Mount Tabor is located in Lower Galilee, Israel, at the eastern end of the Jezreel Valley, 11 miles west of the Sea of Galilee. In the Hebrew Bible, Mount Tabor is the site of the Battle of Mount Tabor between the Israelite army under the leadership of Barak and the army of the Canaanite king of Hazor, commanded by Sisera. In Christian tradition, Mount Tabor is the site of the Transfiguration of Jesus; the Hebrew name of the, תבור tabor, has long been connected with the name for "navel", טבור ṭabbur, but this is due to popular etymology. The form Itabyrium attributed to Josephus is an editorial conjecture based on reading variants in manuscripts and may not be historical. From the connection with the Transfiguration of Jesus, the mountain became eponymous of the Tabor light in Christian theology, of the Bohemian sect of the Taborites, of numerous settlements and institutions; the Bohemian Taborites, are named for Tábor, their city, from the unrelated tabor "fort, encampment", a borrowing from Turkic tabur "military encampment".
The Arabic form of the name is جبل الطور Jabal aṭ-Ṭūr. Mount Tabor is shaped like half a sphere rising from rather flat surroundings and reaching a height of 575 metres, thus dominating by a good 450 metres the town in the plain below, Kfar Tavor. At the top of the mountain are two Christian monasteries, one Greek Orthodox on the northeast side and one Roman Catholic on the southeast side; the Catholic church at the top is visible from afar. The mountain is a monadnock: an isolated hill or small mountain rising abruptly from sloping or level surrounding land, is not volcanic. In spite of its proximity to the Nazareth mountains, it constitutes a separate geological form. At the base it is fully surrounded by the Arab villages of Daburiyya and Umm al-Ghanam. Mount Tabor is located off Highway 65, its summit is accessible by road via Shibli. A hiking is about five kilometers long, it is part of the Israel National Trail. At the bottom of the mountain was an important road junction: Via Maris passed there from the Jezreel Valley northward towards Damascus.
Its location on the road junction and its bulgy formation above its environment gave Mount Tabor a strategic value and wars were conducted in its area in different periods in history. The mountain is mentioned for the first time in the Hebrew Bible, in Joshua 19:22, as border of three tribes: Zebulun and Naphtali; the mountain's importance stems from its strategic control of the junction of the Galilee's north-south route with the east-west highway of the Jezreel Valley. According to the Book of Judges, Hazor was the seat of Jabin, the king of Canaan, whose commander, led a Canaanite army against the Israelites. Deborah the Jewish prophetess summoned Barak of the tribe of Naphtali and gave him God's command, "Go and draw toward mount Tabor, take with thee ten thousand men of the children of Naphtali and of the children of Zebulun".4:6). Descending from the mountain, the Israelites vanquished Sisera and the Canaanites. In the days of the Second Temple, Mount Tabor was one of the mountain peaks on which it was the custom to light beacons in order to inform the northern villages of Jewish holy days and of the beginning of new months.
In 55 BCE, during a Hasmonean rebellion against the Roman proconsul of Syria, Aulus Gabinius, Alexander of Judaea and his army of 30,000 Judeans was defeated in battle at Mount Tabor. As many as 10,000 Jewish fighters were killed in the battle and Alexander was forced to flee to Syria. In 66 CE, during the First Jewish-Roman War, the Galilean Jews retrenched on the mountain under the command of Yosef Ben Matityahu, better known as Josephus Flavius, the historian, whence they defended themselves against the Roman assault. Itabyrium, as Josephus calls it, was one of the 19 sites fortified by the rebels in Galilee under his orders. According to what is written in his book "The Wars of the Jews", Vespasian sent an army of 600 riders, under the command of Placidus, who fought the rebels. Placidus understood that he could not reach the top of the steep mountain with his forces, therefore called the fortified rebels to walk down the mountain. A group of Jewish rebels descended from the mountain in order to negotiate with Placidus, but they attacked him.
The Roman forces retreated, but while they were in the valley, they returned towards the mountain, attacked the Jewish rebels, killed many of them, blocked the road for the remaining rebels who tried to flee back to the top of the mountain. Many of the Jewish rebels returned to Jerusalem; the rest of the fortified rebels in the fortress on the mountain surrendered after their water ran out. They handed over the mountain to Placidus. After the destruction of the Second Temple, Jewish settlement On Mount Tabor was renewed. From the late times of the Roman province Judaea and on, the writers of the Christian New Testament relate that Jesus had brought Peter and John his brother into a high mountain apart, that Jesus became radiant there. However, none of these accounts identifies the "high mountain" of the scene by name; the earliest identification of the Mount of Transfiguration as Tabor is by Origen in the 3rd century. This early speculation is recounted by St. Cyril of St. Jerome in the 4th century.
It is recounted in the 5th century Transitus Beatae Mariae Virginis. Due to the importance of Mount Tabor in Christian tradition, from the 4th century onward it became a pilgrimage site
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
Easton's Bible Dictionary, Christian Classics Ethereal Library Igor Apps, Bible Dictionary, Google Play Store Android app. Igor Apps, Bible Dictionary, iTunes Store iOS app
The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews; the term "Talmud" refers to the collection of writings named the Babylonian Talmud, although there is an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud. It may traditionally be called Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah; the Talmud has two components. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone; the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, customs, history and many other topics.
The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, is quoted in rabbinic literature. Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study". Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example of court decisions; this situation changed drastically as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained, it is during this period. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online; the process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were the two major centers of Jewish scholarship and Babylonia.
Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Talmud Yerushalmi, it was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500; the word "Talmud", when used without qualification refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently. Here the argument from silence is convincing." The Jerusalem Talmud known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary, transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias and Caesarea, it is written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah, developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel.
Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi, but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem, it has more been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". Its final redaction belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended; the text is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination.
Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land, it was an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chana
The Revised Version or English Revised Version of the Bible is a late 19th-century British revision of the King James Version. It was the first and remains the only authorised and recognised revision of the King James Version in Britain; the work was entrusted to over 50 scholars from various denominations in Britain. American scholars were invited by correspondence; the New Testament was published in 1881, the Old Testament in 1885, the Apocrypha in 1894. The best known of the translation committee members were Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort; the New Testament revision company was commissioned in 1870 by the convocation of Canterbury. Their stated aim was "to adapt King James' version to the present state of the English language without changing the idiom and vocabulary," and "to adapt it to the present standard of Biblical scholarship." To those ends, the Greek text, used to translate the New Testament was believed by most to be of higher reliability than the Textus Receptus.
The readings used were compiled from a different text of the Greek Testament by Edwin Palmer. While the text of the translation itself is regarded as excessively literal and flat, the Revised Version is significant in the history of English Bible translation for many reasons. At the time of the RV's publication, the nearly 300-year-old King James Version was the main Protestant English Bible in Victorian England; the RV, therefore, is regarded as the forerunner of the entire modern translation tradition. It was considered more accurate than the King James Version in a number of verses; the revisers were charged with introducing alterations only if they were deemed necessary to be more accurate and faithful to the Original Greek and Hebrew texts. In the New Testament alone more than 30,000 changes were made, over 5,000 on the basis of what were considered better Greek manuscripts; the work was begun in 1879, with the entire work completed in 1885. The Revised Version of 1885 was the first post-King James Version modern English Bible at the time to gain popular acceptance.
L. Ellison, F. F. Bruce, Clarence Larkin, in their works. Other important enhancements introduced in the RV include arrangement of the text into paragraphs, printing Old Testament poetry in indented poetic lines, the inclusion of marginal notes to alert the reader to variations in wording in ancient manuscripts. In its Apocrypha, the Revised Version became the first printed edition in English to offer the complete text of Second Esdras, inasmuch as damage to one 9th-century manuscript had caused 70 verses to be omitted from previous editions and printed versions, including the King James Version. In the United States, the Revised Version was adapted and revised as the "Revised Version, Standard American Edition" in 1901; the American Standard Version is identical to the Revised Version of 1885, with minor variations in wording considered to be more accurate. One noticeable difference is the much more frequent use of the form "Jehovah" in the Old Testament of the American Standard Version, rather than "the LORD", used more so in the Revised Version of 1885, to represent the Divine Name, the Tetragrammaton.
The Revised Version are some of the Bible versions that are authorized to be used in services of the Episcopal Church and of the Church of England. The American Standard Version was the basis for many revisions in the first hundred years after it was released; the RV itself has never been the basis for any revision except for the American Standard Version and the Apocrypha in the Revised Standard Version. As the Revised Version is out of copyright worldwide, it is available online and in digital formats although it is less popular than the KJV or the ASV in this manner. However, it is not available in published form today with only Cambridge University Press publishing it in the form of a KJV/RV interlinear. American Standard Version The New Testament in the Original Greek Marlowe, Michael D. "English Revised Version". Retrieved March 22, 2004. Hall, Isaac H. "History of the English Revised Version". Retrieved March 22, 2004. Palmer, Edwin. ΚΑΙΝΗ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ. The Greek Testament with the Readings Adopted by the Revisers of the Authorised Version.
London: Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007. ISBN 1-84356-023-2 Ryken, Leland; the Word of God in English. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. ISBN 1-58134-464-3 Burgon, John William; the Revision Revised. Bible: Apocrypha, Revised Version; the Apocrypha, Translated out of the Greek and Latin Tongues, Being the Version Set forth A. D. 1611 Compared with the Most Ancient Authorities and Revised A. D. 1894, Printed for the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1896. Ix, 175 p. Wegner, Paul D. Journey from Texts to Translations, The: The Origin and Development of the Bible, Baker Academic, ISBN 978-0-8010-2799-4 – The Revised Version is described in pages 314ff; the text of the RV online The text of the RV with Apocrypha online Prefaces to the English Revised Version The New Testament, in the revised version of 1881, with fuller references – Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press. Editors: Moulton, W. F. 1835-1898. The interlinear Bi
The Septuagint is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures from the original Hebrew. It is estimated that the first five books of the Old Testament, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE and the remaining texts were translated in the 2nd century BCE. Considered the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament, it is quoted a number of times in the New Testament,particularly in the Pauline epistles,by the Apostolic Fathers, by the Greek Church Fathers; the full title in Ancient Greek: Ἡ τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα μετάφρασις "The Translation of the Seventy", derives from the story recorded in the Letter of Aristeas that the Septuagint was translated at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by 70 Jewish scholars who independently produced identical translations. The miraculous character of the Aristeas legend is indicative of the esteem in which the translation was held in the ancient Jewish diaspora and early Christian circles, it is clear that a Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were not fluent in Hebrew, but in Greek.
The evidence of Egyptian papyri from the period have led most scholars to view as probable Aristeas's dating of the translation of the Pentateuch to the third century BCE. Whatever share the Ptolemaic court may have had in the translation, it satisfied a need felt by the Jewish community, among whom a knowledge of Hebrew was waning before the demands of every-day life." While there are other contemporaneous Greek versions of the Old Testament, most did not survive except as fragments. Modern critical editions of the Septuagint are based on the Codices Vaticanus and Alexandrinus; the Septuagint derives its name from the Latin versio septuaginta interpretum, "translation of the seventy interpreters", Greek: ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα, hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, "translation of the seventy". However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta; the Roman numeral LXX is used as an abbreviation G or G. Seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew into Greek, for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria.
This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, is repeated by Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and by various sources, including St. Augustine; the story is found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud: King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned, he entered each one's room and said: "Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher". God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically. Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. According to rabbinic tradition, the Septuagint was handed in to Ptolemy on the date of an annual fast and mourning for the Jewish people; the date of the 3rd century BCE is supported by a number of factors, including the Greek being representative of early Koine, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.
After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear, translated when, or where; the quality and style of the different translators varied from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative. The translation process of the Septuagint itself and from the Septuagint into other versions can be broken down into several distinct stages, during which the social milieu of the translators shifted from Hellenistic Judaism to Early Christianity; the translation of the Septuagint itself began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE in Alexandria, but in time elsewhere as well. The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament; the Septuagint is written in Koine Greek. Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms, or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic. Other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly.
The Septuagint may elucidate pronunciation of pre-Masoretic Hebrew: many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the translation, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing. However, it is unlikely; as the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Hebrew bible called Tanakh, has three divisions: the Torah, the Neviʾim, the Ketuvim; the Septuagint has four: law, history and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted where appropriate. The Torah has held pre-eminence as the basis of the canon.
Tiberias is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Established around 20 CE, it was named in honour of the second emperor of the Roman Empire, Tiberius. In 2017 it had a population of 43,664. Tiberias was held in great respect in Judaism from the middle of the 2nd century CE and since the 16th century has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem and Safed. In the 2nd–10th centuries, Tiberias was the largest Jewish city in the Galilee and the political and religious hub of the Jews of Israel, its immediate neighbour to the south, Hammat Tiberias, now part of modern Tiberias, has been known for its hot springs, believed to cure skin and other ailments, for some two thousand years. See Diocese of Tiberias for ecclesiastical history Jewish tradition holds that Tiberias was built on the site of the ancient Israelite village of Rakkath or Rakkat, first mentioned in the Book of Joshua. In Talmudic times, the Jews still referred to it by this name. Tiberias was founded sometime around 20 CE in the Herodian Tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea by the Roman client king Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great.
Herod Antipas made it the capital of his realm in the Galilee and named it for the Roman Emperor Tiberius. The city was built in immediate proximity to a spa which had developed around 17 natural mineral hot springs, Hammat Tiberias. Tiberias was at first a pagan city, but became populated by Jews, with its growing spiritual and religious status exerting a strong influence on balneological practices. Conversely, in The Antiquities of the Jews, the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus calls the village with hot springs Emmaus, today's Hammat Tiberias, located near Tiberias; this name appears in The Wars of the Jews. In the days of Herod Antipas, some of the most religiously orthodox Jews, who were struggling against the process of Hellenization, which had affected some priestly groups, refused to settle there: the presence of a cemetery rendered the site ritually unclean for the Jews and for the priestly caste. Antipas settled many non-Jews there from rural Galilee and other parts of his domains in order to populate his new capital, built a palace on the acropolis.
The prestige of Tiberias was so great that the Sea of Galilee soon came to be named the Sea of Tiberias. The city was governed by a city council of 600 with a committee of 10 until 44 CE when a Roman procurator was set over the city after the death of Herod Agrippa I. Tiberias is mentioned in John 6:23 as the location from which boats had sailed to the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee; the crowd seeking Jesus after the miraculous feeding of the 5000 used these boats to travel back to Capernaum on the north-western part of the lake. Under the Roman Empire, the city was known by its Greek name Τιβεριάς, an adaptation of the taw-suffixed Semitic form that preserved its feminine grammatical gender. In 61 CE Herod Agrippa II annexed the city to his kingdom. During the First Jewish–Roman War, the seditious took control of the city and destroyed Herod's palace, were able to prevent the city from being pillaged by the army of Agrippa II, the Jewish ruler who had remained loyal to Rome; the seditious were expelled from Tiberias, while most other cities in the provinces of Judaea and Idumea were razed, Tiberias was spared this fate because its inhabitants had decided not to fight against Rome.
It became a mixed city after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE. There is no direct indication that Tiberias, as well as the rest of Galilee, took part in the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, thus allowing it to exist, despite a heavy economic decline due to the war. Following the expulsion of Jews from Judea after 135 CE, Tiberias and its neighbor Sepphoris became the major Jewish cultural centres, competing within the Jewish world for status and recognition with Babylon, Alexandria and the Persian Empire. In 145 CE, Rabbi Simeon bar Yochai, familiar with the Galilee, hiding there for over a decade, "cleansed the city of ritual impurity", allowing the Jewish leadership to resettle there from the Judea Province, where they were fugitives; the Sanhedrin, the Jewish court fled from Jerusalem during the Great Jewish Revolt against Rome, after several attempted moves, in search of stability settled in Tiberias in about 150 CE. It was to be its final meeting place before its disbanding in the early Byzantine period.
When Johanan bar Nappaha settled in Tiberias, the city became the focus of Jewish religious scholarship in the land. The Mishnah, the collected theological discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel – in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea – was compiled in Tiberias by Rabbi Judah haNasi around 200 CE; the Jerusalem Talmud would follow being compiled by Rabbi Jochanan between 230–270 CE. Tiberias' 13 synagogues served the spiritual needs of a growing Jewish population. In the 6th century Tiberias was still the seat of Jewish religious learning. In light of this, a letter of Syriac bishop Simeon of Beth Arsham urged the Christians of Palaestina to seize the leaders of Judaism in Tiberias, to put them to the rack, to compel them to command the Jewish king, Dhu Nuwas, to desist from persecuting the Christians in Najran. In 614, Tiberias was the site where, during the final Jewish revolt against the Byzantine Empire, parts of the Jewish population supported the Persian invaders.
Jael or Yael is a woman mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible, as the heroine who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of King Jabin. Jael was the wife of Heber the Kenite; the Kenites were a nomadic tribe. The Bible records a number of cases of intermarriage; the Kenites may have been a part of the Midianite group. Heber the Kenite was, according to the Book of Judges in the Bible, a descendant of Reuel the Midianite, the father-in-law of Moses, he had separated himself and his wife Jael from the other Kenites and pitched their tent in the plain of Zaanaim, near Kedesh in the tribal territory of Naphtali. Heber lived during the 12th century BC in the Hula Valley of northern Israel during the time of the Israelite judges. According to Jack Sasson, there are reasons to doubt whether the events narrated in Judges 4 occurred. Deborah, a prophetess and judge, advises Barak to mobilize the tribes of Naphtali and Zebulon on Mount Tabor to do battle against King Jabin of Canaan.
Barak demurred, provided she would also. Deborah agreed but prophesied that the honour of defeating Jabin's army would go to a woman. Jabin's army was led by Sisera; the armies met on the plain of Esdraelon, where Sisera's iron-bound chariots became hampered by the mud caused by a downpour during the night that caused the Wadi Kishon to overflow its banks. The Canaanites were defeated and Sisera fled the scene. Sisera arrived on foot at the tent of Heber on the plain of Zaanaim. Heber and his household were at peace with the king of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor. Jael, sympathized with the Israelites because of the twenty-year period of harsh oppression inflicted on them by Jabin, his commander Sisera, his nine hundred iron chariots. Jael covered him with a blanket; as he was thirsty, she gave him a jug of milk. Exhausted, Sisera soon fell asleep. While he was sleeping, Jael took a mallet and drove a tent peg into his temple, killing him instantly; the "Song of Deborah" recounts: Scholars have long recognized that the Song of Deborah, on the basis of linguistic evidence, is one of the oldest parts of the Bible, dating back to the 12th century BC.
Pseudo-Philo refers to Jael in the book, Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum: Now Jael took a stake in her left hand and approached him, saying, "If God will work this sign with me, I know that Sisera will fall into my hands. Behold I will throw him down on the ground from the bed, and Jael pushed him onto the ground from the bed. But he did not feel it, because he was groggy, and Jael said, "Strengthen in me today, Lord, my arm on account of you and your people and those who hope in you." And Jael put it on his temple and struck it with a hammer. And while he was dying, Sisera said to Jael, "Behold pain has taken hold of me, I die like a woman." And Jael said to him, "Go, boast before your father in hell and tell him that you have fallen into the hands of a woman." There is a reference to the story of Jael in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. During the Wife of Bath's Prologue, whilst discussing her fifth husband's "book of wikked wives", Chaucer mentions some wives who "han drive nailes in hir brain, / Whil that they slepte, thus they had hem slain."
Judges 4:17 states that there was peace between the Heber's clan. They were familiar to the Israelites through the connection of Jethro to Moses, their skill as metalworkers was welcomed wherever they camped. Both sides in the conflict would have considered the Kenites a neutral party. C. E. Schenk notes that Sisera was Jael's guest, "was in the sanctuary of her home, protected by the laws of hospitality." According to Herbert Lockyer she may have acted out of practical necessity. Sisera was in Barak in pursuit, it would not have been wise to allow Barak to find Sisera in her tent. She knew that Sisera would be killed if captured, therefore she would kill him and thus cement a friendship with the victor. Biblical commentaries have viewed Jael as either a someone much less so. Newsom and Ringe consider her a survivor caught up in her husband's politics. Christian moral theorists during the Renaissance extensively referred to Jael as example of tyrannicide. Medieval images of Jael in illuminated manuscripts, depicted her as both a defender of Israel and a prefiguration of the Virgin Mary.
This can be seen in the Speculus Darmstadt, as well as several other texts. When not shown in the act of killing Sisera, she carries her hammer and sometimes the spike, making her easy to identify. In the Renaissance the subject is one of the most shown in the Power of Women topos, with other biblical women who triumphed over men, such as Judith or Delilah. Here she was used to show the risk for men in following women, in groupings including positive figures and scenes such as Judith beheading Holofernes, but ones with females depicted as over-powerful, such as Phyllis riding Aristotle and Delilah, Salome and her mother Herodias and the Idolatry of Solomon. More positively, Jael was included in sets of the female Nine Worthies, such as the prints by Hans Burgkmair. Ladies sometimes chose to have their portraits painted as Jael, a transformation achieved by holding a hammer and spike. In the Baroque period, Jael continued to be a sexua