Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Sultanpur is a city and a municipal board in Sultanpur District in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Located on the right banks of the Gomti, Sultanpur is the administrative headquarters of Sultanpur District and is a part of Faizabad Division, it is situated 135 kilometres east of state capital Lucknow. The common language of the people of Sultanpur is a dialect of Hindi. Although the area has been part of successive northern Indian kingdoms through centuries, the recorded history of the city began in the colonial times. Long a center of Hindu and Buddhist culture; the city was destroyed during the military operations of the Revolt of 1857. Places of interest in Sultanpur are Victoria Manzil, Parijaat tree, Christ Church, Sitakund ghat and Chimanlal Park; the city has a large number of palaces. The original town was situated on the left bank of the Gomti River, it is said to have been founded by Kush, son of Rama, to have been named after him Kusapura or Kusabhavanpur. This ancient city has been identified by General Cunnigham as Sultanpur mentioned by Hiuentsang, the Chinese traveller.
He states that there was in his time a dilapidated stupa of Ashoka and that Buddha taught here for six months. There are Buddhist remains still visible at Mahmoodpur, a village, 8 km distant to the north-west of Sultanpur; the town subsequently fell into the hands of Bhars, who retained it until it was taken from them by Muslims in the 12th century. About seven hundred and fifty years ago, it is said, two brothers, Sayid Muhammad and Sayid Ala-ud-Din, horse dealer by profession, visited eastern Avadh and offered some horses for sale to Bhar Chieftains of Kusabhavanpur, who seized the horses and put the two brothers to death; this came to the ear of Ala-ud-Din Khilji. Gathering a mighty force, therefore, he set out for Kusabhavanpur and took revenge by killing most of the Bhars by strategem adopted after a long drawn siege. Kusabhavanpur was reduced to ashes and the town of Sultanpur, so called from the rank of the victor, rose upon its ruins; this town was raised to the ground during the military operations connected with the reoccupation of the province in consequence of the inhabitants having been concerned in the murder of British officers at the outbreak of the freedom struggle of 1857.
Before annexation a military station and cantonment were established on the right bank of the river in a village known as Girghit but more called by officials Sultanpur or Chhaoni Sarkar and by the rustic population Kampu or the Cam. The present town of Sultanpur has been developed at this site. In this city there are two parks, one maintained by Soldiers', Sailers' and Airmen's board and other maintained known as Chimanlal Park; as of 2011, Sultanpur had a population of 3,797,117 of which 1,914,586 were males and 1,882,531 were females. In 2001 census, Sultanpur had a population of 3,214,832 of which males were 1,623,819 and remaining 1,591,013 were females. Sultanpur is the headquarters of the Sultanpur district, north side of this district is bounded by Faizabad district, south side is bounded by Pratapgarh district, west side is bounded by Barabanki district and Raebareli district and the east side is bounded by Azamgarh district, Ambedkarnagar district, Jaunpur district, it has an average elevation of 95 metres.
Geography of Sultanpur comprises plain lands except some regions around gomti river which drains the whole city and district, however southern part of city drains towards Sai river flowing through the Pratapgarh district. The only significant mineral found in region is Kanker. Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology Ganpat sahay P. G. College Gurukul Institute of Rocketry Science Lambhua Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology surouli
Babatpur is a village in Pindra Tehsil of Varanasi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The village falls under gram panchayat by the same name as the village; the village houses Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport which serves Varanasi district. The village is about 26 kilometers North-West of Varanasi city, 260 kilometers South-East of state capital Lucknow and 797 kilometers South-East of the national capital Delhi. Babatpur has a total population of 2,293 people amongst 339 families. Sex ratio of the village is 897 and child sex ratio is 811. Uttar Pradesh state average for both ratios is 902 respectively. Babatpur can be accessed by road. Nearest operational airports are Allahabad Airports. Pindra Tehsil Pindra Varanasi district ^ All demographic data is based on 2011 Census of India
Varanasi Tehsil is one of three tehsils in the district of Varanasi. The other two being Pindra and Raja Talab tehsils. Varanasi tehsil consists of Varanasi city rural areas, it has 835 villages. Varanasi Tehsil comprises 38 census towns; the biggest census town is Varanasi Municipal Corporation and smallest is Gaura Kala. Following is the list of all the towns along with the population as per 2011 census. Varanasi Tehsil has 835 villages. Following is the list of all villages in Varanasi tehsil. Pindra Varanasi Varanasi district
Northern Railway zone
The Northern Railway is one of the 18 Railway zones of India and the northernmost zone of the Indian Railways. Its headquarter is New Delhi Baroda House near India Gate. Notified as a new railway zone on 14 April 1952, its origin goes back to 3 March 1859. On 14 April 1952, the Northern Railway zone was created by merging Jodhpur Railway, Bikaner Railway, Eastern Punjab Railway and three divisions of the East Indian Railway north-west of Mughalsarai. On 3 March 1859, Allahabad-Kanpur, the first passenger railway line in North India was opened, which falls under Northern Railway zone. In 1864, a broad gauge track from Calcutta to Delhi was laid. In 1864, the railway line between Old Delhi and Meerut City railway station was constructed. Meerut Cantt railway station was established by British India government around 1865 after the sepoy mutiny of 1857. In 1866, through trains started running on the East Indian Railway Company’s Howrah-Delhi line. In 1870, the Sind and Delhi railway completed the 483 km long Amritsar - Ambala - Jagadhri- Saharanpur - Ghaziabad line connecting Multan with Delhi.
In 1872, Sarai Rohilla railway station was established when the metre gauge railway line from Delhi to Jaipur and Ajmer was being laid. It was a small station just outside Delhi. All the metre gauge trains starting from Delhi to Rewari, Punjab and Gujarat passed through this station; the track from Delhi to Sarai Rohilla was double. The single track from Sarai Rohilla to Rewari was doubled up to Rewari, from where single tracks diverged in five directions. In 1876, metre gauge track from Delhi to Rewari and further to Ajmer was laid in 1873 by Rajputana State Railway. In 1879, the Sind and Delhi railway completed the 483-kilometre-long Amritsar–Ambala–Saharanpur–Ghaziabad line connecting Multan with Delhi. In 1884, the Rajputana-Malwa Railway extended the 1,000 mm wide metre gauge Delhi-Rewari line to Bathinda; the Bathinda-Rewari metre gauge line was converted to 1,676 mm wide broad gauge in 1994. On 9 March 1885, the first train ran from Jodhpur Junction railway station to Luni; the New Jodhpur Railway was combined with Bikaner Railway to form Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway in 1889.
A Railway line was completed between Jodhpur and Bikaner in 1891. In 1900, it combined with Jodhpur-Hyderabad Railway leading to connection with Hyderabad of Sindh Province. In 1924 Jodhpur and Bikaner Railways worked as independent Railways. After Independence, a part of Jodhpur Railway went to West Pakistan. In 1891, the Delhi-Panipat-Ambala-Kalka line was opened. In 1891, the Delhi-Panipat-Ambala-Kalka line was opened The 610 mm wide narrow gauge Kalka-Shimla Railway was constructed by Delhi-Panipat-Ambala-Kalka Railway Company and opened for traffic in 1903. In 1905 the line was regauged to 762 mm wide narrow gauge. In 1897, the Southern Punjab Railway Co. opened the Delhi-Bhatinda-Samasatta line in 1897. The line passed through Muktasar and Fazilka tehsils and provided direct connection through Samma Satta to Karachi. In 1900, the present building of the Delhi Junction railway station was built with 2 platforms and opened for public in 1903. In 1900, the Ghaziabad-Moradabad link was established by Rohilkhand Railway.
In 1901-02, the metre gauge Jodhpur-Bikaner line was extended to Bathinda by Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. It was subsequently converted to broad gauge. In 1904 the Agra-Delhi line was opened. Six railway lines entered Delhi. East Indian Railway, North-Western Railway, Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway entered from Ghaziabad crossing the Yamuna river. Delhi - Sonipat Junction railway station - Panipat - Ambala Cantonment - Kalka Railway ran northwards from Delhi, the Rajputana-Malwa Railway traversed the Delhi district for a short distance in the direction of Gurgaon and Rewari Junction. Delhi Railway Station was built in red stone to give the effect of nearby historic Red Fort; the station building had six clock towers and tower 4 is still in use as a water tank. The station was remodelled in 1934–35, when its platforms were extended and power signals were introduced. A new entrance from Kashmere Gate side was created in 1990s and new platforms were added; the platforms were renumbered in September 2011. The numbers that started from Kashmere Gate entrance as 1A and ended at 18 near the main entrance were renumbred starting as 1 from the main entrance and ending at 16 at Kashmere Gate entrance and some platforms were merged to form long platforms to accommodate trains of 24 coaches.
The station building was renovated in 2012-13. Delhi earlier handled both meter gauge trains. Since 1994, it is a purely broad gauge station, meter gauge traffic having been shifted to Delhi Sarai Rohilla Station. In 1926, New Delhi railway station opened ahead of the inauguration of the New Delhi as city in 1931. Agra-Delhi railway track cut through the site earmarked for Kingsway. East Indian Railway Company shifted the line along the Yamuna river and opened the new track in 1924. Before the new imperial capital New Delhi was established after 1911, the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city and the Agra-Delhi railway line cut through what is today called Lutyens' Delhi and the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway; the railway line was opened in 1924 to make way for the new capital. Minto and Hardinge rail bridges came up for this realigned line; the East Indian Railway Company, that overlooked ra
Jaunpur district is a district in the Varanasi Division of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The district headquarters is Jaunpur, situated on the banks of the Gomti River, it is located 228 km southeast of the state capital Lucknow. The district has two Lok sabha seats and nine Vidhan Sabha seats. According to the 2011 census, Jaunpur has a gender ratio of 1024 females to 1000 males, the highest in Uttar Pradesh; the main languages are Hindi, Urdu and Bhojpuri. Firoz Shah III began the construction of the Atala Masjid in 1393. Atala Masjid is model of Indo-Iran architecture; the Atala became a model for other Masjids in the Jaunpur district. Architecturally, it advanced the element of monumentalism; the height of the Atala Masjid is over 100 feet. The perimeter is 248 feet; the entrance has three massive stone pylons. The central one consists of a high arch between two sloping towers; these are decorated with arched niches and stone screened windows. The Jhanjhari Masjid, on the north bank of the Gomti river, was built by Ibrahim in the Sipah locality of Jaunpur township.
It was a residence of Ibrahim himself, as well as a place for saints and the army. After human destruction and flood damage, only the facade remains; this consists of an arch, 32 feet wide. Some of the stones from this Masjid were used in the construction of the Shahi bridge; the Jama Masjid is another of the Sharqi dynasty period, started by Ibrahim Shah Sharqi and after a number of construction phases, completed by Hussain Shah. It is located on the Shahganj road near the Purani bazaar in Jaunpur City; the size of the Masjid interior is 219 feet x 217 feet. 27 steps climb to the top. There are one at each cardinal point; the eastern gateway was destroyed by Sikander Lodhi. The Masjid is decorated with Egyptian style engravings and lotus and rose motifs. Lal Darwaza Masjid, Jaunpur|This Masjid was built in 1447 at Begumganj, 1 mile north of Jaunpur, during the reign of Sultan Mahmud Sharqi, by Queen Bibi Rajyi, dedicated to Maulana Sayyid Ali Dawood Kutubbudin, a celebrated saint of Jaunpur, whose descendent still live in the mohalla bazaar bhua Pandariba Jaunpur and mohalla Namaz Gah laldarwaza.
The Masjid occupies 212 square feet has three entrances and a courtyard. It is known as the "Red Portal Masjid"; the Shahi Pul is a bridge over the Gomti river at Jaunpur township. It was built by Khankhana in 1564 for Akbar; the bridge is 26 feet wide. At each end were pillboxes to house stalls. On a square platform in the middle of the bridge, there is a large sculpture of a lion with an elephant underneath its forepaws; the statue originated in a Buddhist monastery. There is an associated mosque at Idgah on the Allahabad road. In 1162, Firoz Shah III built the Shahi Qila; the Kerar Kot fort once stood on the same site in Jaunpur township on the left bank of the Gomti river. It contained a spacious and stylish set of baths installed by Ibrahim, Firoz's brother; the layout of the fort is an irregular quadrangle enclosed in stone walls. The walls surround raised earthworks. Most of the remains of the original structures in ruin; the main gates face east. The largest inner gate is 14 metres in height, its external surface is set with ashlar stone.
A further, gate was installed during the reign of the Mughal king, under the patronage of the governor of Jaunpur, Min'im Khan in the 16th century. It is designed in the shape of a flanking bastion; the spandrels or spaces between the arches of the outer gate were decorated with blue and yellow tiles. Ornamental niches are built into the walls of the outer gate; the two story residential and administrative building or "palace" was built in a square layout. An interior pillared verandah or aiwan overlooked the ground floor from the first; the mosque or masjid is the oldest building in Jaunpur township. It was a simple arcade of about 39.40 metres x 6.65 metres. It was supported by pillars in the Bengali style. There are three low central domes and no minars.. The district of Jaunpur is situated in the North-West part of Varanasi Division, its attitude varies from 261 ft to 290 ft. above Sea Level. Gomti and Sai are its main parental rivers. Besides these, Basuhi, Pili. Mamur and Gangi are the smaller rivers here.
The rivers Gomti and Basuhi divide the district into nearly four equal landmasses. Jaunpur district is affected by the disaster of floods. Jaunpur district has a climate consistent with that of the Northern Plain and Central Highlands including the Aravalli range, hot semi-arid eco-region 4.3 and hot dry ecoregion 9.2. The temperature varies between about 4 °C and 44 °C; the annual normal rainfall is 1,098 millimetres. The monsoon season occurs from the third week of June to the first week of October. There are 46 rain days per year of which 31 occur in the monsoon season; the district suffers drought and pestilence. The topography of the district is a flat plain undulating with shallow river valleys; the main permanently flowing rivers are the Sai. The rivers of Jaunpur flow from northwest to the land slopes in the same direction. Thus, there is a more elevated area in the northwest and a less elevated area of land in the south east. Beneath the surface of the district of Jaunpur, is a thick mantle consisting of the quaternary sediments of the Ganga river system.
Below is vindhya range bedrock. Mineral deposits
Varanasi known as Benares, Banaras, or Kashi, is a city on the banks of the river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh, India, 320 kilometres south-east of the state capital, 121 kilometres east of Allahabad. A major religious hub in India, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, played an important role in the development of Buddhism and Ravidassia. Varanasi lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur and Delhi, is served by Varanasi Junction railway station and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport. Varanasi is one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were 1329 villages in this district; the main native languages of Varanasi are Bhojpuri. Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, ivory works, sculpture. Buddha is believed to have founded Buddhism here around 528 BCE when he gave his first sermon, "The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma", at nearby Sarnath.
The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara established the worship of Shiva as an official sect of Varanasi. During the Muslim rule through Middle Ages, the city continued as an important centre of Hindu devotion, pilgrimage and poetry which further contributed to its reputation as a centre of cultural importance and religious education. Tulsidas wrote his epic poem on Rama's life called Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir and Ravidas. Guru Nanak visited Varanasi for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism. In the 16th century, Varanasi experienced a cultural revival under the Mughal emperor Akbar who patronised the city, built two large temples dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu, though much of modern Varanasi was built during the 18th century, by the Maratha and Brahmin kings; the Kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, continued as a dynasty-governed area until Indian independence in 1947.
The city is governed by the Varanasi Nagar Nigam and is represented in the Parliament of India by the current Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin. Silk weaving and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals. Varanasi Hospital was established in 1964. Varanasi has been a cultural centre of North India for several thousand years, is associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe; the city is known worldwide for its many ghats, embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead and the Hindu genealogy registers at Varanasi are kept here; the Ramnagar Fort, near the eastern bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, scenic pavilions.
Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, the Durga Temple. The Kashi Naresh is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, an essential part of all religious celebrations. An educational and musical centre, many prominent Indian philosophers, poets and musicians live or have lived in the city, it was the place where the Benares gharana form of Hindustani classical music was developed. One of Asia's largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu University; the Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj, was first published in 1920. Traditional etymology links "Varanasi" to the names of two Ganges tributaries forming the city's borders: Varuna, still flowing in northern Varanasi, Assi, today a small stream in the southern part of the city, near Assi Ghat; the old city is located on the north shores of the Ganges, bounded by Assi. In the Rigveda, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the city is referred to as Kāśī from the Sanskrit verbal root kaś- "to shine", making Varanasi known as "City of Light", the "luminous city as an eminent seat of learning".
The name was used by pilgrims dating from Buddha's days. Hindu religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā, Avimukta, Ānandavana, Rudravāsa. According to Hindu mythology, Varanasi was founded by Shiva, one of three principal deities along with Brahma and Vishnu. During a fight between Brahma and Shiva, one of Brahma's five heads was torn off by Shiva; as was the custom, the victor carried the slain adversary's head in his hand and let it hang down from his hand as an act of ignominy, a sign of his own bravery. A bridle was put into the mouth. Shiva thus dishonored Brahma's head, kept it with him at all times; when he came to the city of Varanasi in this state, the hanging head of Brahma dropped from Shiva's hand and disappeared in the ground. Varanasi is therefore considered an holy site; the Pandavas, the protagonists of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, are said to have visited the city in search of Shiva to atone for their sin of fratricide and Brāhmana
Allahabad known as Prayagraj, known as Illahabad and Prayag, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad district—the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India—and the Allahabad division; the city is the judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region. In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city. Allahabad, in 2016, was ranked the third most liveable city in the state and sixteenth in the country; the 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" particulate matter in the ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested.
The city lies close to Triveni Sangam, "three-river confluence", original name – Prayag, "place of sacrifice or offering" – which lies at the sangam of the Ganga and Sarasvati rivers, a propitious place to conduct sacrifices. It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was called Kaushambi by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since the city has been a political and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir. Akbarnama mentions. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an imperial city there, called Ilahabas or Ilahabad. He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there renaming it Ilahabas by 1584, changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan. In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital. In mid-1600, Salim had made an abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a independent ruler.
He was, reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604. In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835. Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858 and was the capital of India for a day; the city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902 to 1920 and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence. Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2. Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council; the city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.
The Allahabad district is the second-most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh. Prayag or Prayagraj was the ancient name of this city; the name is a sandhi of the words Pra, meaning'first' and Yag, meaning'devotion, worship or offering'. It is believed that Lord Brahma performed the first yajna in this land. Rig Veda and some Puranas mention this place as Prayag giving it a high religious value in India; the word Prayag means "Confluence of Rivers". It is here the rivers Ganga and Sarasvati meet. Prayagraj is called the "Emperor of Five Prayags". After Mughal invasion, it is said that the Mughal emperor Akbar when visited the region in 1575, was so impressed by the strategic location of the site that he ordered a fort be constructed and renamed it Ilahabas or "Abode of God" by 1584 changed to Allahabad under Shah Jahan. Speculations regarding its name however, exist; because of the surrounding people calling it Alhabas, has led to some people holding the view that it was named after Alha from Alha's story.
James Forbes' account of the early 1800s claims that it was renamed Allahabad or "abode of God" by Jahangir after he failed to destroy the Akshayabat tree. The name, predates him, with Ilahabas and Ilahabad mentioned on coins minted in the city since Akbar's rule, the latter name became predominant after the emperor's death, it has been thought to not have been named after Allah but ilaha. Shaligram Shrivastv claimed in Prayag Pradip that the name was deliberately given by Akbar to be construed as both Hindu and Muslim. Over the years, a number of attempts were made by the BJP-led governments of Uttar Pradesh to rename Allahabad to Prayagraj. In 1992, the planned rename was shelved when the chief minister, Kalyan Singh, was forced to resign following the Babri Masjid demolition. 2001 saw another attempt led by the government of Rajnath Singh. The rename succeeded in October 2018 when the Yogi Adityanath-led government changed the name of the city to Prayagraj; the city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still used.
Prayāga is first mentioned in the Agni Purana and in Manusmriti, as the place where Brahma attended a ritual sacrifice. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE