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Zaire Use

The Zaire Use or Roman Missal for the Dioceses of Zaire is a variation of the common Mass of the Roman Catholic Church. While containing many of the elements of the Ordinary Form of the Mass of the Roman Rite, it incorporates elements from sub-Saharan African culture Congolese, a process referred to as inculturation. Additionally, the Zaire Use may refer to the adjusted sacramental rites utilized by the Congolese dioceses; the Zaire Use form of the Mass is unrelated to the earlier defunct African Rite. It is a product of the Second Vatican Council's constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium the move "for legitimate variations and adaptations to different groups and peoples in mission lands, provided that the substantial unity of the Roman rite is preserved." Promulgated by the decree Zairensium Dioecesium on April 30, 1988, by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Missel romain pour les diocèses du Zaïre is an attempt to inculturate the Roman Missal in an African context, inspired by the liturgical reform initiated at the Second Vatican Council.

The missal is now entitled Congolese Missal for the dioceses of Zaire. It follows the 1956 Masses of the Savanes in Upper Volta and of the Piroguieres and the 1958 Missa Luba in Zaire. Following the 1970 authorization from the Congregation for the Divine Worship and the 1973 draft presentation of a new Order of the Mass from the Commission on Evangelization, the Episcopal Conference in Zaire approved its use experimentally; as the "Zairean Rite," it was adopted formally in 1985. On 1 December 2019, Pope Francis celebrated Mass for the first Sunday of Advent in Saint Peter's Basilica using this rite to mark the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the first chaplaincy for the Congolese Catholic community in Rome. Under pressure from Zairean President Mobutu Sese Seko to remove Western influences as part of broader cultural reforms, a 1975 synod of the Congolese Episcopal Conference chose to not celebrate various feasts venerating saints when they fall during the week, moving their celebration to the nearest Sunday.

This choice was approved by the Holy See. Similar pressures from the Seko government inspired a revision of the practice of baptismal names, with some families selecting traditionally native African names for common use and baptismal names such as "Grâce à Dieu" and "Gloire à Dieu." Distinct from the Ordinary Form, the congregation stands in the presence of Christ–rather than kneeling–and there is an "invocation of the Ancestors of upright heart" in addition to the invocation of the saints. The intention of the latter act is the veneration of only "ancestors" "who have lived in an exemplary way."The Penitential Act is performed following the homily or the recitation of the Creed. One state intention for this placement is that only after listening to scripture that the congregation is able to seek forgiveness. Servers are permitted to dance around the altar as a form of veneration. Dancing is permitted for the bringing gifts to those in need. Priests dress in traditional African priestly vestments.

The Zaire Use was created with intention to better incorporate the congregation into the celebration of the Mass. To do this, responses were added, including one at the conclusion of the homily and Eucharistic prayer. Additionally, the congregation is explicitly welcomed to raise their hands for the Lord's Prayer, a practice variously allowed or prohibited by episcopal conferences utilizing the Ordinary Form. Due to awareness of culturally-normative displays of respect and attentiveness in the Congo, the congregation sits for the reading of the Gospel. An announcer calls the congregation to attention at points in the liturgy. Dancing among the congregants is permitted. African Rite Catholic Church in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Latin liturgical rites Presseamt des Heiligen Stuhls: Verlautbarungen der XI. Ordentlichen Generalversammlung der Bischofssynode. Vatikan Stadt, 2005. Kabongo, Edouard: Le rite zaïrois de la messe. Théologie de l'Eucharistie en contexte africano-congolais. Freiburg i.

Ü.: Theologische Fakultät, 2005.. Der neue Meßritus im Zaire -Ein Beispiel kontextueller Liturgie. Freiburg i. Br.: Herder, 1993

Howard C. Petersen

Howard Charles Petersen was an American government official and banker. He was the United States Assistant Secretary of War from 1945 to 1947. Petersen was born in Indiana, he graduated from DePauw University in 1930 and the University of Michigan Law School in 1933. From 1933 to 1941, Petersen was an associate in the New York law firm Cravath, deGersdorff, Swaine & Wood. While at the Cravath firm, Petersen was introduced to Grenville Clark, through which connection he came to be a principal drafter of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. In 1944 Petersen served as Executive Assistant to the Undersecretary of War. In December 1945, Petersen was appointed the Assistant Secretary of War by President Harry S. Truman, a position he held until August 1947, he was the last person to hold that title, since the Department of War became part of the new Department of Defense in 1947. He worked on the economic recovery of occupied Germany and the Western Allies and supervised U. S. military occupational activities in Germany, Korea and Italy.

One of his significant contributions was to help prevent famine in Europe by laying the groundwork for the Marshall Plan. Petersen joined Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company in 1947 as executive vice president and went on to serve as the bank's president, CEO and chairman. Meanwhile, from 1961–63, Petersen served as Special Assistant to President John F. Kennedy for International Trade Policy, in which he managed Kennedy's controversial campaign for a new foreign trade policy, his main task was to assist with the passage of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, he negotiated the conclusion of the 1960-62 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations with the European Economic Community. In addition, Petersen served as a Director of the Panama Canal Corporation, a trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Petersen was chairman of the boards of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, the University of Pennsylvania Museum, the Marshall Foundation, chairman and advisory committee member of Export-Import Bank.

He was a member of the Century Association, the American Philosophical Society, the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1936, Petersen married Elizabeth Anna Watts of Princeton, with whom he had two children: Elizabeth Anna and Howard Jr. Elizabeth married then-Harvard instructor Herbert Spiro in June 1958. Petersen was survived by two grandchildren, Peter Spiro and Alexander Spiro. Howard C. Petersen Files, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library Howard C. Petersen Papers at Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University


Corythornis is a genus of small African river kingfishers. A molecular phylogenetic study of the alcedinine kingfishers published in 2007 found that the genera as defined did not form monophyletic groups; the species were subsequently rearranged into four genera, with four species in the resurrected genus Corythornis. The genus had been introduced by the German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1848; the type species is the Príncipe kingfisher. Corythornis is the sister group to the genus Ispidina containing two small African kingfishers; the genus contains the following four species: Madagascan pygmy kingfisher, Corythornis madagascariensis White-bellied kingfisher, Corythornis leucogaster Malachite kingfisher, Corythornis cristatus São Tomé kingfisher, Corythornis cristatus thomensis Príncipe kingfisher, Corythornis cristatus nais Malagasy kingfisher, Corythornis vintsioides Fry, C. H.. Kingfishers, Bee-eaters and Rollers. London: Chris Helm. ISBN 0-7136-8028-8

Retirement Benefits Authority of Kenya

The Retirement Benefits Authority is Kenya's regulatory body under the National Treasury established to regulate the retirement benefits industry. The authority was established under the Retirement Benefits Act. Prior to enactment of the act, the retirement benefits schemes in Kenya were regulated by fragmented legislation Trust and Income Tax Laws. Without a specific body or regulations to set industry standards, pension schemes adopted different styles of operation. Retirement Benefits Authority is mandated to: Protect the interest of members and sponsors of retirement Benefits schemes. Advise the Government on matters relating to retirement benefits. Develop and promote the retirement benefits sector. Implement all Government policies relating to retirement benefits. Regulate and supervise the establishment and management of retirement Benefits schemes; the current members of the RBA Board of Directors are: Mr Victor R. Pratt – Chairman Mr Nzomo Mutuku - Acting Chief Executive Officer Mr Paul Muthaura - Ex-officio Mr Vincent Rotich - Director Dr Hillary Barchok - Director Mr Joseph Ngugi – Director, Representative of the Cabinet Secretary in the National Treasury Mr Steve Gichohi - Director Capital Markets Authority

Union Station (Providence)

Union Station describes two distinct defunct train stations in Providence, Rhode Island. The original Union Station was Providence's first, opening in 1847 to accommodate the needs of the newly thriving city, it was considered "a brilliant example of Romanesque architecture" in its time, the longest building in America. As the city continued to grow, so too did the need for terminal space resulting in the paving over of the remnants of the city's inland bay in 1890; the question of what to do with the now undersized station was spontaneously answered in February 1896 when the station suffered a catastrophic fire. A much larger Union Station was opened in 1898, clad in distinctive yellow brick, which the Providence Journal heralded as "a new era of history of this city"; the station was designed by the firm of Stone, Carpenter & Willson, which had designed other Providence buildings. Though rail use was expected to grow, by the 1980s rail traffic had dropped 75 percent. City planners saw the opportunity to dismantle the "Chinese Wall" of train tracks that hemmed in Providence's central business district and moved MBTA and Amtrak service to a new, smaller station about a half mile north in 1986.

Union Station caught fire in April 1987 amidst $11 million in renovations, forcing a change of plans. Parts of the original station have now been renovated and the building contains offices and restaurants, including the Union Station Brewery; the center-most building of Union Station now houses the Rhode Island Foundation, who leases space to The Public's Radio, RI Kids Count, Women's Fund RI, Bar Louie Restaurants. National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence, Rhode Island Providence Station "Union Station". Art In Ruins. "One Union Station History". The Rhode Island Foundation. Historic American Buildings Survey No. RI-388, "Providence Union Station, Exchange Terrace, Providence County, RI", 23 photos, 4 data pages, 1 photo caption page Historic American Engineering Record No. RI-23, "Promenade Street Interlocking Tower, Promenade Street between Union Station & East Side Tunnel Viaduct", 6 photos, 3 data pages, 1 photo caption page

Francesco Monti (Bologna)

Francesco Monti was an Italian painter of the late Baroque. Born in Bologna, he studied art for three years with Sigismondo Caula in Modena, starting in 1701 with Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole in Bologna, his neo-Mannerist style was influenced by Donato Creti, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Parmigianino. A prolific painter, he worked in fresco, his first known work, dating from 1713, is a Pentecost for the Basilica of San Prospero in Reggio Emilia. Other early works include a Rape of the Sabines for Count Ranuzzi and a Triumph of Mordecai for the court at Turin. Around this time, he was commissioned, along with other painters, to provide decorations for the Duke of Richmond's Goodwood Palace, he executed commissions for a number of churches in Bolognia. Within a few years, he was admitted to the prestigious Accademia Clementina. In 1738, he moved to Brescia, where he painted frescoes on the vault of the church of Santa Maria della Pace, he received other commissions from regional churches in San Zeno, Capo di Ponte, Sale Marasino, elsewhere.

From 1740 onwards, he was active in the area of Cremona. Among his pupils were Gaetano Sabadini, his daughter Eleonora Monti, the priest Antonio Montelatici, he died in Brescia