United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, across the Potomac River from Washington, D. C. in whose 624 acres the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. The United States Department of the Army, a component of the United States Department of Defense, controls the cemetery; the national cemetery was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, the estate of Confederate general Robert E Lee's wife Mary Anna Custis Lee. The Cemetery, along with Arlington House, Memorial Drive, the Hemicycle, the Arlington Memorial Bridge, form the Arlington National Cemetery Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in April 2014. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of Martha Washington and adopted son of George Washington, acquired the land that now is Arlington National Cemetery in 1802, began construction of Arlington House, named after the village of Arlington, England, where his family was from.
The estate passed to Custis' daughter, Mary Anna, who had married United States Army officer Robert E. Lee. Custis' will gave a "life inheritance" to Mary Lee, allowing her to live at and run Arlington Estate for the rest of her life but not enabling her to sell any portion of it. Upon her death, the Arlington estate passed to George Washington Custis Lee; when Virginia seceded from the Union after the start of the American Civil War at Fort Sumter, Robert E. Lee resigned his commission on April 20, 1861, took command of the armed forces of the Commonwealth of Virginia becoming commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. On May 7, troops of the Virginia militia occupied Arlington House. With Confederate forces occupying Arlington's high ground, the capital of the Union was left in an untenable military position. Although unwilling to leave Arlington House, Mary Lee believed her estate would soon be recaptured by federal soldiers. So she buried many of her family treasures on the grounds and left for her sister's estate at Ravensworth in Fairfax County, Virginia, on May 14.
On May 3, General Winfield Scott ordered Brigadier General Irvin McDowell to clear Arlington and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, of all troops not loyal to the United States. McDowell occupied Arlington without opposition on May 24. At the outbreak of the Civil War, most military personnel who died in battle near Washington, D. C. were buried at the United States Soldiers' Cemetery in Washington, D. C. or Alexandria Cemetery in Alexandria, but by late 1863 both were nearly full. On July 16, 1862, Congress passed legislation authorizing the U. S. federal government to purchase land for national cemeteries for military dead, put the U. S. Army Quartermaster General in charge of this program. In May 1864, Union forces suffered large numbers of dead in the Battle of the Wilderness. Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs ordered that an examination of eligible sites be made for the establishment for a large new national military cemetery. Within weeks, his staff reported; the property was high and free from floods, it had a view of the District of Columbia, it was aesthetically pleasing.
It was the home of the leader of the armed forces of the Confederate States of America, denying Robert E. Lee use of his home after the war was a valuable political consideration; the first military burial at Arlington, for William Henry Christman, was made on May 13, 1864, close to what is now the northeast gate in Section 27. However, Meigs did not formally authorize establishment of burials until June 15, 1864. Arlington did not desegregate its burial practices until President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948; the government acquired Arlington at a tax sale in 1864 for $26,800, equal to $429,313 today. Mrs. Lee had not appeared in person but rather had sent an agent, attempting to pay the $92.07 in property taxes assessed on the estate in a timely manner. The government turned away her agent. In 1874, Custis Lee, heir under his grandfather's will passing the estate in trust to his mother, sued the United States claiming ownership of Arlington. On December 9, 1882, the U.
S. Supreme Court ruled 5–4 in Lee's favor in United States v. Lee, deciding that Arlington had been confiscated without due process. After that decision, Congress returned the estate to him, on March 3, 1883, Custis Lee sold it back to the government for $150,000 at a signing ceremony with Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln; the land became a military reservation. President Herbert Hoover conducted the first national Memorial Day ceremony in Arlington National Cemetery, on May 30, 1929. Beginning in 1863, the federal government used the southern portion of the land now occupied by the cemetery as a settlement for freed slaves, giving the name of "Freedman's Village" to the land; the government constructed rental houses that 1,100 to 3,000 freed slaves occupied while farming 1,100 acres of the estate and receiving schooling and occupational training during the Civil War and after War ended. However, after the land became part of a military reservation, the government asked the Villagers to leave.
When some remained, John A. Commerford, the Superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery, asked the Army's Quartermaster General in 1887 to close the Village on the grounds that people living in the Village had been taking trees at night from the cemetery for use as firew
Carle Place, New York
Carle Place is a hamlet and census-designated place in the Town of North Hempstead in Nassau County, New York, United States. The CDP's population was 4,981 at the 2010 census; the hamlet draws its name from the Carle House - a 32-room house built by Silas Carle in Westbury in the 1800s. It was called the "Carle Place", the surrounding area took the name. An early name for the region is Frog Hollow; as a result, the local high school's sports teams are called the Frogs and the school colors are green and white. In 1946, developer William J. Levitt bought 19 acres for an experiment, his crews brought pre-cut lumber to the site and assembled 600 low-cost houses on a site near the Carle Place station of the Long Island Railroad, offering affordable suburban living with an easy commute into offices in New York City. Within five years, returning veterans and their families swelled the population by 500 percent, it transformed Carle Place, served as the prototype for the gargantuan development Levitt began the following year a few miles away: Levittown.
Carle Place has its own school district, though it includes small portions of the villages of Westbury and Mineola, is one of the smallest in New York state. It consists of three schools which adjoin each other on one large campus: Cherry Lane School, a primary school serving grades K-2 Rushmore Avenue School, an elementary school serving grades 3-6 Carle Place Middle School/High School, a secondary school serving grades 7-12 Carle Place is located at 40°45′09″N 073°36′37″W and its elevation is 108 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.935 square miles, all land. The villages bordering Carle Place are Mineola, Garden City, Old Westbury, Westbury. Carle Place borders East Garden City, an unincorporated area of the Town of Hempstead. Carle Place's southern border runs along Old Country Road, while its eastern border runs along Carle Road; the southern border makes up part of the border between North Hempstead and Hempstead. As of the 2010 census The make up of the population was 77.9% Non-Hispanic white, 2.1% Black or African American, 7.9% Asian, 3.8% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.1% of the population. As of the 2000 census, there were 5,247 people, 1,900 households, 1,371 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,155.2/km². The Town is known for being one square mile. There were 1,922 housing units at an average density of 789.5/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 89.88% White, 1.89% African American, 0.02% Native American, 5.45% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.47% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.78% of the population. There were 1,900 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.31. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $70,938, the median income for a family was $85,240. Males had a median income of $51,744 versus $37,344 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $31,624. About 3.4% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. 1-800-Flowers Headquarters Carle Place station Guitarists Steve Vai and Joe Satriani are both from Carle Place. Former New York Jets athlete Matt Snell graduated from Carle Place High School, he has his picture set in Carle Place High School's "Athletic Hall of Fame". Paralympic Wheelchair Basketball Player Steve Serio graduated from Carle Place High School in 2005. Serio is technically a resident of Westbury, but, as with Satriani, the portion of Westbury is a part of the Carle Place School District. Noted composer Tom Cipullo is from Carle Place.
His works include 225 published songs, the critically acclaimed opera, Glory Denied Emmy-nominated TV writer and showrunner Brendan Hay grew up and went to school in Carle Place. Carle Place Schools
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
The R33 class of British rigid airships were built for the Royal Naval Air Service during the First World War, but were not completed until after the end of hostilities, by which time the RNAS had become part of the Royal Air Force. The lead ship, R33, served for ten years and survived one of the most alarming and heroic incidents in airship history when she was torn from her mooring mast in a gale, she was called a "Pulham Pig" by the locals, as the blimps based there had been, is immortalised in the village sign for Pulham St Mary. The only other airship in the class, R34, became the first aircraft to make an east to west transatlantic flight in July 1919 and, with the return flight made the first two-way crossing, it was decommissioned two years after being damaged during a storm. The crew nicknamed her "Tiny". Larger than the preceding R31 class, the R33 class was in the design stage in 1916 when the German Zeppelin L 33 was brought down on English soil. Despite the efforts of the crew to set it on fire, it was captured nearly intact, with engines in working order.
For five months, the LZ 76 was examined in order to discover the Germans' secrets. The existing design was adapted to produce a new airship based on the German craft and two examples were ordered, one to be constructed by Armstrong-Whitworth at Barlow, North Yorkshire, the other by William Beardmore and Company in Inchinnan, Scotland. Assembly began in 1918; the R33 class was the middle section being straight-sided. The control car was well forward on the ship, with the aft section containing an engine in a separate structure to stop vibrations affecting the sensitive radio direction finding and communication equipment; the small gap was faired over, so the gondola seemed to be a single structure. It was powered by five 275 hp Sunbeam Maori engines, with one in the aft section of the control car, two more in a pair of power cars amidships each driving a pusher propeller via a reversing gearbox for manoeuvering while mooring, the remaining two in a centrally mounted aft car, geared together to drive a single pusher propeller.
R33 first flew on 6 March 1919, was sent to RAF Pulham in Norfolk. Between and 14 October, R33 made 23 flights totalling 337 hours flying time. One of these, a flight promoting "Victory Bonds" included a brass band playing in the top machine gun post. In 1920 she was "demilitarised" and given over to civilian work with the civil registration G-FAAG; this work consisted of trials of new mast mooring techniques using. On one occasion winds of 80 mph were withstood while moored. Another experiment was an ascent carrying a pilotless Sopwith Camel, launched over the Yorkshire Moors. After an overhaul, R33 was based at Croydon Airport, moored to a portable mast. In June 1921 it was used by the Metropolitan Police to observe traffic at The Derby, in July she appeared in the Hendon Air Pageant before flying to Cardington, where she was laid up for three years. On 31 May 1921 the British government cancelled all airship development for financial reasons. Military airships were scrapped. In 1925, after being inactive for nearly four years, the reconditioned R33 emerged from her shed at Cardington.
At 09:50 on 16 April 1925 the R33 was torn from the mast at Pulham during a gale, was carried away with only a partial crew of 20 men on board. Her nose collapsed and the first gas cell deflated leaving her low in the bow; the crew on board started the engines, gaining some height, rigged a cover for the bow section, but the R33 was blown out over the North Sea. A Royal Navy vessel was readied and left the nearby port of Lowestoft in case the R33 came down in the sea; the local lifeboat was driven back by the weather conditions. Some five hours after the initial break from the mast, R33 was under control but still being blown towards the Continent; as she approached the Dutch coast R33 was given the option of landing at De Kooy, where a party of 300 men was standing by. Late in the evening R33 was able to hold her position over the Dutch coast, hovering there until 5 o'clock the next morning, she was able to make her way back home, arriving at the Suffolk coast eight hours and reaching Pulham at 13:50 hrs, where she was put into the shed alongside the R36.
For their actions the airship's first officer, in command, Lieutenant Ralph Booth was awarded the Air Force Cross, the coxswain, Flight-Sergeant "Sky" Hunt, was awarded the Air Force Medal, four other crew members were awarded the British Empire Medal and the other crew members were presented with inscribed watches. In October 1925, following repairs, she was used for experiments to provide data for the construction of the R101 airship. Once these were finished, in mid-October, she was used for trials launching a parasite fighter, using a DH 53 Hummingbird light aircraft. After some near misses, a successful launch and recapture was achieved in December that year; the following year she launched a pair of Gloster Grebes weighing about a ton apiece, the first of, flown by Flying Officer Campbell MacKenzie-Richards. She was sent to the sheds at Pulham where she was broken up in 1928, after severe metal fatigue was found in her frame; the forward portion of R33's control car is on display at the RAF Museum at Hendon.
R34 made her first flight on 14 March 1919 and was delivered to her service base at East Fortune on 29 May after a 21-hour flight from Inchinnan. R34 had set out the previous evening but thick fog made navigation difficult, after spending the night over the North Sea the airship was unabl
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell
The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell is a 1955 American CinemaScope Warnercolor film directed by Otto Preminger. It stars Gary Cooper as Billy Mitchell, Charles Bickford, Ralph Bellamy, Rod Steiger and Elizabeth Montgomery in her film debut, it is based on the notorious court-martial of General Billy Mitchell, considered the founder of the U. S. Air Force; when it was released, Mitchell's sister Ruth, who served in World War II with Yugoslavian Chetnik guerrillas and wrote a book about her brother, toured doing publicity for the film. Brigadier General William Mitchell tries to prove the worth of the Air Service as an independent service by sinking a battleship under restrictive conditions agreed to by Army and Navy, he disobeys their orders to limit the attack to bombs under 1,000 pounds and instead loads 2,000 pounders. With these, he proves his aircraft can sink the ex-German World War I battleship Ostfriesland considered unsinkable, but his superiors are outraged. Politically vocal, he is sent to a ground unit in Texas.
A high-profile air disaster occurs in which his close friend Zachary Lansdowne is killed, the crash of the dirigible USS Shenandoah. This is followed by a second disaster in which six planes, poorly maintained because of lack of funds, flying from a base on the California coast to Fort Huachuca, crash. Mitchell at this point calls a press conference, he is court-martialed. It goes for Mitchell's attorney and friend, Illinois Congressman Frank R. Reid, who tries everything, until he subpoenas President Calvin Coolidge. At this point the court decides to adjourn; the military wants out of this limelight, but Mitchell refuses to sign a paper Reid has presented him in which he withdraws his criticisms in return for saving his career as an Army officer. Margaret Lansdowne, widow of Mitchell's dead friend from the Shenandoah appears in court; the previous barring of evidence demonstrating a justification for Mitchell's criticisms of his superiors failure to develop air power is repealed and many witnesses are called forward to corroborate Mitchell's criticisms, including Eddie Rickenbacker, Carl Spaatz, Henry H.
Arnold and Fiorello LaGuardia. Mitchell testifies and is cross-examined by a prosecutor specially brought in for the job who stresses his having disobeyed his superior officers and who ridicules his attempts at foresight that describing, in 1941, both Philippines and Hawaii were attacked by Japan; the court finds Mitchell guilty, but he has presented his case to the public, somewhat of a win considering he wanted to raise awareness about the state of the Air Service. As his pilots salute him Mitchell steps out and looks up and sees a squadron of four biplanes in flight. List of American films of 1955 The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell on IMDb The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell at AllMovie The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell at the TCM Movie Database The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell at History on Film