1990 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1989 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo SZ Alpina B10 Bi-Turbo Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 Daihatsu Applause Ford Fiesta Urba Ford Via concept Lancia Delta Integrale 16v Lotus Carlton Mercedes-Benz 500SL Peugeot Agades concept Sbarro Osmos concept The following introductions were made at the 1988 Geneva show: Ford Saguaro concept Maserati Karif Sbarro Robur concept The following introductions were made at the 1987 Geneva show: Aston Martin Lagonda Sbarro Monster G concept The following introductions were made at the 1986 Geneva show: Aston Martin V8 Zagato coupe BMW 524d Citroën Eole concept Rover CCV concept Sbarro Challenge 2+2 concept Volvo 480 Zender Vision 3C concept The following introductions were made at the 1985 Geneva show: Ferrari 412 Lamborghini Countach LP5000 S Quattrovalvole Michelotti PAC Peugeot Griffe 4 concept Sbarro Challenge concept Sbarro Super Five Volvo 780 The following introductions were made at the 1984 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo 33 1.5 Giardinetta Alfa Romeo Tempo Libero concept Ferrari 288 GTO Ford APV concept Lamborghini Jalpa P350 Sbarro Super Eight concept Sbarro Mercedes Benz Biturbo Zagato Z33 "Free Time" The following introductions were made at the 1983 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo Delfino concept Alfa Romeo Zeta Sei concept Fiat Ritmo Coupe concept Ford Trio concept Lincoln Quicksilver concept Renault Gabbiano concept The following introductions were made at the 1982 Geneva show: Bentley Mulsanne Turbo Lamborghini LMA002 Michelotti CVT 58 concept Opel Corsa Spider concept Sbarro Super Twelve concept Volkswagen Golf GTD The followin
The Honda Pilot is a mid-size crossover SUV manufactured by Honda and introduced in 2002. Aimed at the North American market, the Pilot is the largest SUV from Honda and features three-row seating. Pilots are manufactured in Lincoln and the Pilot was produced in Alliston, Ontario until April 2007; the first generation Pilot was released in April 2002 as a 2003 model. The Pilot shares its platform with the Acura MDX, as well as the Odyssey minivan and the Accord sedan; the Pilot's unibody construction and independent suspension are designed to provide handling similar to that of a car, it has integrated perimeter frame rails to allow towing and light off-road use. Prior to the introduction of the Pilot, Honda marketed the compact crossover CR-V, the Honda Passport, a pickup truck-based design; the Pilot is Honda's largest SUV. The Pilot is sold in North America and the Middle East, while the Honda MDX was marketed in Japan and Australia for several years; the second generation Pilot is marketed in Russia, in the Dominican Republic.
The Pilot is sold in the Philippines. The 2003-2004 Pilots featured the J35A4 engine, an all-aluminum 3.5L V6 SOHC with VTEC, producing 240 hp and 242 lb⋅ft of torque. The 2005 Pilot received a new engine, the J35A6, which added drive-by-wire throttle and produced 255 hp and 250 lb⋅ft of torque. Other changes included the transmission with revised 4th and 5th gear ratios providing a smoother transition between gears, along with a new fuel tank design, increasing the Pilot's driving range by over 40 mi. All Pilots from 2003-2005 feature Honda's four-wheel drive system; the Pilot received more updates starting with the 2006 model year, engines were either the J35Z1 or the J35A9. Both engines were rated at 240 lb ⋅ ft of torque; this was the first time. The new FWD models featured Honda's Variable Cylinder Management system, which can deactivate up to three cylinders under light load to increase fuel economy, to help control noise from the system Honda added Active Control Engine Mount System and Active Noise Cancellation.
Further this version of the J35 featured updated iVTEC and the automatic transmission a shorter 1st gear ratio. With powertrain updates and the lack of VTM-4 the FWD version had improved fuel economy of 18-city/24-highway, an increase of +1/+2 mpg versus the 4WD. All Pilots from this generation feature a 5-speed automatic transmission; the Pilot has front struts with a multilink rear suspension for a flat rear load floor. Front track is 66.3 in and 66.5 in at the rear. The Pilot has a 4,500 lb boat/3,500 lb trailer towing capability with the optional dealer installed towing package. Pilots with Honda's Variable Torque Management 4WD system sent most power to the front wheels under normal driving conditions. Under acceleration or if wheel slippage is detected at the front wheels, up to 50% of power can be sent to the rear wheels; the system features a VTM-4 lock button on the dashboard which locks the rear differential and sends 25% of the power to each rear wheel. However, the VTM-4 lock function only operates in first gear, second gear and reverse, automatically disengages above 18 mph re-engages when the speed drops below 18 mph.
Design of the Pilot was by Honda's Ricky Hsu through 1999. The Pilot can accommodate up to eight passengers in three rows configured as stadium seating; the third row can seat three, but the limited legroom makes it suitable only for small children or adults on short trips. Similar to the Honda Odyssey, the rear seats can be folded into flat surfaces for larger cargo. Options include powered moonroof, DVD entertainment system, a navigation system. Other features include ABS-equipped four-wheel disc brakes, rack-and-pinion steering, four-wheel independent suspension, 282° of outward visibility. Honda revised the Pilot for the 2006 model year in October 2005. Changes to the exterior included a new fascia with a different grille insert and halogen projector headlights, taillights with clear lenses; the EX trim level received redesigned wheels, the original EX wheels were now found on the LX trim. On the inside, side airbags were provided in the C pillar, the gauge cluster was updated and the center console featured chrome trim and redesigned storage compartments and cup holders.
The larger second generation Pilot was unveiled as a prototype in January 2008 at the North American International Auto Show. Assembled at Honda Manufacturing of Alabama in Lincoln, Alabama, it was offered in five trims. All second generation Pilots used a new J35Z4 3.5-liter V6 iVTEC engine producing 250 hp SAE net at 5700 rpm and 253 lb⋅ft of torque at 4800 rpm. EPA fuel economy is rated at 17 mpg city /23 mpg highway with front-wheel-drive and 16 mpg city / 22 mpg highway for all-wheel-drive. Both drivetrains were equipped with five-speed automatics; the second generation's wheelbase is 109.2 in, with a length of 190.9 in, a width of 78.5 in, a height of 71.0 in and interior space of 153.7 cu-ft. The redesigned headlights lost the previous generation's halogen projectors and return to standard halogen reflectors. Features included new two-position memory settings for the driver's seat, a new power tailgate, the gear shift was relocated from the steering column to the center console between the front seats.
The Touring trim inclu
Gray Court, South Carolina
Gray Court is a town in Laurens County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 1,021 at the 2000 census, it is part of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gray Court was incorporated as a town in 1899; the Gray Court-Owings School was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. Gray Court is located at 34°36′31″N 82°6′51″W; the town lies between the cities of Fountain Inn and Laurens, South Carolina along highway 14 and 385. Its closest neighbor is the village of Owings. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,021 people, 371 households, 270 families residing in the town; the population density was 551.0 people per square mile. There were 398 housing units at an average density of 214.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 37.81% White, 54.65% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 6.66% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.50% of the population. There were 371 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 21.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.2% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.15. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,146, the median income for a family was $34,545. Males had a median income of $22,639 versus $19,648 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,066. About 16.4% of families and 20.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.8% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.
Information about Gray Court from Laurens County ACCESS 15 Laurens County Public and government access cable tv channel The Gray Court-Owings Historical Society
The Acura MDX, or Honda MDX as known in Japan and Australia, is a mid-size three-row luxury crossover, produced by the Japanese automaker Honda under its Acura luxury nameplate since 2000. The alphanumeric moniker stands for "Multi-Dimensional luxury". According to Honda, the MDX is the best-selling three-row luxury crossover of all time, with cumulative U. S. sales expected to surpass 700,000 units before the end of 2014. It has ranked as the second-best selling luxury crossover after the Lexus RX, which offers only two rows of seats; the MDX was the first crossover SUV to have third-row seating, shares a platform with the Honda Pilot. The Pilot seats eight, with two seating positions in the third row; the MDX was introduced as a 2001 model, replacing the slow-selling U. S.-only body-on-frame SLX, based on the Isuzu Trooper. In Japan, it filled a gap when the Honda Horizon was discontinued in 1999. In 2003, the Honda MDX went on sale in Australia; the MDX has been the most expensive crossover in Acura's lineup, except for the 2009-13 model years when Acura added a crossover to slot above the MDX, called the ZDX.
Derived from Honda's Global mid-size platform which underpins cars like the Honda Accord, Acura TL, TSX and Odyssey, it is powered by a J35A3 3.5 L SOHC 24 valve V6 with VTEC. 2001-2002 3.5 V6 models produce 240 245 lb ⋅ ft of torque from 3000 to 5000 rpm. 2003-2006 3471 cc model engine produces 265 hp and 253 lb⋅ft. Curb weight is 4,451 lb, with a 106.3 in wheelbase and 8 in of ground clearance. The cargo floor can flip up to provide two additional seats; the vehicle is designed to hold 7 passengers, but the third row seats are small and only seat two, in contrast to the Odyssey and Pilot whose third row holds three passengers. The vehicle features an automatic four wheel drive system that engages during off the line acceleration as well as when wheel slippage is detected. Additionally, the system offers a lock mode which can be activated and operated at low speeds and provides permanent 4wd and the equivalent of a locked rear differential. To reduce drivetrain noise and increase fuel efficiency, the system runs as front wheel drive during normal cruising.
The VTM-4 AWD system in the MDX has the same design as the VTM-4 systems found in the Honda Pilot and Honda Ridgeline. It is different than the real time AWD system in the Honda CR-V in that it can lock and it attempts to predict when traction will be lost and apply power to all four wheels before slippage occurs; the Honda CR-V system waits for slippage to occur and sends power back. The navigation system and DVD entertainment system options were mutually exclusive in the 2002 model. Both could be ordered at the same time since the 2003 model; the navigation option comes with a rear view video camera since the 2003 model. Since 2005, the navigation system featured information from Zagat about restaurants and other points of interest; the 2003 model was rated as Ultra Low Emission Vehicle. The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates 17 mpg‑US city. In the 2003 model, the engine was improved to produce 20 hp more power than the 2002 model and wheel designs were updated; the 2004 model received an additional 5 hp.
The 2004 model is credited for a top speed of 137 mph, a 0-60 time of 7.1 seconds. The 2004 model features dual tail pipes instead of the single pipe in earlier models, side curtain airbags, new head lights and tail lights, new wheels; some chrome trimmings on the 2004 model use matte finish to distinguish from the polished shiny finish on earlier models. Little changed for the MDX during the 2006 model year with a few minor revisions to the vehicle's chrome and faux wood interior trim which could now be had with a dark grey wood, a black dash and steering wheel in tan interiors. On April 11, 2006, Acura unveiled the 2007 Acura MD-X Concept during the New York International Auto Show, showing to the public an indication about the exterior styling of the upcoming redesigned MDX; the second-generation MDX was released on October 17, 2006 in the U. S; the second generation model's body has a wider track and longer wheelbase than the previous MDX, but visibility to the rear has worsened from the prior generation.
The redesigned Acura MDX's unit-body was engineered with Honda's Advanced Compatibility Engineering body structure designed to absorb energy from a collision. The suspension was tuned at Germany's Nürburgring race track; the engine was upgraded to a 3.7 liter V6 tuned for 300 hp at 6,000 rpm and 270 lb⋅ft of torque at 5,000 rpm. It accelerates from 0-60 mph in 6.5 seconds and is estimated by the EPA to consume 16 miles per US gallon in the city and 21 miles per US gallon on the highway. It is one of the most powerful engines; the "VTM-4" all-wheel drive system on the previous generation was replaced by the new SH-AWD "Super Handling All-Wheel Drive" debuted on the 2005 Acura RL. This AWD system is one of the most advanced in its class, featuring an active rear differential found on high performance cars; the MDX is able to tow 5,000 lb. Like all Acuras, the MDX comes with a high level of standard equipment, including a power moonroof, leather interior, high intensity discharge low beam headlights.
For the 2007 through 2009 model years, three option packages were availab
Range Rover Evoque
The Land Rover Range Rover Evoque is a subcompact luxury crossover SUV produced by the British manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, a subsidiary of Tata Motors, under their Land Rover marque. The Evoque is similar to the Land Rover LRX concept vehicle, unveiled at the North American International Auto Show in January 2008, it has been produced since July 2011 in three- and five-door versions, with both two-wheel and four-wheel drive. The size of the LRX concept vehicle complemented a wide array of efficiency-improving technologies in the form of Land Rover’s e_Terrain technologies; these included biofuel compatibility, lightweight construction materials, technologies such as the removable carbon composite roof panels, regenerative brakes, a stop-start system, the ERAD parallel hybrid powertrain system. The ERAD system could propel the LRX to speeds up to 20 mph before the engine was started by an integrated starter generator as part of the stop-start system. ERAD was designed to reduce CO2 emissions by an average of 20% under the NEDC test cycle and was expected to offer another 10% reduction in extra-urban driving situations while optimising the off-road ability of the vehicle.
Land Rover aimed to achieve 120 g/km CO2 emissions and fuel economy of 60 mpg‑imp on the European combined cycle with an efficient 2.2-litre turbodiesel engine. The engine would become the only four-cylinder vehicle in the Range Rover lineup; the Terrain Response system was included offering sport and eco modes in addition to the existing grass, gravel and sand modes. Typical Land Rover design traits aim at improving off-road performance included a prominent driving position, hill descent control, useful approach and departure angles. A Land Rover first was an air intake system integrated into the roof that offered exceptional wading capabilities, though this feature did not make it to the production model. Land Rover's Range Rover styling was visually apparent in the form of the clamshell bonnet, the ‘floating’ roof, dual-pocket headlamps, raked roof line. Interior design improvements were another main focus of the LRX concept, though the interior of the production Evoque changed from the concept LRX.
Notable interior features in the LRX included ambient interior lighting that changed according to Terrain Response settings, vehicle data that were presented to the driver through a ‘floating’ three-dimensional LCD display. An aluminium centre console with an iPhone docking station stretched the length of the cabin, separating the four seats and the tailgate. Seats with open frameworks were used to give the impression of an airy interior, while creating useful under-seat and under-floor stowage areas. Electric motors folded the rear seats forward, providing enough room for two mountain bikes to be fitted upright, with front wheels removed and stored in dedicated slots in the floor; the car was launched as two distinct models: the five-door Evoque, the three-door Evoque Coupé, the Convertible Evoque. The Coupé model was discontinued after the 2017 model year, while the five-door and Convertible models remained in production; the production-model Evoque retained nearly identical bodywork from the LRX concept vehicle, including the cabin length panoramic sun roof.
No hybrid power train is being offered. All models are available in four trim levels — "Pure", "Prestige", "Pure Plus", "Dynamic". Land Rover markets the Pure as the minimalist version rather than the "base model", while the Prestige adds luxury options and the Dynamic focuses more on performance; the Evoque uses unibody rather than body on frame construction with a kerb weight of 1,670 kg and an aluminium hood/bonnet and roof, as well as a composite one-piece tailgate. The Evoque comes in 12 different body colours with three optional contrasting roof colours and five optional wheel choices, though Land Rover offers a "designers choice" of predetermined combinations on most models; the Dynamic model incorporates more aggressive bodywork including a different front fascia and lowered suspension. The Evoque can be equipped with five exterior cameras. Three engine options were available for the Evoque: two 2.2-litre turbodiesels producing either 150 PS, or 190 PS, a 2-litre 240 PS turbocharged petrol engine.
Land Rover revealed the Evoque with a 9-speed automatic transmission during the Geneva Motor Show. This new automatic transmission is developed by ZF Friedrichshafen. In addition, the 9-speed automatic transmission's first gear is specially designed for off-road conditions and adverse on road conditions. Further, first gear of a 9-speed automatic transmission is much lower than the first gear of a six-speed automatic. Land Rover did not reveal any further technical details about the new automatic transmission. Land Rover since have developed their own branded Ingenium engine to adhere to EU6 emissions regulations. Three 2-litre variants are available: eD4 150 PS turbodiesel two- wheel drive manual gearbox, or TD4 180 PS permanent four-wheel drive 9-speed automatic, a 2-litre Si4 240 PS turbocharged petrol permanent four-wheel drive 9-speed automatic; the manufacturer's fuel-economy estimates for the 2.2-litre diesel engine with manual transmission are 47.1 miles per imperial gallon urban and 56.5 miles per imperial gallon combined, with CO2 emissions of 133 g/km.
For the 2.0-litre petrol engine with automatic transmission, the figures are 23.7 miles per imperial gallon urban and 32.5
A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the direction of travel. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use this engine mounting configuration. Most rear wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinal engine configuration, where the engine's crankshaft axis is parallel with the direction of travel, except for some rear-mid engine vehicles, which use a transverse engine and transaxle mounted in the rear instead of the front. Despite being used in light vehicles, it is not restricted to light vehicles and has been used on armored vehicles to save interior space; the Critchley light car, made by the Daimler Motor Company in 1899, had a transverse engine with belt drive to the rear axle. A 1911 front-wheel drive car had a transverse engine with a clutch at each end, driving the front wheels directly; the first successful transverse-engine cars were the two-cylinder DKW "Front" series of cars, which first appeared in 1931. During WWII transverse engines were developed for armored vehicles, with the Soviet T-44 and T-54/T-55 being equipped with transverse engines to save space in the hull.
The T-54/55 became the most produced tank in history. After the Second World War, SAAB used the configuration in their first model, the Saab 92, in 1947; the arrangement was used for Borgward's Goliath and Hansa brand cars and in a few other German cars. However, it was with Alec Issigonis's Mini, introduced by the British Motor Corporation in 1959, that the design gained acclaim. Issigonis incorporated the car's gearbox into the engine's sump, producing a drivetrain unit narrow enough to install transversely in a car only four feet wide. While previous DKW and Saab cars used small two-stroke air-cooled engines with poor refinement and performance the gearbox-in-sump arrangement meant that an 848cc four-cylinder water-cooled engine could be fitted to the Mini, providing strong performance for a car of its size. Coupled to the much greater interior space afforded by the layout this made the Mini a genuine alternative to the conventional small family car; this design reached its ultimate extent starting with Dante Giacosa's elaboration of it for Fiat.
He connected the engine to its gearbox by a shaft and set the differential off-center so that it could be connected to the gearbox more easily. The axleshafts from the differential to the wheels therefore differed in length, which would have made the car's steering asymmetrical were it not for their torsional stiffness being made the same. Giacosa's lay-out was first used in the Autobianchi Primula in 1964 and in the wide-selling Fiat 128. With the gearbox mounted separately to the engine these cars were by neccesity larger than the Mini but this proved to be no disadvantage; the Giacosa lay-out provided superior refinement, easier repair and was better-suited to adopting five-speed transmissions than the original Issigonis in-sump design. Now most small and small/medium-sized cars built throughout the world use this arrangement; the Lamborghini Miura used a transverse, mid-mounted 4.0 litre V12, a configuration, unheard of in 1965, although now more common The Land Rover LR2 Freelander, along with all Volvo models from 1998 on, employ a transversely-mounted engine in order to increase passenger space inside the vehicle.
This has allowed for improved safety in a frontal impact, due to more front to back engine compartment space being created. The result is a larger front crumple zone. Transverse engines have been used in buses. In the United States they were offered in the early 1930s by Twin Coach and used with limited success in Dwight Austin's Pickwick Nite-Coach. Transverse bus engines first appeared in the Yellow Coach 719, using Dwight Austin's V-drive, they were used in the British Leyland Atlantean and in many transit buses and nearly all modern double decker buses. They have been used by Scania, MAN, Volvo and Renault's bus divisions. Engines may be placed in two main positions within the motor car: Front-engine transversely-mounted / Front-wheel drive Rear mid-engine transversely-mounted / Rear-wheel drive Space allowed for engines within the front wheel wells is limited to the following: Single cylinder Inline-two Inline-three Inline-four Inline-five V4 V6 The description of the orientation of V-twin and flat-twin motorcycle engines sometimes differs from the convention as stated above.
Motorcycles with a V-twin engine mounted with its crankshaft mounted in line with the frame, e.g. the AJS S3 V-twin, Indian 841, Victoria Bergmeister, Honda CX series and several Moto Guzzis since the 1960s, are said to have "transverse" engines, while motorcycles with a V-twin mounted with its crankshaft mounted perpendicular to the frame, e.g. most Ducatis since the 1970s and most Harley-Davidsons, are said to have "longitudinal" engines. This convention uses the longest horizontal dimension of the engine as its axis instead of the line of the crankshaft. Clarke, Massimo. Modern Motorcycle Technology: How Every Part of Your Motorcycle Works. Minneapolis, MN USA: MotorBooks International. P. 44. ISBN 978-0-7603-3819-3. Retrieved 2013-05-31. Moto Guzzi's transverse V-twins are unique among motorcycles, while Ducati, in keeping with the classical school, uses a longitudinal V, meaning the axis of rotation of the crankshaft is transverse to the frame. Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Edward John Barrington & Burgess-Wise, David.
Daimler Century: The ful
Jeep Renegade (BU)
The Jeep Renegade is a subcompact crossover SUV produced by Jeep. The off-road vehicle was first shown to the public in March 2014 at the Geneva Motor Show and production started in late August of that year. Standard Renegade models come with front-wheel drive; the vehicle offers the four-wheel drive systems Active Drive I and Active Drive Low, both of which are paired with Jeep's Selec-Terrain System. At one time it was believed that the Renegade would replace the Jeep Compass and Jeep Patriot in the Jeep lineup; the Patriot was discontinued after model year 2017, but the second generation Compass was launched in early 2017. The Renegade is the first Jeep product to be produced outside of North America and is sold on the North American, Brazilian, South African and Chinese markets; the vehicle is built in Italy. Standard Renegade models come with front-wheel drive, with four-wheel drive available on Sport and Limited trims. In the US, the lineup consists of Sport and Limited trims, all of which come with a choice of front- and four-wheel drive, as well as the Trailhawk trim, 4WD only.
The Renegade has an available My Sky dual panel removable roof. The My Sky can be either retracted like a standard sunroof or removed for a more open-air experience, similar to that of the Jeep Wrangler; the Renegade is sold in Sport, Latitude and Trailhawk trim levels: The base Sport model includes a 1.4L MultiAir Turbocharged Inline Four-Cylinder engine or a 2.4L multiair inline 4 engine, a six-speed manual transmission or 9 speed automatic transmission, sixteen-inch, black-finished steel wheels, a black-finished front grille, black side mirrors and door handles, the Uconnect 3.0 A/M-F/M stereo w/ USB, iPod, 3.5-millimeter auxiliary audio input jacks and four speakers, a heater, dual air conditioning, cloth seating surfaces, a 3.5-inch monochromatic instrument cluster display screen, remote keyless entry with power door locks, more. The Power and Air Group adds air power windows; the Sound Group adds the Uconnect 5.0BT A/M-F/M stereo with USB, iPod, 3.5-millimeter auxiliary audio input jacks with five-inch color touch-screen display, voice command, Uconnect hands-free Bluetooth phone and stereo wireless audio streaming, six speakers.
The Sport model's MSRP, without options, for front-wheel drive is $17,995.00, for four-wheel drive, is $19,995.00. The mid-level Latitude model includes the Sport's standard equipment, plus seventeen-inch black-accented alloy wheels, exterior-colored side mirrors and door handles, the Uconnect 5.0BT A/M-F/M stereo w/ USB, iPod, 3.5-millimeter auxiliary audio input jacks with five-inch color touch-screen display, voice command, Uconnect hands-free Bluetooth phone and stereo wireless audio streaming and six speakers, power windows, air conditioning, more. The MySky removable "sunroof" roof panels, both manually-removable or power-retractable, are available on this model and higher-end models; the Latitude' model's MSRP, without options, for front-wheel drive is $21,295.00, for four-wheel drive is $23,295.00. In Europe, this is called Longitude; the top-of-the-line Limited model includes the Latitude's standard equipment, plus the 2.4L TigerShark Inline Four-Cylinder engine, a nine-speed automatic transmission, leather seating surfaces, a silver-finished front grille, chrome side mirrors and door handles, more.
The MySky removable "sunroof" panels, both manually-removable or power-retractable, are available on this model, the Latitude model, higher-end models. The Limited model's MSRP, without options, for front-wheel drive is $24,795.00, for four-wheel drive is $26,795.00. The off road-ready Trailhawk model includes the Latitude's standard equipment, plus the 2.4L TigerShark Inline Four-Cylinder engine, a nine-speed automatic transmission, red-finished front tow hooks, off-road suspension with underbody skid plates, a rugged interior, more. The MySky removable "sunroof" panels, both manually-removable or power-retractable, are available on this model, the Latitude model, higher-end models; the Trailhawk model's base MSRP, only available in four-wheel drive, is $25,995.00. TrailHawk models are "Trail Rated" and feature Jeep's Active Drive Low four-wheel drive system and a 20 mm lift kit, it features 17 in aluminum wheels, skid plates, unique front and rear fascias compared to standard Renegade models.
Like the Jeep Cherokee Trailhawk, the Renegade Trailhawk features red front and rear tow hooks, a red'Trail Rated 4X4' badge on both front upper fenders, a black vinyl decal in the center of the hood, alloy wheels with black-painted accents. The Trailhawk model emphasizes the Renegade's off-road capabilities, is meant for the avid off-roader; the Jeep Selec-terrain traction control feature lets you choose any of the following modes in the 4X4 TrailHawk version: Auto, Sand, Mud or Rock All models other than the base Sport model offer optional features such as passive entry with push-button start, a remote start system, the Uconnect 6.5AN stereo with A/M-F/M HD Radio, iPod/USB and 3.5-millimeter auxiliary audio input jacks, SIRIUS-XM Satellite Radio, voice command, Uconnect ACCESS and Apps with hands-free Bluetooth phone and stereo wireless audio streaming, GPS navigation by Garmin, a 6.5-inch touch-screen display, steering wheel-mounted remote controls, nine premium amplified speakers with a subwoofer, SIRIUS-XM Satellite Radio, power front bucket seats, the MySky retractable roof panel system (manually-removable or power-ret