Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Museo del Prado
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid. Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture in 1819, it contains important collections of other types of works. El Prado is one of the most visited sites in the world, and it is considered one of the greatest art museums in the world. The collection currently comprises around 8,200 drawings,7,600 paintings,4,800 prints, and 1,000 sculptures, in addition to a large number of other works of art and historic documents. As of 2012, the museum displayed about 1,300 works in the buildings, while around 3,100 works were on temporary loan to various museums. The museum received 2.8 million visitors in 2012 and it is one of the largest museums in Spain. The best-known work on display at the museum is Las Meninas by Velázquez, Velázquez and his keen eye and sensibility were responsible for bringing much of the museums fine collection of Italian masters to Spain, now the largest outside of Italy. The museum is planning a 16% extension in the nearby Salón de Reinos and their efforts and determination led to the Royal Collection being enriched by some of the masterpieces now to be seen in the Prado.
In addition to works from the Spanish royal collection, other holdings increased and enriched the Museum with further masterpieces, such as the two Majas by Goya. Among the now closed museums whose collections have been added to that of the Prado were the Museo del la Trinidad in 1872, in addition, numerous legacies and purchases have been of crucial importance for the growth of the collection. Upon the deposition of Isabella II in 1868, the museum was nationalized and acquired the new name of Museo del Prado, the building housed the royal collection of arts, and it rapidly proved too small. The first enlargement to the museum took place in 1918, particularly important donations include Barón Emile dErlangers gift of Goyas Black Paintings in 1881. Between 1873 and 1900, the Prado helped decorate city halls, new universities, during the Second Spanish Republic from 1931 to 1936, the focus was on building up provincial museums. The art had to be returned across French territory in night trains to the museum upon the commencement of World War II, during the early years of the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, many paintings were sent to embassies.
The main building was enlarged with short pavilions in the rear between 1900 and 1960, in 1993, an extension proposed by the Prados director at the time, Felipe Garin, was quickly abandoned after a wave of criticism. In the late 1990s, a $14 million roof work forced the Velázquez masterpiece Las Meninas to change galleries twice, in 1998, the Prado annex in the nearby Casón del Buen Retiro closed for a $10 million two-year overhaul that included three new underground levels. In 2007, the finally executed Rafael Moneos project to expand its exposition room to 16,000 square meters. A glass-roofed and wedge-shaped foyer now contains the shops and cafeteria
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Mariano Salvador Maella
Mariano Salvador Maella Pérez was a Spanish painter known primarily for his portraits and religious frescoes. His artistic education began with his father, who was a painter, in 1752, at the age of eleven, he moved to Madrid and received lessons from Felipe de Castro, a sculptor who helped introduce the Neoclassical style to Spain. This was followed by enrollment at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, in 1757, with the money from three prizes awarded by the Academia and the support of his family, he was able to study in Rome. He returned to Spain in 1765 and participated in the remodeling of the Palacio Real de Madrid under the direction of Anton Raphael Mengs, in 1772, he created illustrations for a new edition of works by Francisco de Quevedo. His career in Madrid began in earnest when he was appointed a court painter in 1774 and he not only worked at the Palacio Real, but at La Granja de San Ildefonso, the Palacio de El Pardo and the Palacio de El Escorial as well. From 1795 to 1798, following the death of Francisco Bayeu, in 1799, he and Francisco Goya were named as primary court painters and he began to work on the restoration of several Royal sites.
After the fall of King Carlos IV in 1808, he did not hesitate to switch his allegiance to the new French government of King José I and this eventually led to the end of his career. When King Fernando VII took the throne, Maella was accused of being afrancesado, dismissed from the court and he was replaced by Vicente López Portaña, one of his students. José Manuel de la Mano, Mariano Salvador Maella, 1739-1819, catálogo razonado, apuntes Biográficos by José Luis Morales y Marín from the Boletín de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando #69,1989, digitalized @ the Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Miracle of the roses
A miracle of the roses is a miracle in which roses manifest an activity of God or of a saint. Dorothy, a 4th-century virgin martyr at Caesarea in Cappadocia, in the Latin West the symbolism of the rose is of Greco-Roman heritage but influenced by and finally transformed through Latin biblical and liturgical texts. In Greco-Roman culture the roses symbolic qualities represented beauty, the season of spring and it spoke of the fleetness of life, and therefore of death. In Rome the feast called Rosalia was a feast of the dead and this symbolism attained a deeper complexity when contrasted with the roses thorns. This contrast inspired the Christian Latin poet Coelius Sedulius, who wrote a very elaborate comparison between Eve, our first mother, and Mary, the Mother of Jesus our Savior. He illustrated the parallelism already made by Justin Martyr and developed it in a poetic and doctrinal liturgical teaching in his Easter song. The rose was a symbol for Mary, Queen of heaven. The rose is even a symbol for Christ himself, as seen in the German Christmas song, during the Middle Ages the rose was cultivated in monastery gardens and used for medicinal purposes.
It became a symbol in religious writing and iconography in different images and settings, the mystic rose appears in Dantes Divine Comedy, where it represents Gods love. By the twelfth century, the red rose had come to represent Christs passion, the most common association of the rose is with the Virgin Mary. The third-century Saint Ambrose believed that there were roses in the Garden of Eden, initially without thorns, but which became thorny after the fall, thus the Blessed Virgin is often referred to as the rose without thorns, since she was immaculately conceived. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux compared her virginity to a white rose, with the rise of Marian devotion and the Gothic cathedral in the twelfth century, the image of the rose became even more prominent in religious life. Cathedrals built around this time include a rose window, dedicated to the Virgin. The thirteenth century Saint Dominic is credited with the institution of the Rosary and it has been suggested that the legend originated in a sermon given by Caesarius of Heisterbach in which he reflects on the occasion of the translation of the remains of Saint Elizabeth, in 1236.
Caesarius speaks of an aroma that emanates from the grave as soon as it is opened. This metaphorical or actual aroma could have been translated into a physical event, the first report of a miracle resembling that of the roses is by Franciscans in the mid-13th century. Their account is of spring flowers, and the event takes place in Hungary, in its most characteristic form the legend goes as follows. One day the young but pious Elizabeth, in the company of one or more serving women, descends from Wartburg Castle down to the village of Eisenach and she is carrying meat and bread under her mantle
Maria Luisa of Parma
Maria Luisa of Parma was Queen consort of Spain from 1788 to 1808 as the wife of King Charles IV of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma and his wife, Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France, born in Parma, she was christened Luisa Maria Teresa Anna, but is known to history by the short Spanish form of this name, María Luisa. Her parents had been the Duke and Duchess of Parma since 1749 and she, her brother Ferdinand, and her sister Isabella were educated in Parma by Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, a well-known French philosopher. María Luisas mother tried to engage her to Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the young duke died in 1761. In 1762 Maria Luisa instead became engaged to Charles, Prince of Asturias, King Charles IV of Spain, as there was no queen in Spain at that time, María Luisa became the first lady in precedence at the court from the beginning of her residence there. Her husband was the son and heir of the widowed Charles III of Spain, previously Duke of Parma and King of Naples, due to pressure from Napoleon I, Marías husband abdicated the throne of Spain and spent the rest of his life in exile.
When Napoleons army invaded the country, several pamphlets blamed her for the abdication, María Luisa spent some years in France and in Rome. Both María Luisa and her husband died in Italy in early 1819, in 1792, the Order of Queen Maria Luisa for women was founded on her suggestion. Maria Luisa married her first cousin Charles IV, in 1765, a miscarriage of a daughter in the 6th month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage of a son in the 4th and a half month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy. A miscarriage in the 1st month of pregnancy, a miscarriage of a son in the 5th and a half month of pregnancy. A miscarriage of a son in the 4th and a month of pregnancy. EPTON, The Spanish mousetrap and the Court of Spain, HILT, The troubled trinity and the Spanish monarchs
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, located on the Calle de Alcalá in the heart of Madrid, currently functions as a museum and gallery. The academy was established by decree in 1744. About twenty years later, the enlightened monarch Charles III purchased a palace in Madrid as the new home. The building had been designed by José Benito de Churriguera for the Goyeneche family, the king commissioned Diego de Villanueva to convert the building for academic use, employing a neoclassical style in place of Churrigueras baroque design. The academy is the headquarters of the Madrid Academy of Art, francisco Goya was once one of the academys directors, and its alumni include Felip Pedrell, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Antonio López García, Juan Luna, Oscar de la Renta, and Fernando Botero. Enlightenment in Spain Media related to Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando at Wikimedia Commons Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Android and iOS Official mobile app
Royal Tapestry Factory
The Royal Tapestry Factory is a manufacturing plant located in Madrid, which was founded in 1720. The factory was founded by Philip V after Spain lost its Belgian territories, the project was one of a number of mercantilist initiatives undertaken in the eighteenth century in the Madrid area to supply luxury goods. Like its French counterpart the Gobelins Manufactory, the Royal Tapestry Factory supplied the court with tapestries, while still in his 20s the painter Francisco Goya was commissioned to provide designs for tapestries to furnish El Escorial and El Pardo, two of the palaces in the Madrid region. Many of the Goya tapestry cartoons are displayed at the Museo del Prado, in the 1990s the factory was running at a loss and received a bail-out from public funds. It became a foundation under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture with the aim of providing a basis for the future. Although further issues related to profitablility have been reported, the factory still produces traditional tapestries, the factory was originally located at the Puerta de Santa Bárbara, a gate on the northern side of Madrid.
The factory has occupied its present site, not far from Atocha station, the nineteenth century building is itself is of historical interest. It was given a heritage listing Bien de Interés Cultural in 2006, list of Francisco Goyas tapestry cartoons Real Fábrica de Cristales de La Granja