Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe
Kashf al-Asrar is a book written in 1943 by Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, to respond to the questions and criticisms raised in a 1943 pamphlet titled The Thousand-Year Secrets by Ali Akbar Hakimzadeh, who had abandoned clerical studies at Qom seminary and in the mid-1930s published a modernist journal titled Humayun that advocated reformation in Islam. Kashf al-Asrar is the first book. Ruhollah Khomeini wrote Kashf al-Asrar to answer questions about the credibility of Islamic and Shia beliefs that originated in a pamphlet called The Thousand-Year Secrets, written by Ali Akbar Hakamizada, who had abandoned clerical studies at Qum seminary. In 1934, Hakamizada began publishing a modernist journal titled Humayun that advocated reformation in Islam and criticized Islamic superstition and traditionalism. In 1943, Hakimzada wrote The Thousand-Year Secrets and invited Shia scholars to explain what he called the sect's superstitious beliefs. According to Khomeini's son Ahmad, one day when his father was going to Feyziyeh School, he encountered a group of seminary students discussing this pamphlet.
Khomeini was worried the views of this pamphlet had infiltrated into the seminaries, wrote Kashf al-Asrar to answer the pamphlet's questions. Kashf al-Asrar is the first book; the book defends against Hakamizada's attacks against such Shia practices as the mourning of Muharram, the recitation of prayers composed by the Imams, clerical fostering of superstitious beliefs to perpetuate their own power, belief in the intercession of Muhammad and his descendants and the lack of any explicit mention of Imamate in the Quran. Khomeini attacks Wahhabism and its "idolatrous" devotions, Bahá'í scholar Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Shia scholar Shariat Sanglaji. Kashf al-Asrar consists of six chapters, the ordering of which mirrors the division of content in The Thousand-Year Secrets: "Tawhid", "Imamah", "The Clergy", "Government", "Law", "Hadith". In the first chapter, "Tawhid", Khomeini answers criticisms of Shia Islam by Bahá'í Faith; the second chapter contains Hadith of Position, Hadith of the two weighty things, proof of the concept of Imamah by verses of the Quran.
The book's third and fifth chapters include a discussion of government in the contemporary age. At the end of The Thousand-Year Secret, Hakamizada asks some challenging questions and invites responses from readers. At the beginning of the third chapter of Kashf al-Asrar, Khomeini responds to five of the nine questions asked in The Thousand-Year Secrets; the Thousand-Year Secrets was supported by Ahmad Kasravi and Mirza Rida Quli Shari'at-Sanglaji, the Wahhabi-influenced Shia scholar. Along with the publication of the pamphlet, objections were raised by scholars and seminary students. According to Ayatollah Hossein Badala and Bagheri, some scholars decided to respond to it. One of the responses was written by Mehdi Al-Khalissi. Qom Seminary selected Kashf al-Asrar as answers to Hakimzada's questions in The Thousand-Year Secrets. Forty Hadith of Ruhullah Khomeini Tahrir al-Wasilah Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist The Greatest fight: Combat with the Self The full text of Kashf al-Asrar
Ruhollah Khomeini's life in exile
Ruhollah Khomeini's life in exile refers to days of exile that Ruhollah Khomeini known as the leader of the Iranian revolution, spent in Turkey and France from 1964 to 1989. Between August and December 1978, strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country; the Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and Shapour Bakhtiar, an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government,and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. On 4 November 1964, Khomeini was secretly taken to Ankara and to Bursa, Turkey. On 5 September 1965 he went to Najaf and stayed there until Saddam Hussein deported him. On 6 October 1978, he was exiled by the pressure of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Neauphle-le-Château, Paris. Ruhollah Mousavi was born on September 1902 in Khomeyn, Iran; when he was six months old, his father was killed by a local landlord under Mozaffar ad-Din Shah's orders. Khomeini's grandfather, Mirza Ahmad Mojtahed-e Khonsari was the cleric issuing a fatwa to forbid usage of Tobacco during the Tobacco Protest.
After the death of Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi in 1961, Khomeini became the leading Marja'. Khomeini would become the leader of Iranian revolution in 1979 which resulted in the overthrow of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In 1920, Khomeini began his education in the seminary in Arak. After one year, following the transfer of his tutor, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi to the Islamic seminary in Qom, he went to Dar al-Shafa school in Qom. In January 1963, the Shah announced the White Revolution, a six-point program of reform calling for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women and allow non-Muslims to hold office, profit-sharing in industry, a literacy campaign in the nation's schools. On the other hand, he and many religious leaders considered the revolution had trends of Westernizing the country and would in their mind threaten the traditional Islamic lifestyle of the common folk. On the death-day of Ja ` far al-Sadiq, the Shah's guards attacked people.
On the afternoon of Ashura, Khomeini presented a lecture at the Feyziyeh School and inculpated the Shah as a "wretched miserable man", advised him to change his ways, otherwise the day will come that people will be happy to see him leave, drawing parallels to the caliph Yazid, perceived as a'tyrant' by Shias. On 5 June 1963 at 3 am, two days after, Khomeini was transferred to Tehran; when this news was broadcast, large protest demonstrations were held in Qom, Mashhad, Varamin and other cities. The Shah's guards injured several people; that event is now referred to as the Movement of 15 Khordad. On 3 August, the Shah placed him under house arrest. On 26 October 1964, Khomeini condemned the Shah because of the diplomatic immunity he granted to American citizens, civilian or military personnel in Iran. On 4 November 1964 Khomeini was arrested by SAVAK, he was taken to Mehrabad international airport in Tehran and sent to Turkey. On 4 November 1964, he was secretly taken to Turkey. On 5 September 1965 he went to Najaf and stayed there until Saddam Hussein deported him.
On 6 October 1978, he went to Paris. A week after his arrival at Turkey, Khomeini was sent to Bursa and he stayed there for eleven months, he was hosted by a colonel in the Turkish Military intelligence named Ali Cetiner in his own residence. According to Turkish law, It was banned to wear clerical dress. Khomeini was never allowed to meet people. On 3 December 1964, his son, joined him. Khomeini wrote a book entitled Tahrir al-Wasilah in Bursa. On September 5, 1965, Khomeini went to Najaf in Iraq. On 8 September 1965, Khomeini entered Iraq, he destined to spend thirteen years. Iraq did not have good political relations with the Shah; the reasons for Khomeini's exile to Najaf by the Shah's regime are describing in the following: The regime hoped to diminish the role of Khomeini despite the reputable Ulama such as Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei in Najaf. Because of intense pressure and popular protests. Scholars and Khomeini's followers began to communicate with him in Bursa. A Savak thought. Khomeini and Mostafa entered Iraq.
He went to Kadhimiya and stayed in the company of Mohammad al-Husayni al-Shirazi for two days before going to Karbala. From there he went to the city of Najaf. After a while, his wife and second son Ahmad joined them in Najaf. Khomeini began teaching Fiqh in the Sheikh Morteza Ansari Madrassah which captivated students from Iran, India, Pakistan and the Persian Gulf states. On April 1967, Khomeini wrote the two letters, once to Ulama in order to in order to persuade them for trying to overthrow the Shah's regime and another to Amir-Abbas Hoveyda for Condemning him to create a thievery and terror regime. Khomeini forbade to deal with Israel. After about 4 years, between 21 January and 8 February, he gave lectures about Vilayat-e Faqih ya Hukumat-i Islami; the theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh custodianship over people. This was his most famous and influential work, laid out his ideas on governance: That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God, which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life."
Since Shariah, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia. Since Islamic jurists or faqih have studied and are the most knowledgeable in Sharia, the country's ruler shoul
Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini
Sayyida Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini is an Iranian politician, a daughter of Ayatollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran. A professor at the University of Tehran, with a PhD in philosophy, she is the Secretary General of Women's Society of the Islamic Republic of Iran, a party that advocates women's participation in politics in the Islamic Republic, she is the secretary General of the NGO Union of Supporting the Palestinian Rights, Head of the Society for Defending the Palestinian Nation. She has been called Khomeini's "most prominent daughter". Mostafavi is in favour of women wearing the hijab, stating that "The hijab or covering of women immunises them from abuse and protects families. If men know there is no question of anything outside the family, they will be more loyal to their wives.” She is of the view that women must be allowed to pursue an appropriate role for themselves in politics and education and “like men, their talent must be allowed to flourish”. Mostafavi praises her father, stating that "He wanted women to play a full part in society, not just as typists or nurses.
At home, he never asked his wife once,'give me a cup of tea', or'close the door'. He did it himself!". Mostafavi takes a hard line on relations with the United States, telling an audience in June 2009, “We are not interested in negotiations with the US. Obama has not made any radical change in US policies. We follow what we have to, they do what they have to. We believe we are on the right track and victory will be ours.” In the 2009 presidential election Mostafavi officially endorsed Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal: to define and achieve the political, economic and social equality of the genders. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, to have maternity leave. Feminists have worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration, to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have been part of feminist movements; some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women, the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Although feminist advocacy is, has been focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because they believe that men are harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims; some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837; the words "féminisme" and "féministe" first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, the United States in 1910, the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism".
Depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements when they did not apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants; those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves"; each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote; the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for social equality for women; the third wave is a continuation of, a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the 1990s.
First-wave feminism was a period of activity during early twentieth century. In the UK and the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act 1839 which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, these became models for similar legislation in other British territories. For example, Victoria passed legislation in 1884, New South Wales in 1889, the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused on gaining political power the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual and economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893 and South Australia granting female suffrage in 1895. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England, with Time naming her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; these women were influenced by the
The Iranian Revolution was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements, which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978, strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country; the Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and Shapour Bakhtiar, an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians; the royal reign collapsed shortly after on 11 February when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power.
Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979 and to formulate and approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution, occurred in a nation, experiencing relative prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians, replaced a pro-Western authoritarian monarchy with an anti-Western totalitarian theocracy based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, it was a non-violent revolution, it helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions. Reasons advanced for the revolution and its populist and Shi'a Islamic character include a conservative backlash against the Westernizing and secularizing efforts of the Western-backed Shah, a rise in expectations created by the 1973 oil revenue windfall and an overly ambitious economic program, anger over a short, sharp economic contraction in 1977–78, other shortcomings of the previous regime.
The Shah's regime was seen as an oppressive, brutal and extravagant regime by some of the society’s classes at that time. It suffered from some basic functional failures that brought economic bottlenecks and inflation; the Shah was perceived by many as beholden to – if not a puppet of – a non-Muslim Western power whose culture was affecting that of Iran. At the same time, support for the Shah may have waned among Western politicians and media – under the administration of U. S. President Jimmy Carter – as a result of the Shah's support for OPEC petroleum price increases earlier in the decade; when President Carter enacted a human-rights policy which said countries guilty of human-rights violations would be deprived of American arms or aid, this helped give some Iranians the courage to post open letters and petitions in the hope that the repression by the government might subside. The revolution that replaced the monarchy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi with Islamism and Khomeini, rather than with another leader and ideology, is credited in part to the spread of the Shia version of the Islamic revival that opposed Westernization and saw Ayatollah Khomeini as following in the footsteps of the Shi'a Imam Husayn ibn Ali and the Shah in the role of Husayn's foe, the hated tyrant Yazid I.
Other factors include the underestimation of Khomeini's Islamist movement by both the Shah's reign – who considered them a minor threat compared to the Marxists and Islamic socialists – and by the secularist, opponents of the government – who thought the Khomeinists could be sidelined. The Shi'a clergy had a significant influence on Iranian society; the clergy first showed itself to be a powerful political force in opposition to the monarchy with the 1891 Tobacco protest. On 20 March 1890, Nasir al-Din Shah granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production and export of tobacco for fifty years. At the time the Persian tobacco industry employed over 200,000 people, so the concession represented a major blow to Persian farmers and bazaaris whose livelihoods were dependent on the lucrative tobacco business; the boycotts and protests against it were widespread and extensive because of Mirza Hasan Shirazi's fatwa. Nasir al-Din Shah found himself powerless to stop the popular movement and cancelled the concession.
The Tobacco Protest was the first significant Iranian resistance against the Shah and foreign interests, revealed the power of the people and the Ulema influence among them. The growing discontent continued until the Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1911; the revolution led to approval of the first constitution. Although the constitutional revolution was successful in weakening the autocracy of the Qajar regime, it failed to provide a powerful alternative government. In the decades following the establishment of the new parliament, a number of critical events took place. Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists and the Shahs of Persia, many of whom were backed by foreign powers against the parliament. Insecurity and chaos created
Sayyid Hassan Khomeini is an Iranian cleric. He has been called "the most prominent" grandchild of Ruhollah Khomeini, who had 15 grandchildren in total and the one "who many think could have a promising political future". Hassan Khomeini is a grandson of the founder of the Islamic Republic of Ruhollah Khomeini, he is the son of Fatemeh Tabatabai. He has four children. Hassan Khomeini became a cleric in 1993, he was appointed caretaker of the Mausoleum of Khomeini in 1995 where his grandfather and father are buried, has had official meetings with officials such as Syrian President Bashar Assad and Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah. He teaches in the holy city of Qom, has published his first book on Islamic sects, he has been described as having "expressed frustration with some policies of a regime dominated by fundamentalists", such as former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In an interview in February 2008, Khomeini spoke out against military interference in politics. Soon after, in what some observers believe may have been retaliation, an article in a publication tied to President Ahmadinejad accused him of corruption, "claiming that he drove a BMW, backed rich politicians and was indifferent to the suffering of the poor".
This was "the first time in the history of the Islamic Republic" that one of Khomeini's offspring was "publicly insulted", according to the Iranian daily newspaper Kargozaran. Khomeini met with reformers before the 2009 election and met with defeated presidential candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi and "supported his call to cancel the election results". On 9 December 2015, he announced that he would enter politics and run for the Assembly of Experts in the 2016 election, his nomination was rejected by the Guardian Council on February 10, 2016. Media related to Hassan Khomeini at Wikimedia Commons