Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā in Mahayana Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is a yidam, his name means "Gentle Glory"（Chinese：妙吉祥, 妙乐） in Sanskrit. Mañjuśrī is known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta "Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth" or, less "Prince Mañjuśrī". Other deity name of Mañjuśrī is Manjughosha. Scholars have identified Mañjuśrī as the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature. Mañjuśrī is first referred to in early Mahayana sutras such as the Prajnaparamita sutras and through this association early in the tradition he came to symbolize the embodiment of prajñā; the Lotus Sutra assigns him a pure land called Vimala, which according to the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the East. His pure land is predicted to be one of the two best pure lands in all of existence in all the past and future; when he attains buddhahood his name will be Universal Sight. In the Lotus Sūtra, Mañjuśrī leads the Nagaraja's daughter to enlightenment, he figures in the Vimalakirti Sutra in a debate with Vimalakirti where he is presented as an Arhat who represents the wisdom of the Hinayana.
An example of a wisdom teaching of Mañjuśrī can be found in the Saptaśatikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. This sūtra contains the Buddha on the One Samadhi. Sheng-yen renders the following teaching of Mañjuśrī, for entering samādhi through transcendent wisdom: Contemplate the five skandhas as empty and quiescent, non-arising, non-perishing, without differentiation, thus practicing, day or night, whether sitting, standing or lying down one reaches an inconceivable state without any obstruction or form. This is the Samadhi of One Act. Within Vajrayana Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is a meditational deity and considered a enlightened Buddha. In Shingon Buddhism, he is one of the Thirteen Buddhas, he figures extensively in many esoteric texts such as the Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa and the Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti. His consort in some traditions is Saraswati; the Mañjusrimulakalpa, which came to classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Saiva and Vaisnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught by Manjushri.
Mañjuśrī is depicted as a male bodhisattva wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, representing the realization of transcendent wisdom which cuts down ignorance and duality. The scripture supported by the padma held in his left hand is a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra, representing his attainment of ultimate realization from the blossoming of wisdom. Mañjuśrī is depicted as riding on a blue lion or sitting on the skin of a lion; this represents the use of wisdom to tame the mind, compared to riding or subduing a ferocious lion. In Chinese and Japanese Buddhist art, Mañjuśrī's sword is sometimes replaced with a ruyi scepter in representations of his Vimalakirti Sutra discussion with the layman Vimalakirti. According to Berthold Laufer, the first Chinese representation of a ruyi was in an 8th-century Mañjuśrī painting by Wu Daozi, showing it held in his right hand taking the place of the usual sword. In subsequent Chinese and Japanese paintings of Buddhas, a ruyi was represented as a Padma with a long stem curved like a ruyi.
He is one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas of Chinese Buddhism, the other three being Kṣitigarbha, Avalokiteśvara, Samantabhadra. In China, he is paired with Samantabhadra. In Tibetan Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is sometimes depicted in a trinity with Vajrapāṇi. A mantra associated with Mañjuśrī is the following: oṃ arapacana dhīḥThe Arapacana is a syllabary consisting of forty-two letters, is named after the first five letters: a, ra, pa, ca, na; this syllabary was most used for the Gāndhārī language with the Kharoṣṭhī script but appears in some Sanskrit texts. The syllabary features in Mahāyāna texts such as the longer Prajñāpāramitā texts, the Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra, the Lalitavistara Sūtra, the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya. In some of these texts, the Arapacana syllabary serves as a mnemonic for important Mahāyāna concepts. Due to its association with him, Arapacana may serve as an alternate name for Mañjuśrī; the Sutra on Perfect Wisdom defines the significance of each syllable thus: A is a door to the insight that all dharmas are unproduced from the beginning.
RA is a door to the insight. PA is a door to the insight. CA is a door to the insight that the decrease or rebirth of any dharma cannot be apprehended, because all dharmas do not decrease, nor are they reborn. NA is a door to the insight. Tibetan pronunciation is different and so the Tibetan characters read: oṃ a ra pa tsa na dhīḥ. In Tibetan tradition, this mantra is believed to enhance wisdom and improve one's skills in debating, memory and other literary abilities. "Dhīḥ" is the seed syllable of the mantra and is chanted with greater emphasis and repeated a number of times as a decrescendo. Mañjuśrī is known in China as Wenshu. Mount Wutai in Shanxi, one of the four Sacred Mountains of China, is considered by Chinese Buddhists to be his bodhimaṇḍa, he was said to bestow spectacular visionary experiences to those on selected mountain peaks and caves
Sangha is a Sanskrit word used in many Indian languages, including Pali, meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community". It was used in a political context to denote a governing assembly in a republic or a kingdom, it is used in modern times by groups such as the political party and social movement Rashtriya Seva Sangh. It has long been used by religious associations including by Jains and Sikhs. In Buddhism sangha refers to the monastic community of bhikkhunis; these communities are traditionally referred to as the bhikkhuni-sangha. As a separate category, those who have attained any of the four stages of enlightenment, whether or not they are members of the monastic community, are referred to as the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha". According to the Theravada school, the term "sangha" does not refer to the community of sāvakas nor the community of Buddhists as a whole. In a glossary of Buddhist terms, Richard Robinson et al. define sangha as: Sangha. Community; this word has two levels of meaning: on the ideal level, it denotes all of the Buddha’s followers, lay or ordained, who have at least attained the level of srotāpanna.
Mahayana practitioners may use the word "sangha" as a collective term for all Buddhists, but the Theravada Pāli Canon uses the word pariṣā for the larger Buddhist community—the monks, lay men, lay women who have taken the Three Refuges—with a few exceptions reserving "sangha" for a its original use in the Pāli Canon—the ideal and the conventional. The two meanings overlap but are not identical; some members of the ideal Sangha are not ordained. Unlike the present Sangha, the original Sangha viewed itself as following the mission laid down by the Master, viz, to go forth "…on tour for the blessing of the manyfolk, for the happiness of the manyfolk out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, the blessing, the happiness of deva and men"; the Sangha is the third of the Three Jewels in Buddhism. Common over all schools is; as for recognizable current-life forms, the interpretation of what is the Jewel depends on how a school defines Sangha. E.g. for many schools, monastic life is considered to provide the safest and most suitable environment for advancing toward enlightenment and liberation due to the temptations and vicissitudes of life in the world.
In Buddhism, the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha each are described as having certain characteristics. These characteristics are chanted either on a daily basis and/or on Uposatha days, depending on the school of Buddhism. In Theravada tradition they are a part of daily chanting: The Sangha: The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples is: practicing the good way practicing the upright way practicing the knowledgeable or logical way practicing the proper way practicing the mindful wayThat is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals - This Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples is: worthy of gifts worthy of hospitalities worthy of offerings worthy of reverential salutation the unsurpassed field of merit for the world; the Sangha was established by Gautama Buddha in the fifth century BCE in order to provide a means for those who wish to practice full-time in a direct and disciplined way, free from the restrictions and responsibilities of the household life. The Sangha fulfils the function of preserving the Buddha’s original teachings and of providing spiritual support for the Buddhist lay-community.
The Sangha has assumed responsibility for maintaining the integrity of the doctrine as well as the translation and propagation of the teachings of the Buddha. The key feature of Buddhist monasticism is the adherence to the vinaya which contains an elaborate set of 227 main rules of conduct including complete chastity, eating only before noon, not indulging in malicious or salacious talk. Between midday and the next day, a strict life of scripture study, chanting and occasional cleaning forms most of the duties for members of the Sangha. Transgression of rules carries penalties ranging from confession to permanent expulsion from the Sangha. Saichō, the founder of the Japanese school of Tendai, decided to reduce the number of rules down to about 60 based on the Bodhisattva Precepts. In the Kamakura, many Japanese schools that originated in or were influenced by the Tendai such as Zen, Pure Land Buddhism and Nichiren Buddhism abolished traditional ordination in favor of this new model of the vinaya.
The Order of Interbeing, established in 1964 and associated with the Plum Village Tradition, has fourteen precepts observed by all monastics. They were written by Thích Nhất Hạnh. Monks and nuns own a minimum of possessions due to their samaya as renunciants, including three robes, an alms bowl, a cloth belt, a needle and thread, a razor for shaving the head, a water filter. In practice, they have a few additional personal possessions. Traditionally, Buddhist monks and novices eschew ordinary clothes and wear robes; the robes were sewn together from rags and stained with earth or other available dyes. The color of modern robes varies from community to community: saffron is characteristic for Theravada groups. A Buddhist monk is a bhikkhu in Pali, Sanskrit bhikṣu while a nun is a bhikkhuni, Sanskrit bhikṣuṇī; these words mean "beggar" or "one who lives by alms", it was traditional in early Buddhism for
Dharma is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions like Hinduism, Jainism and others. There is no single-word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, includes duties, laws, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order", is applied to the teachings of Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is the term for "phenomena". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of proper religious practice; the word dharma was in use in the historical Vedic religion, its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma; the antonym of dharma is adharma. The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma or the Prakrit Dhaṃma are a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, keep", takes the meaning of "what is established or firm", hence "law".
It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm". Figuratively, it means "sustainer" and "supporter", it is semantically similar to the Greek Themis. In Classical Sanskrit, the noun becomes thematic: dharma-; the word dharma derives from Proto-Indo-European root *dʰer-, which in Sanskrit is reflected as class-1 root dhṛ. Etymologically it is related to Avestan dar-, Latin firmus, Lithuanian derė́ti, Lithuanian dermė and darna and Old Church Slavonic drъžati. Classical Sanskrit word dharmas would formally match with Latin o-stem firmus from Proto-Indo-European dʰer-mo-s "holding", were it not for its historical development from earlier Rigvedic n-stem. In Classical Sanskrit, in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma-. In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma.
In some contemporary Indian languages and dialects it alternatively occurs as dharm. Ancient translationsWhen the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" into Greek and Aramaic, he used the Greek word Eusebeia in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, the Aramaic word Qsyt in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription. Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian religion, it has multiple meanings in Hinduism and Jainism. It is difficult to provide a single concise definition for dharma, as the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. There is no equivalent single-word synonym for dharma in western languages. There have been numerous, conflicting attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German and French; the concept, claims Paul Horsch, has caused exceptional difficulties for modern commentators and translators. For example, while Grassmann's translation of Rig-veda identifies seven different meanings of dharma, Karl Friedrich Geldner in his translation of the Rig-veda employs 20 different translations for dharma, including meanings such as "law", "order", "duty", "custom", "quality", "model", among others.
However, the word dharma has become a accepted loanword in English, is included in all modern unabridged English dictionaries. The root of the word dharma is "dhri", which means "to support, hold, or bear", it is the thing that regulates the course of change by not participating in change, but that principle which remains constant. Monier-Williams, the cited resource for definitions and explanation of Sanskrit words and concepts of Hinduism, offers numerous definitions of the word dharma, such as that, established or firm, steadfast decree, law, custom, right, virtue, ethics, religious merit, good works, character, property. Yet, each of these definitions is incomplete, while the combination of these translations does not convey the total sense of the word. In common parlance, dharma means "right way of living" and "path of rightness"; the meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. In the earliest texts and ancient myths of Hinduism, dharma meant cosmic law, the rules that created the universe from chaos, as well as rituals.
In certain contexts, dharma designates human behaviours considered necessary for order of things in the universe, principles that prevent chaos and action necessary to all life in nature, family as well as at the individual level. Dharma encompasses ideas such as duty, character, religion and all behaviour considered appropriate, correct or morally upright; the antonym of dharma is adharma, meaning that, "not dharma"
Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, to tropical west Africa. A somewhat smaller variety is found throughout the East Indies. Kapok is the most used common name for the tree and may refer to the cotton-like fluff obtained from its seed pods; the tree is cultivated for the seed fibre in south-east Asia, is known as the Java cotton, Java kapok, silk-cotton, samauma, or ceiba. English – Kapok, white silk-cotton tree Pakistan – Kapok Fibre Haitian Creole – Mapou Spanish – Ceiba, Mapajo Portuguese – Sumaúma, samaúma, mafumeira, ocá, poilão. French – Fromager Hausa – Rimi Surinamese – Kankantrie Hindi – Safed semal - सफ़ेद सेमल Manipuri – মোৰেহ তেৰা - Moreh tera Malayalam – Panji maram പഞ്ഞി മരം Tamil – Ilavam இலவம் Telugu – Tellaburaga Tagalog/Filipino – Bulak or bulac Marathi – Samali Kannada – Dudi Sanskrit – Kutashalmali Bengali – শ্ৱেত সিমল - Shwet simul Assamese – শিমলু - Simolu Samoan – Vavae Khmer - ផ្លែគរ Sinhala – Kotta Ashante and Fanteen – Onyãã, or onyina Mandingo – Banã, bãnda, bantã, banti Indonesian – Randu/kapuk randu Odia – Semili tula Yoruba – Araba Malay – Kekabu Thai — นุ่น Vietnamese – Cây bông gòn, cậy gạo Yucatec Maya – Ya'axche.
The largest individuals, can be 19 feet thick or more above the buttresses. The buttress roots can be seen in photographs extending 40 to 50 feet up the trunk of some specimens and extending out from the trunk as much as 65 feet and continuing below ground to a total length of 165 feet The trunk and many of the larger branches are crowded with large simple thorns; these major branches 4 to 6 in number, can be up to 6 feet thick and form a crown of foliage as much as 201 feet in width. The palmate leaves are composed of each up to 20 cm long; the trees produce several hundred 15 cm pods containing seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre, a mix of lignin and cellulose. The referenced reports make it clear; the commercial tree is most cultivated in the rainforests of Asia, notably in Java, the Philippines and Hainan Island in China, as well as in South America. The flowers are an important source of pollen for honey bees and bats. Bats are the primary pollinators of the night-blooming flowers.
Native tribes along the Amazon River harvest kapok fibre to wrap around their blowgun darts. The fibres create a seal. Kapok fibre is light buoyant, resistant to water, but it is flammable; the process of harvesting and separating the fibre is manual. It is difficult to spin, but is used as an alternative to down as filling in mattresses, upholstery and stuffed toys such as teddy bears, for insulation, it was much used in life jackets and similar devices until synthetic materials replaced the fibre. The seeds produce an oil, used locally in soap and can be used as fertilizer. Ceiba pentandra bark decoction has been used as a diuretic, to treat headache, as well as type II diabetes, it is used as an additive in some versions of the psychedelic drink Ayahuasca. A vegetable oil can be pressed from kapok seeds; the oil has a pleasant, mild odour and taste, resembling cottonseed oil. It becomes rancid when exposed to air. Kapok oil is produced in India and Malaysia, it has an iodine value of 85–100. Kapok oil has some potential in paint preparation.
The kapok is a sacred symbol in Maya mythology. According to the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, the Castle of the Devil is a huge kapok growing deep in the forest in which Bazil the demon of death was imprisoned by a carpenter; the carpenter tricked the devil into entering the tree in which he carved seven rooms, one above the other, into the trunk. Folklore claims. Most masks coming from Burkina Faso those of Bobo and Mossi people, are carved from the kapok timber. Ceiba pentandra is the national emblem of Guatemala, Puerto Rico, Equatorial Guinea, it appears on the coat of arms and flag of Equatorial Guinea. The Cotton Tree is a landmark in downtown Freetown, Sierra Leone, is considered a symbol of freedom for the slaves that immigrated there. Fiber crop Parque de la Ceiba Kapok Fibers Seed Fibers Germplasm Resources Information Network: Ceiba pentandra Ceiba pentandra in Brunken, U. Schmidt, M. Dressler, S. Janssen, T. Thombiano, A. & Zizka, G. 2008. West African plants – A Photo Guide. Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt/Main
In Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is any person, on the path towards Buddhahood but has not yet attained it. In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so. In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. In early Buddhism, the term bodhisatta is used in the early texts to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. During his discourses, to recount his experiences as a young aspirant he uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being, "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is described as someone, still subject to birth, death, sorrow and delusion.
Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jataka tales. According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant; the oldest known story about how Gautama Buddha becomes a bodhisattva is the story of his encounter with the previous Buddha, Dīpankara. During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha. Dīpankara confirms that they will attain Buddhahood. Early Buddhist authors saw this story as indicating that the making of a resolution in the presence of a living Buddha and his prediction/confirmation of one's future Buddhahood was necessary to become a bodhisattva. According to Drewes, "all known models of the path to Buddhahood developed from this basic understanding."The path is explained differently by the various Nikaya schools.
In the Theravāda Buddhavaṃsa, after receiving the prediction, Gautama took four asaṃkheyyas and a hundred thousand, shorter kalpas to reach Buddhahood. The Sarvāstivāda school had similar models about, they held it took him three asaṃkhyeyas and ninety one kalpas to become a Buddha after his resolution in front of a past Buddha. During the first asaṃkhyeya he is said to have encountered and served 75,000 Buddhas, 76,000 in the second, after which he received his first prediction of future Buddhahood from Dīpankara, meaning that he could no longer fall back from the path to Buddhahood. Thus, the presence of a living Buddha is necessary for Sarvāstivāda; the Mahāvibhāṣā explains that its discussion of the bodhisattva path is meant to “stop those who are in fact not bodhisattvas from giving rise to the self-conceit that they are.”The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames: Natural, one first plants the roots of merit in front of a Buddha to attain Buddhahood.
Resolution, one makes their first resolution to attain Buddhahood in the presence of a Buddha. Continuing, one continues to practice. Irreversible, at this stage, one cannot fall back; the Sri Lankan commentator Dhammapala in his commentary on the Cariyāpiṭaka, a text which focuses on the bodhisatta path, notes that to become a bodhisatta one must make a valid resolution in front of a living Buddha, which confirms that one is “irreversible” from the attainment of Buddhahood. The Nidānakathā, as well as the Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyāpiṭaka commentaries makes this explicit by stating that one cannot use a substitute for the presence of a living Buddha, since only a Buddha has the knowledge for making a reliable prediction; this is the accepted view maintained in orthodox Theravada today. The idea is that any resolution to attain Buddhahood may be forgotten or abandoned during the aeons ahead; the Burmese monk Ledi Sayadaw explains that though it is easy to make vows for future Buddhahood by oneself, it is difficult to maintain the necessary conduct and views during periods when the Dharma has disappeared from the world.
One will fall back during such periods and this is why one is not a full bodhisatta until one receives recognition from a living Buddha. Because of this, it was and remains a common practice in Theravada to attempt to establish the necessary conditions to meet the future Buddha Maitreya and thus receive a prediction from him. Medieval Theravada literature and inscriptions report the aspirations of monks and ministers to meet Maitreya for this purpose. Modern figures such as Anagarika Dharmapala, U Nu both sought to receive a prediction from a Buddha in the future and believed meritorious actions done for the good of Buddhism would help in their endeavor to become bodhisattas in the future. Over time the term came to be applied to other figures besides Gautama Buddha in Theravada lands due to the influence of Mahayana; the Theravada Abhayagiri tradition of Sri Lanka practiced Mahayana Buddhism and was influential until the 12th century. Kings of Sri Lanka
Buckwheat, or common buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. A related and more bitter species, Fagopyrum tataricum, is a domesticated food plant common in Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel and rhubarb; because its seeds are rich in complex carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal. The cultivation of buckwheat grain declined in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples; the name "buckwheat" or "beech wheat" comes from its triangular seeds, which resemble the much larger seeds of the beech nut from the beech tree, the fact that it is used like wheat. The word may be a translation of Middle Dutch boecweite: boec, "beech" and weite, wheat, or may be a native formation on the same model as the Dutch word; the wild ancestor of common buckwheat is F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale. F. homotropicum is interfertile with F. esculentum and the wild forms have a common distribution, in Yunnan, a southwestern province of China.
The wild ancestor of tartary buckwheat is F. tataricum ssp. potanini. Common buckwheat was domesticated and first cultivated in inland Southeast Asia around 6000 BCE, from there spread to Central Asia and Tibet, to the Middle East and Europe. Domestication most took place in the western Yunnan region of China; the oldest remains found in China so far date to circa 2600 BCE, while buckwheat pollen found in Japan dates from as early as 4000 BCE. It is the world's highest-elevation domesticate, being cultivated in Yunnan on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau or on the plateau itself. Buckwheat was one of the earliest crops introduced by Europeans to North America. Dispersal around the globe was complete by 2006, when a variety developed in Canada was planted in China. In India, buckwheat flour is known as kuttu ka atta and is culturally associated with the Navratri festival. On the day of this festival, food items made only from buckwheat are consumed. Buckwheat, a short-season crop, does well on low-fertility or acidic soils, but the soil must be well drained.
Too much fertilizer nitrogen, reduces yields. In hot climates it can be grown only by sowing late in the season, so that it blooms in cooler weather; the presence of pollinators increases the yield. The nectar from buckwheat flower makes a dark-colored honey. Buckwheat is sometimes used as a green manure, as a plant for erosion control, or as wildlife cover and feed; the plant has a branching root system with a primary taproot that reaches into moist soil. Buckwheat has triangular seeds and produces a flower, white, although can be pink or yellow. Buckwheat branches as opposed to tillering or producing suckers, causing a more complete adaption to its environment than other cereal crops; the seed hull density is less than that of water. Buckwheat is raised for grain where a short season is available, either because it is used as a second crop in the season, or because the climate is limiting. Buckwheat can be a reliable cover crop in summer to fit a small slot of warm season, it establishes which suppresses summer weeds.
Buckwheat has a growing period of only 10–12 weeks and it can be grown in high latitude or northern areas. It grows 30 to 50 inches tall. 71 -- 78 % in groats 70 -- 91 % in different types of flour Starch is 75 % amylopectin. Depending on hydrothermal treatment, buckwheat groats contain 7–37% of resistant starch. Crude protein is 18%, with biological values above 90%; this can be explained by a high concentration of all essential amino acids lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids. Rich in iron and selenium 10–200 ppm of rutin, 0.1–2% of tannins and presence of catechin-7-O-glucoside in groats. Buckwheat contains 0.4 to 0.6 mg/g of fagopyrins Salicylaldehyde was identified as a characteristic component of buckwheat aroma. 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-furanone, -2,4-decadienal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, -2-nonenal and hexanal contribute to its aroma. They all have odour activity value more than 50, but the aroma of these substances in an isolated state does not resemble buckwheat.
In a 100-gram serving providing 343 calories dry and 92 calories cooked, buckwheat is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, four B vitamins and several dietary minerals, with content high in niacin, magnesium and phosphorus. Buckwheat is 72 % carbohydrates, including 3 % fat and 13 % protein; as buckwheat contains no gluten, it may be eaten by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or dermatitis herpetiformis. Buckwheat may have gluten contamination. Cases of severe allergic reactions to buckwheat and buckwheat-containing products have been reported. Buckwheat contains fluorescent phototoxic fagopyrins. Seeds and teas are safe when consumed in normal amounts, but fagopyrism can appear in people with diets based on high consumption of buckwheat sprouts, flowers or fagopyrin-rich buckwheat extracts. Symptoms of fagopyrism in humans may include skin inflammation in sunlight-exposed areas, cold sensitivity, tingling or numbness in the hands.
The fruit is an achene, similar to sunflower seed, with a single seed inside a hard outer hull. The starchy endosperm is white and makes
A cushion is a soft bag of some ornamental material, stuffed with wool, feathers, polyester staple fiber, non-woven material, or paper torn into fragments. It may be used for sitting or kneeling upon, or to soften the hardness or angularity of a chair or couch. Decorative cushions have a patterned cover material, are used as decoration for furniture. A cushion is referred to as a bolster, headrest and a sham. Cushions and rugs can be used temporarily outside to soften a hard ground, they can be placed on sunloungers and used to prevent annoyances from moist grass and biting insects. Some dialects of English use this word to refer to throw pillows as well; the cushion is a ancient article of furniture. Cushions were often of great size, covered with leather, firm enough to serve as a seat, but the steady tendency of all furniture has been to grow smaller with time. Today, the cushion is considered an upholstery item; the word cushion comes from Middle English cushin, from Anglo-French cussin, from Vulgar Latin *coxinus, from Latin coxa, hip.
The first known use of the word cushion was in the 14th century. Bean bag chair Buffer Car seat Cushioning Furniture Lumbar Pillow Sachet Sofa Zabuton Zafu Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cushion". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press