Schools of Islamic theology
See Islamic schools and branches for different schools of thought. Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah. According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Jahmis, Murji'ah, Muʿtazila, Ash'ari, Athari are the ancient schools of aqidah; the main split between Sunni and Shia Islam was more political than theological, but over time theological differences have developed. Still, differences in aqidah occur as divisions orthogonal to the main divisions in Islam along political or fiqh lines, such that a Muʿtazili might, for example, belong to Ja'fari, Zaidi or Hanafi school of jurisprudence. Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning "creed" or "belief". Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah; however this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. The term is translated as "theology"; such traditions are divisions orthogonal to sectarian divisions of Islam, a Mu'tazili may for example, belong to Jafari, Zaidi or Hanafi school of jurisprudence.
One of the earliest systematic theological school to develop, in the mid 8th-century, was Mu'tazila. It emphasized reason and rational thought, positing that the injunctions of God are accessible to rational thought and inquiry and that the Qur'an, albeit the word of God, was created rather than uncreated, which would develop into one of the most contentious questions in Islamic theology. In the 10th century, the Ash'ari school developed as a response to Mu'tazila, leading to the latter's decline. Ash'ari still taught the use of reason in understanding the Qur'an, but denied the possibility to deduce moral truths by reasoning; this was opposed by the school of Maturidi, which taught that certain moral truths may be found by the use of reason without the aid of revelation. Another point of contention was the relative position of iman vs. taqwa. Such schools of theology are summarized under Ilm al-Kalam, or "science of discourse", as opposed to mystical schools who deny that any theological truth may be discovered by means of discourse or reason.
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h or as Ahl as-Sunnah. The word Sunni comes from the word sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Therefore, the term "Sunni" refers to those who follow or maintain the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad; the Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor to lead the Muslim ummah before his death, after an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected Abu Bakr Siddique, Muhammad's close friend and a father-in-law, as the first caliph of Islam. Sunni Muslims regard the first four caliphs as "al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn" or "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." After the Rashidun, the position turned into a hereditary right and the caliph's role was limited to being a political symbol of Muslim strength and unity. Atharism is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran.
The name is derived from the Arabic word athar meaning "remnant" and referring to a "narrative". Their disciples Atharis. For followers of the Athari movement, the "clear" meaning of the Qur'an, the prophetic traditions, has sole authority in matters of belief, to engage in rational disputation if one arrives at the truth, is forbidden. Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil, they do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, believe that the "real" meaning should be consigned to God alone. In essence, the meaning has been accepted without asking "how" or "Bi-la kaifa". On the other hand, the famous Hanbali scholar Ibn al-Jawzi states, in Kitab Akhbar as-Sifat, that Ahmad ibn Hanbal would have been opposed to anthropomorphic interpretations of Qur'anic texts such as those of al-Qadi Abu Ya'la, Ibn Hamid and Ibn az-Zaghuni. Based on Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi's criticism of Athari-Hanbalis, Muhammad Abu Zahra, a Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University deduced that Salafi aqidah is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy in Islam.
Absolute Ẓāhirīsm and total rejection of ta'wil are amongst the fundamental characteristics of this "new" Islamic school of theology. ʿIlm al-Kalām foreshortened to kalam and sometimes called "Islamic scholastic theology", is an rational undertaking born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic faith against doubters and detractors.'Ilm al-Kalam incorporates Aristotelian reasoning and logic into Islamic theology. A scholar of kalam is referred to as a mutakallim as distinguished from philosophers and scientists. There are many possible interpretations as to why this discipline was called "kalam"; the Mu'tazila were challenged by Abu al-Hasan Al-Ash'ari, who famously de
Muhammad in Islam
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim known as Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam. Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Musa,'Isa, other Prophets; the religious and political tenets that Muhammad established with the Quran became the foundation of Islam and the Muslim world. Muslims refer to Muhammad as Prophet Muhammad, or just The Prophet or The Messenger, regard him as the greatest of all Prophets, he is seen by the Muslims as a possessor of all virtues. As an act of respect, most Muslims follow the name of Muhammad by the Arabic benediction sallallahu'alayhi wa sallam, sometimes abbreviated as SAW or PBUH; the deeds and sayings in the life of Muhammad – known as Sunnah – are considered a model of the life-style that Muslims are obliged to follow.
Recognizing Muhammad as God's final messenger is one of the central requirements in Islam, laid down in the second part of the Shahada: Lā ilāha illā l-Lāh, Muhammadun Rasūlu l-Lāh. The Quran, in passages such as 3:132, 48:29 and 66:1 uses the words "messenger" and "prophet" (such as ar-Rasūl or Rasūl Allāh for Muhammad, asks people to follow him, so as to become successful in this hayāt and al-Ākhirah. Born about 570 into a respected Qurayshi family of Mecca, Muhammad earned the title "al-Amin". At the age of 40 in 610 CE, Muhammad is said to have received his first verbal revelation in the cave called Hira, the beginning of the descent of the Quran that continued up to the end of his life; because of persecution of the newly converted Muslims, upon the invitation of a delegation from Medina and his followers migrated to Medina in 622 CE, an event known as the Hijrah. A turning point in Muhammad's life, this Hegira marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad sketched out the Constitution of Medina specifying the rights of and relations among the various existing communities there, formed an independent community, managed to establish the first Islamic state.
Despite the ongoing hostility of the Meccans, along with his followers, took control of Mecca in 630 CE, ordered the destruction of all pagan idols. In years in Medina, Muhammad unified the different tribes of Arabia under Islam, carried out social and religious reforms. By the time he died in 632 all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the Quran enumerates little about Muhammad's early life or other biographic details, but it talks about his prophetic mission, his moral excellence, theological issues regarding Muhammad. According to the Quran, Muhammad is the last in a chain of prophets sent by God. Throughout the Quran, Muhammad is referred to as "Messenger", "Messenger of God", "Prophet"; some of such verses are 2:101, 2:143, 2:151, 3:32, 3:81, 3:144, 3:164, 4:79-80, 5:15, 5:41, 7:157, 8:01, 9:3, 33:40, 48:29, 66:09. Other terms are used, including "Warner", "bearer of glad tidings", the "one who invites people to a Single God"; the Quran asserts that Muhammad was a man who possessed the highest moral excellence, that God made him a good example or a "goodly model" for Muslims to follow.
The Quran disclaims any superhuman characteristics for Muhammad, but describes him in terms of positive human qualities. In several verses, the Quran crystallizes Muhammad's relation to humanity. According to the Quran, God sent Muhammad with truth, as a blessing to the whole world. In Islamic tradition, this means that God sent Muhammad with his message to humanity the following of which will give people salvation in the afterlife, it is Muhammad's teachings and the purity of his personal life alone which keep alive the worship of God on this world; the Quran categorizes some theological issues regarding Muhammad. The most important among them is the edict to follow the teachings of Muhammad; the Quran commands people to "follow God and his Messenger" in verses including 3:31-32, 3:132, 4:59, 4:69. Muhammad, the son of'Abdullah ibn'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim and his young wife Aminah, was born in 570 CE in the city of Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula, he was a member of the family of Banu Hashim, a respected branch of the prestigious and influential Quraysh tribe.
It is said that'Abd al-Muttalib named the child "Muhammad". Muhammad was orphaned; some months before the birth of Muhammad, his father died near Medina on a mercantile expedition to Syria. When Muhammad was six, he accompanied his mother Amina on her visit to Medina to visit her late husband's tomb. While returning to Mecca, Amina died at a desolate place called Abwa, about half-way to Mecca, was buried there. Muhammad was now taken in by his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, who himself died when Muhammad was eight, leaving him in the care of his unc
Angels in Islam
In Islam, angels are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them. The angels from the angelic realm are subordinates in a hierarchy headed by one of the archangels in the highest heavens. Belief in angels is one of the six articles of faith in Islam. Islam acknowledges the concept of angels both abstract, it does not mean Islamic scholars depict them as either personified creatures or abstract forces: Some scholars distinguished between the angels, charged with carrying the laws of nature dwelling on earth as being abstract, the angels in heaven prostrating before God and spiritual creatures of the supreme world, such as the archangels, as personified. Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind dwelling in the heavenly spheres. Although the Quran does not mention the time when angels were created, they are considered as the first creation of God, they are created from a luminous substance with no bodily desires, never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.
Al-Kindi and Ibn Sina both define angels as simple substances endowed with life and immortality. In contrast to humans, who are substances endowed with life and reason but are mortal, who is, in turn, distinguished by unreasonable but mortal animals. In chapter 10 of Sahih Muslim The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, a hadith states: The Angels were born out of light and the Jann was born out of the mixture of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined for you and many Islamic sources talk of angels being created from light, based on the hadith by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. However, many scholars have argued. According to the famous exegete al-Tabari, God may have created angels from fire and other things, as well as from light; some angels are thought to be composed of elements such as water or fire those who carry the Throne of God. According to the Isra and Mi'raj-narrations, Muhammad met an angel composed of fire and ice and both pass into one another without cooling down the fire, nor melting the ice, demonstrating God's power over the usual laws of nature.
Islamic scholars evaluated — in the view of the prevailing Jewish opinion at the time that angels were created by God from fire — whether angels were created from fire or not and how they are distinguished from those created from light. Al-Suyuti stated that angels are composed either of light. Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi divided the angels into two groups: The angels of mercy created from light, angels of Punishment created from the fire. Qazwini and Ibishi assert that all supernatural creatures, due to their invisibility, are composed of a subtle matter, equivalent to fire but which differs in intensity and are distinguished by the part of fire they originated from. Accordingly, the angels are created from the light of a fire, the jinn from the tongue of fire and the demons from its smoke. Furthermore, scholars such as al-Tabari stated that light and fire do not appeal to different elements, but to a luminous origin of angels which should not be taken literally. Angels as abstract concepts belong to Al-Ghaib.
Angels here are used as expressions of natural laws. They carry the Divine command into execution. References to specific angels, like Jabra'il or Azrail, are respective leaders, with a multitude of subordinative angels, who perform for a specific function. Qazwini portrays the earthly angels as indwelling forces of nature, who keep the world in order and never deviate from their duty. Qazwini believed that the existence of these angels could be proven by reason and the things these angels affect. Islamic philosophy stressed that humans own angelic and demonic qualities and that the human soul is seen as a potential angel or potential demon. Depending on whether the sensual soul or the rational soul develop, the human soul becomes an angel or a demon. Angels may give inspirations opposite to the evil suggestions, called waswās, from Satan; the modern astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum has pointed to modern Islamic scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez in his book "Islam's Quantum Question" who have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.
A question in Islamic theology deals with the impeccability of the angels. The majority of Islamic scholars prefer the opinion. Advocates of angels' infallibility cite certain verses from the Quran, which support their claim such as 16:49: "To Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, including animals and angels, they are not arrogant". However, these verses cannot prove the impeccability for all angels at any time and in any situation; the motif of erring angels is known to Islam. This is supported by verses being tested. Al-Baydawi argued, angels are only impeccable. Others speak of Islamic angels as continuously obedient and refer to Ijma. One of the first scholars who asserted the doctrine of impeccable angels was Hasan of Basra, he not only advocated the impeccability of angels by quoting certain Quranic verses, but reinterpreted verses, which speak against the impeccability of angels. With the discussion whether angels are able to or not, a dispute arises concerning whether humans, prophets or angels are the superior.
Hasa of Basra advocated that angels are better than both humans and prophets because of their purity, a position, opposed by Sunnis and Shias. On the other hand, the prostration of angels before Adam is seen a
The Rashidun Caliphs simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn Affan, Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the Abbasid Caliphate based in Baghdad, it is a reference to the Sunni imperative "Hold to my example and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs". The first four Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad are described as the "Khulafāʾ Rāshidūn"; the Rashidun were either chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. In the order of succession, the Rāshidūn were: Abu Bakr. Umar ibn al-Khattab, – Umar is spelled Omar in some Western scholarship. Uthman ibn Affan – Uthman is spelled Othman in some non-Arabic scholarship. Ali ibn Abi Talib – During this period however, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan controlled the Levant and Egypt regions independently of Ali.
Abu Bakr was the father-in-law of Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632–634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death; as caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions exercised by Muhammad, since the religious function and authority of prophethood ended with Muhammad's death according to Islam. Abu Bakr was called As-Siddiq, was known by that title among generations of Muslims, he prevented the converted Muslims from dispersing, kept the community united, consolidated Islamic grip on the region by containing the Ridda, while extending the Dar Al Islam all the way to the Red Sea. Umar c. 2 Nov. was a leading adviser to Muhammad. His daughter Hafsa bint Umar was married to Muhammad thus he became Muhammad's father-in-law, he ruled for 10 years. He succeeded Abu Bakr on 23 August 634 as the second caliph, played a significant role in Islam. Under Umar the Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate ruling the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire.
His legislative abilities, his firm political and administrative control over a expanding empire and his brilliantly coordinated multi-prong attacks against the Sassanid Persian Empire that resulted in the conquest of the Persian empire in less than two years, marked his reputation as a great political and military leader. Among his conquests are Jerusalem and Egypt, he was killed by a Persian captive. `Uthman was one of the companions and son in law of Muhammad. Two of Muhammad's daughters Ruqayyah bint Muhammad and Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad was married to him one after another. Uthman was born into the Umayyad clan of a powerful family of the Quraysh tribe, he became caliph at the age of 70. Under his leadership, the empire expanded into Fars in 650 and some areas of Khorasan in 651, the conquest of Armenia was begun in the 640s, his rule ended. Uthman is best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the Quran as it exists today, based on text, gathered separately on parchment and rocks during the lifetime of Muhammad and on a copy of the Quran, collated by Abu Bakr and left with Muhammad's widow after Abu Bakr's death.
The committee members were reciters of the Quran and had memorised the entire text during the lifetime of Muhammad. This work was undertaken due to the vast expansion of Islam under Uthman's rule, which encountered many different dialects and languages; this had led to variant readings of the Quran for those converts who were not familiar with the language. After clarifying any possible errors in pronunciation or dialects, Uthman sent copies of the sacred text to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, destroyed variant texts. Ali was a cousin of Muhammad, he was the second companion of Muhammad. He was only 10 years old at the time of his conversion. At the age of 21, he married Fatimah, Muhammed's youngest daughter by Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, became a son-in-law of Muhammed, he had two daughters with Fatimah. He was a scribe of the Quran, who kept a written copy of it, memorized its verses as soon as they were revealed. During the Khilafat of Uthman and Abu Bakr, he was part of the Majlis ash-Shura and took care of Medina in their absence.
After the death of Uthman, Medina was in political chaos for a number of days. After four days, when the rebels who assassinated Uthman felt that it was necessary that a new Khalifa should be elected before they left Medina, Many of the companions approached Ali to take the role of caliph, which he refused to do initially; the rebels offered Khilafat to Talha and Zubair, who refused. The Ansars declined their offer to choose a
Five Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life. They are summarized in the famous hadith of Gabriel; the Sunni and Shia agree on the essential details for the performance and practice of these acts, but the Shia do not refer to them by the same name. They make up Muslim life, concern for the needy, self-purification, the pilgrimage, if one is able. Shahada is a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, it is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but God Muhammad is the messenger of God." It is essential to utter it to convert to Islam. Salah is the Islamic prayer. Salah consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna; the Fajr prayer is performed before sunrise, Dhuhr is performed in the midday after the sun has surpassed its highest point, Asr is the evening prayer before sunset, Maghrib is the evening prayer after sunset and Isha is the night prayer.
All of these prayers are recited while facing in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and form an important aspect of the Muslim Ummah. Muslims must wash before prayer; the prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions including. A Muslim may perform their prayer anywhere, such as in offices and fields. However, the mosque is the more preferable place for prayers because the mosque allows for fellowship. Zakāt or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving based on accumulated wealth; the word zakāt can be defined as purification and growth because it allows an individual to achieve balance and encourages new growth. The principle of knowing that all things belong to God is essential to growth. Zakāt is obligatory for all Muslims, it is the personal responsibility of each Muslim to ease the economic hardship of others and to strive towards eliminating inequality. Zakāt consists of spending a portion of one's wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, like debtors or travelers. A Muslim may donate more as an act of voluntary charity, rather than to achieve additional divine reward.
There are five principles that should be followed when giving the zakāt: The giver must declare to God his intention to give the zakāt. The zakāt must be paid on the day. After the offering, the payer must not exaggerate on spending his money more than usual means. Payment must be in kind; this means if one is wealthy he or she needs to pay a portion of their income. If a person does not have much money they should compensate for it in different ways, such as good deeds and good behavior toward others; the zakāt must be distributed in the community. Three types of fasting are recognized by the Quran: Ritual fasting, fasting as compensation for repentance, ascetic fasting. Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk during this month, are to be mindful of other sins. Fasting is necessary for every Muslim; the fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness and to look for forgiveness from God, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, to remind them of the needy.
During Ramadan, Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, envy, lust, profane language, gossip and to try to get along with fellow Muslims better. In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided. Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be dangerous and excessively problematic; these include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or traveling. Missing fasts must be made up for soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance; the Hajj is a pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.
When the pilgrim is around 10 km from Mecca, he/she must dress in Ihram clothing, for men, consists of two white sheets. Both men and women are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. After a Muslim makes the trip to Mecca, he/she is known as a hajj/hajja; the main rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba termed Tawaf, touching the Black Stone termed Istilam, traveling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah termed Sa'yee, symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina termed Ramee. The pilgrim, or the haji, is honoured in the Muslim community. Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God, not a means to gain social standing; the beli
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
Salah called salat and namaz, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical and spiritual act of worship, observed five times every day at prescribed times; when they do this, they must face Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, prostrates himself, concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses and prayers; the word "salah" is translated as "prayer". Given how that word is used in English this can be misleading, as the word "prayer" is used to translate a different word, "dua", a reverent petition made to God. Salah may be better translated as "divine worship", as it is worship rather than petition. Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah consisting of prescribed actions and words; the number of obligatory rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances. Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.
Salah is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "communication". In its English usage, the reference of the word is always confined to the formal, obligatory prayers described in this article. Translating salah as "communication" is not considered precise enough, as "communication" can indicate several different ways of relating to God. Personal communication or supplication is called duʿāʾ in Islamic usage. Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to salah depending on their culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries, the Arabic term salat or salah is used; the other major term is the Persian word namāz, used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages, as well as Turkish, Chinese and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is chak in Lak and kak in Avar. In Malaysia, the term solat is used. Indonesia uses the term shalat. ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِٱلآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ Translation:2.
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah -3. Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, spend out of what We have provided for them,4, and who believe in what has been revealed to you, what was revealed before you, of the Hereafter they are certain.5. Those are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the successful. وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَٱرْڪَعُوا۟ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰڪِعِينَ Translation: And establish prayer and give Zakah and bow with those who bow. Guard your communication and middle communication. If you fear on foot or riding, and offer communication at the two ends of day and at the approach of night. Offer communication at the decline of the day until the darkness of night, and at night pray Tahajjud an extra for thee. Say call God or call Merciful, and offer communication and pay Zakah and obey Messenger so that you may receive mercy. And recite, revealed to you as a book and offer communication; the chief purpose of salah is to remembrance of God.
By reciting "The Opening", the first sura of the Quran, as required in daily worship, the worshiper can stand before God and praise him, ask for guidance along the "Straight Path". In addition, daily worship reminds Muslims to give thanks for God's blessings and that submission to God takes precedence over all other concerns, thereby revolving their life around God and submitting to His will. Worship serves as a formal method of dhikr or remembering God. Muslims believe that all prophets of God offered daily prayers and were humble in submission to the oneness of God. Muslims believe that the main duty of the prophets of God is to teach mankind to humbly submit themselves to oneness of God. In Quran, it is written that: "For, Believers are those who, when God is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, when they hear his signs rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, put their trust in their Lord.