Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965. They achieved international acclaim with their psychedelic music. Distinguished by their philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, extended compositions, elaborate live shows, they are one of the most commercially successful and influential groups in popular music history. Pink Floyd were founded by students Syd Barrett on guitar and lead vocals, Nick Mason on drums, Roger Waters on bass and vocals, Richard Wright on keyboards and vocals, they gained popularity performing in London's underground music scene during the late 1960s, under Barrett's leadership released two charting singles and a successful debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. Guitarist and vocalist David Gilmour joined in December 1967. Waters became the band's primary lyricist and conceptual leader, devising the concepts behind their albums The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, The Wall and The Final Cut; the Dark Side of the Moon and The Wall became two of the best-selling albums of all time.
Following creative tensions, Wright left Pink Floyd in 1979, followed by Waters in 1985. Gilmour and Mason continued as Pink Floyd; the three produced two more albums—A Momentary Lapse of Reason and The Division Bell —and toured through 1994. After nearly two decades of enmity, Gilmour and Mason reunited with Waters in 2005 to perform as Pink Floyd in London as part of the global awareness event Live 8. Barrett died in 2006, Wright in 2008; the last Pink Floyd studio album, The Endless River, was recorded without Waters and based entirely on unreleased material from The Division Bell recording sessions. Pink Floyd were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. By 2013, they had sold more than 250 million records worldwide. Roger Waters and Nick Mason met while studying architecture at the London Polytechnic at Regent Street, they first played music together in a group formed by Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe with Noble's sister Sheilagh.
Richard Wright, a fellow architecture student, joined that year, the group became a sextet, Sigma 6. Waters played lead guitar, Mason drums, Wright rhythm guitar; the band performed at private functions and rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic. They performed songs by the Searchers and material written by their manager and songwriter, fellow student Ken Chapman. In September 1963, Waters and Mason moved into a flat at 39 Stanhope Gardens near Crouch End in London, owned by Mike Leonard, a part-time tutor at the nearby Hornsey College of Art and the Regent Street Polytechnic. Mason moved out after the 1964 academic year, guitarist Bob Klose moved in during September 1964, prompting Waters' switch to bass. Sigma 6 went through several names, including the Meggadeaths, the Abdabs and the Screaming Abdabs, Leonard's Lodgers, the Spectrum Five, before settling on the Tea Set. In 1964, as Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own band, guitarist Syd Barrett joined Klose and Waters at Stanhope Gardens.
Barrett, two years younger, had moved to London in 1962 to study at the Camberwell College of Arts. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends. Mason said about Barrett: "In a period when everyone was being cool in a adolescent, self-conscious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing. In December 1964, they secured their first recording time, at a studio in West Hampstead, through one of Wright's friends, who let them use some down time free. Wright, taking a break from his studies, did not participate in the session; when the RAF assigned Dennis a post in Bahrain in early 1965, Barrett became the band's frontman. That year, they became the resident band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London, where from late night until early morning they played three sets of 90 minutes each. During this period, spurred by the group's need to extend their sets to minimise song repetition, the band realised that "songs could be extended with lengthy solos", wrote Mason. After pressure from his parents and advice from his college tutors, Klose quit the band in mid-1965 and Barrett took over lead guitar.
The group first referred to themselves as the Pink Floyd Sound in late 1965. Barrett created the name on the spur of the moment when he discovered that another band called the Tea Set, were to perform at one of their gigs; the name is derived from the given names of two blues musicians whose Piedmont blues records Barrett had in his collection, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. By 1966, the group's repertoire consisted of rhythm and blues songs and they had begun to receive paid bookings, including a performance at the Marquee Club in March 1966, where Peter Jenner, a lecturer at the London School of Economics, noticed them. Jenner was impressed by the sonic effects Barrett and Wright created, with his business partner and friend Andrew King became their manager; the pair had little experience in the music industry and used King's inheritance to set up Blackhill Enterprises, purchasing about £1,000 worth of new instruments and equipment for the band
The Cessna 210 Centurion is a six-seat, high-performance, retractable-gear, single-engine, high-wing general aviation aircraft, first flown in January 1957 and produced by Cessna until 1986. The early Cessna 210 had four seats with a Continental IO-470 engine of 260 hp, it was a Cessna 182B to, added a retractable landing gear, swept tail, a new wing. In 1961 the fuselage and wing were redesigned – the fuselage was made wider and deeper, a third side window was added; the wing planform remained the same, but the semi-Fowler flaps were extended outboard, from Wing Station 100 to Wing Station 122, which allowed a lower landing speed (FAA certification regulations state that a single-engined aircraft must have a flaps-down, power-off stall speed no greater than 70 miles per hour. To compensate for the reduced aileron span, the aileron profile was changed and its chord enlarged; the 1964 model 210D introduced a 285 hp engine and two small child seats, set into the cavity which contained the mainwheels aft of the passengers.
In 1967 the model 210G introduced a cantilever wing replacing the strut-braced wing. Its planform changed to a constant taper from root chord to tip chord. In 1970 the 210K became the first full six-seat model; this was achieved by replacing the flat leaf-springs used for the retractable main landing gear struts with tapered tubular steel struts of greater length. This allowed the tires to be nested farther to the rear of the fuselage, making room for the full-size rear seats. In 1979 the 210N model eliminated the folding doors which covered the two retracted main wheels; the tubular spring struts retract into shallow channels along the bottom of the fuselage and the wheels fit snugly in closed depressions on the underside of the fuselage. Some models featured de-icing boots as an option; the aircraft was offered in a aspirated version, designated the model 210, as well as the turbocharged T210 and the pressurized P210 versions. The Centurion II was an option introduced in 1970 with improved avionics, was available in both aspirated and turbocharged versions On 21 May 2012 the airworthiness authority responsible for the design, the US Federal Aviation Administration, issued an emergency Airworthiness Directive requiring 3,665 of the cantilever wing Cessna 210s to be inspected for cracks in the spar cap, wing spar and wing.
Aircraft with more than 10,000 hours of airframe time were grounded pending a visual inspection. There are a wide range of modifications available for the Cessna 210, including: Aeronautical Engineers Australia has developed a life extension package for 210s suffering from wing spar carry-through beam corrosion. Crownair Aviation developed a “Centurion Edition” T210, a remanufactured aircraft introduced in November 2008 that features a glass cockpit and new engine along with other minor refinements.> O&N Aircraft offers a Rolls-Royce Model 250 turboprop conversion of the T210 and Pressurized Cessna P210N known as the "Silver Eagle". Riley Rocket – Restoration and addition of intercooler to Continental TSIO-520 models to boost from 310 to 340 hp. Vitatoe Aviation offers the TN550 conversion which uses a Continental IO-550P engine with an IO-520 turbocharger with dual intercoolers and a larger alternator; the Cessna 210 was manufactured in 26 model variants. The C210, C210A-D, the Centurion C210E-H&J, Turbo Centurion T210F-H&J, the Centurion II C210K-N&R, the Turbo Centurion II T210K-N&R and the P210N&R.
The 210N, T210N, P210N versions were produced in the greatest quantity. The rarest and most expensive models were the T210R and P210R, which were produced only in small quantities in 1985-86. Several modifications and optional fittings are available including different engine installations, wingtip tanks, speed brakes, STOL kits and gear door modifications; the early strut-winged Cessna 210B was developed into a fixed-gear aircraft known as the Cessna 205. This spawned an new family of Cessna aircraft including the 206 and the eight-seat 207. 210 Four-seat production variant with a Continental IO-470-E engine, 40 degree hydraulic flaps, gear doors, introduced in 1960. First flown in 1957, 575 built. 210A A 210 with a third cabin window on each side, introduced in 1961, 265 built. 210B A 210A with a cut-down rear fuselage, a rear-vision window and a Continental IO-470-S engine, introduced in 1962, 245 built. 210C A 210B with some minor changes, introduced in 1963, 135 built. 210D Centurion A 210C fitted with a 285 hp Continental IO-520-A engine and increased takeoff weight to 3,100 lb, introduced in 1964, 290 built.
210E Centurion A 210D with some minor changes, introduced in 1965, 205 built. 210F Centurion / Turbo Centurion A 210E with some minor changes and optional 285 hp turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-C engine, introduced in 1966, 300 built. 210G Centurion / Turbo Centurion A 210F with a strutless cantilever wing and modified rear window, increased takeoff weight to 3,400 lb, introduced in 1967, 228 built. 210H Centurion / Turbo Centurion A 210G with a new flap system and instrument panel, 210 built. Flap range decreased to 30 degrees, fuel capacity increased from 65 to 90 US gal. Introduced in 1968. 210J Centurion / Turbo Centurion A 210H with reduced wing dihederal, different nose profile and a Continental IO-520-J engine, introduced in 1969, 200 built. 210K Centurion / Turbo Centurion A 210J with rear changed to full seat to provide six seats, an IO-520-L engine with 300 h
Sir Michael Philip Jagger is an English singer, songwriter and film producer who gained fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones. Jagger's career has spanned over five decades, he has been described as "one of the most popular and influential frontmen in the history of rock & roll", his distinctive voice and energetic live performances, along with Keith Richards' guitar style have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the band's career. Jagger gained press notoriety for his admitted drug use and romantic involvements, was portrayed as a countercultural figure. Jagger grew up in Dartford, Kent, he studied at the London School of Economics before abandoning his academic career to join the Rolling Stones. Jagger has written most of the Rolling Stones' songs together with Richards, they continue to collaborate musically. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films, to a mixed reception, he began a solo career in 1985, releasing his first album, She's the Boss, joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy in 2009.
Relationships with the Stones' members Richards, deteriorated during the 1980s, but Jagger has always found more success with the band than with his solo and side projects. In 1989, Jagger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones; as member of the Stones, as solo artist, he reached number one on the UK and US singles charts with 13 singles, the Top 10 with 32 singles and the Top 40 with 70 singles. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music. Jagger has been married once, has had several other relationships. Jagger has eight children with five women, he has five grandchildren, became a great-grandfather on 19 May 2014, when his granddaughter Assisi gave birth to daughter Ezra Key. Jagger's net worth has been estimated at $360 million. Michael Philip Jagger was born into a middle-class family in Kent, his father, Basil Fanshawe "Joe" Jagger, grandfather, David Ernest Jagger, were both teachers. His mother, Eva Ensley Mary, born in Sydney, Australia, of English descent, was a hairdresser and an active member of the Conservative Party.
Jagger's younger brother, Chris, is a musician. The two have performed together. Although brought up to follow his father's career path, Jagger "was always a singer" as he stated in According to the Rolling Stones. "I always sang as a child. I was one of those kids; some kids sing in choirs. I was in the church choir and I loved listening to singers on the radio–the BBC or Radio Luxembourg–or watching them on TV and in the movies."In September 1950, Keith Richards and Jagger were classmates at Wentworth Primary School, Dartford. In 1954, Jagger passed the eleven-plus and went to Dartford Grammar School, which now has the Mick Jagger Centre, named after its most famous alumnus, installed within the school's site. Jagger and Richards lost contact with each other when they went to different schools, but after a chance encounter on platform two at Dartford railway station in July 1960, resumed their friendship and discovered their shared love of rhythm and blues, which for Jagger had begun with Little Richard.
Jagger left school in 1961 after passing three A-levels. With Richards, he moved into a flat in Edith Grove, London, with guitarist Brian Jones. While Richards and Jones planned to start their own rhythm and blues group, Blues Incorporated, Jagger continued to study business on a government grant as an undergraduate student at the London School of Economics, had considered becoming either a journalist or a politician, comparing the latter to a pop star. Brian Jones, using the name Elmo Lewis, began working at the Ealing Club — where a "loosely knit version" of Blues Incorporated began with Richards. Jagger began to jam with the group becoming featured singer. Soon, Richards and Jagger began to practise on their own, laying the foundation for what would become The Rolling Stones. In their earliest days, the Rolling Stones played for no money in the interval of Alexis Korner's gigs at a basement club opposite Ealing Broadway tube station. At the time, the group had little equipment and needed to borrow Korner's gear to play.
The group's first appearance, under the name the Rollin' Stones, was at the Marquee Club, a jazz club, in London on 12 July 1962. They would change their name to "the Rolling Stones" as it seemed more formal. Victor Bockris states that the band members included Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Ian Stewart on piano, Dick Taylor on bass and Tony Chapman on drums. However, Richards states in his memoir Life that "The drummer that night was Mick Avory−not Tony Chapman, as history has mysteriously handed it down..." By autumn 1963, Jagger had left the London School of Economics in favour of his promising musical career with the Rolling Stones. The group continued to play songs by American rhythm and blues artists such as Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley, but with the strong encouragement of manager Andrew Loog Oldham and Richards soon began to write their own songs; this core songwriting partnership took some time to develop. For the Rolling Stones, the duo would write "The Last Time", the group's third No. 1 single in the UK (their first two UK No. 1
Karl Marx was a German philosopher, historian, political theorist and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Marx studied law and philosophy at university, he married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum, his best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual and political history and his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory. Marx's theories about society and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes that control the means of production and the working classes that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.
Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers. Marx pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation. Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, his work has been both lauded and criticised, his work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, subsequent economic thought.
Many intellectuals, labour unions and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science. Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Henriette Pressburg, he was born at Brückengasse 664 in Trier, a town part of the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine. Marx was ethnically Jewish, his maternal grandfather was a Dutch rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Trier's rabbis since 1723, a role taken by his grandfather Meier Halevi Marx. His father, as a child known as Herschel, was the first in the line to receive a secular education, he became a lawyer and lived a wealthy and middle-class existence, with his family owning a number of Moselle vineyards. Prior to his son's birth, after the abrogation of Jewish emancipation in the Rhineland, Herschel converted from Judaism to join the state Evangelical Church of Prussia, taking on the German forename Heinrich over the Yiddish Herschel.
Non-religious, Heinrich was a man of the Enlightenment, interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Voltaire. A classical liberal, he took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, at that time being an absolute monarchy. In 1815, Heinrich Marx began working as an attorney and in 1819 moved his family to a ten-room property near the Porta Nigra, his wife, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch Jewish woman from a prosperous business family that founded the company Philips Electronics. Her sister Sophie Pressburg married Lion Philips and was the grandmother of both Gerard and Anton Philips and great-grandmother to Frits Philips. Lion Philips was a wealthy Dutch tobacco manufacturer and industrialist, upon whom Karl and Jenny Marx would often come to rely for loans while they were exiled in London. Little is known of Marx's childhood; the third of nine children, he became the eldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819. Young Marx and his surviving siblings, Hermann, Louise and Caroline, were baptised into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 and their mother in November 1825.
Young Marx was educated by his father until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster, Hugo Wyttenbach, was a friend of his father. By employing many liberal humanists as teachers, Wyttenbach incurred the anger of the local conservative government. Subsequently, police raided the school in 1832 and discovered that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students. Considering the distribution of such material a seditious act, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff during Marx's attendance. In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field. Due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest", Marx was excused from military duty when he turned 18. While at the University at Bonn, Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police. Marx joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society, at one point serving as club co-president.
Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's Borussian Korps. Although his grades
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters and Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1974. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and continues on guitar in tandem with Richards. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, which along with its follow-ups Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main St. is considered to be the band's best work and is seen as their "Golden Age." It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."The band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour.
Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales are above 250 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US.
In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary; the band still continues to release albums to critical acclaim. S. and won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. The band continues to sell out venues, they have been on their No Filter Tour since September, 2017 and will wrap up the tour with a North American leg over Summer 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated.
The group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts. After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and R
Keith Richards is an English musician and songwriter, best known as the co-founder, secondary vocalist, co-principal songwriter of the Rolling Stones. Rolling Stone magazine called Richards the creator of "rock's greatest single body of riffs" on guitar and ranked him fourth on its list of 100 best guitarists in 2011, the magazine lists fourteen songs that Richards wrote with the Rolling Stones' lead vocalist Mick Jagger on its "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time" list. Richards plays both lead and rhythm guitar parts in the same song, as the Stones are known for their guitar interplay of rhythm and lead between Richards and the other guitarist in the band – Brian Jones, Mick Taylor, Ronnie Wood. In the recording studio Richards sometimes plays all of the guitar parts, notably on the songs "Paint It Black", "Ruby Tuesday", "Sympathy for the Devil", " Satisfaction", "Gimme Shelter", he is a vocalist, singing backing vocals on many Rolling Stones songs as well as occasional lead vocals, such as on the Rolling Stones' 1972 single "Happy", as well as with his side project, the X-Pensive Winos.
Richards was born on 18 December 1943 at Livingston Hospital, in Dartford, England. He is the only child of Herbert William Richards, his father was a factory worker, wounded in the Second World War during the Normandy invasion. Richards' paternal grandparents and Eliza Richards, were socialists and civic leaders, whom he credited as "more or less creat the Walthamstow Labour Party", whilst Eliza became mayor of the Municipal Borough of Walthamstow in London in 1941, his great-grandfather's family originated from Wales. His maternal grandfather, Augustus Theodore "Gus" Dupree, who toured Britain with a jazz big band, Gus Dupree and his Boys, fostered Richards' interest in the guitar. Richards has said, his grandfather'teased' the young Richards with a guitar, on a shelf that Richards couldn't reach at the time. Dupree told Richards that if Richards could reach the guitar, he could have it. Richards devised all manner of ways of reaching the guitar, including putting books and cushions on a chair, until getting hold of the instrument, after which his grandfather taught him the rudiments of Richards' first tune, "Malagueña".
He worked on the number'like mad', his grandfather let him keep the guitar, which he called'the prize of the century'. Richards played at home, listening to recordings by Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, others, his father, on the other hand, disparaged his son's musical enthusiasm. One of Richards' first guitar heroes was Elvis's guitarist Scotty Moore, he attended Wentworth Primary School with Mick Jagger and was his neighbour until 1954 when the Richards family moved. From 1955 to 1959, Richards attended Dartford Technical High School for Boys. Recruited by Dartford Tech's choirmaster, R. W. "Jake" Clare, he sang in a trio of boy sopranos at, among other occasions, Westminster Abbey for Queen Elizabeth II. In 1959, Richards was expelled from Dartford Tech for truancy and transferred to Sidcup Art College, where he met Dick Taylor. At Sidcup, he was diverted from his studies proper and devoted more time to playing guitar with other students in the boys' room. At this point, Richards had learned most of Chuck Berry's solos.
Richards met Jagger on a train. The mail-order rhythm & blues albums from Chess Records by Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters that Jagger was carrying revealed a mutual interest and led to a renewal of their friendship. Along with mutual friend Dick Taylor, Jagger was singing in an amateur band, Little Boy Blue and the Blue Boys, which Richards soon joined; the Blues Boys folded when Brian Jones, after sharing thoughts on their joint interest in the blues music, invited Mick and Keith to the Bricklayers Arms pub, where they met Ian Stewart. By mid-1962 Richards had left Sidcup Art College to devote himself to music and moved into a London flat with Jagger and Jones, his parents divorced about the same time, resulting in his staying close to his mother and remaining estranged from his father until 1982. After the Rolling Stones signed to Decca Records in 1963, their band manager, Andrew Loog Oldham, dropped the s from Richards' surname, believing that "Keith Richard", in his words, "looked more pop".
During the late 1970s, Richards re-established the s in his surname. Ian Stewart once stated. Bill Wyman and Ronnie Wood have been quoted as stating that the Stones do not follow the band's long-time drummer, Charlie Watts, but rather follow Richards, as there was "no way of'not' following" him. Chris Spedding calls Richards' guitar playing "direct and unpretentious". Richards says he focuses on chords and rhythms, avoiding flamboyant and competitive virtuosity and trying not to be the "fastest gun in the west". Richards prefers teaming with at least one other guitarist and has never toured without one. Chuck Berry has been an inspiration for Richards, with Jagger, he introduced Berry's songs to the Rolling Stones' early repertoire. In the late 1960s Jones' declining contributions led Richards to record all guitar parts on many tracks, including slide guitar. Jones' replacement, Mick Taylor, played guitar with the Rolling Stones from 1969 to 1974. Taylor's virtuosity on lead guitar led to a pronounced separation between lead and rhythm guitar roles, most notably onstage.
In 1975 Taylor was replaced by Wood, whose arrival