Władysław IV Vasa
Władysław IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa was king of Poland of the House of Vasa who ruled from 1632 until his death in 1648. He was elected Tsar of Russia by the Seven Boyars in 1610, but did not assume the throne due to his father's position and a popular uprising. Władysław IV was his wife, Anna of Austria; until 1634 he used the title of Grand Duke of Muscovy. Elected king of Poland in 1632, Władysław was successful in defending the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against invasion, most notably in the Smolensk War of 1632–34, in which he participated personally, he supported religious tolerance and carried out military reforms, such as the founding of the Commonwealth Navy. He was a renowned patron of the arts and music, he failed, however, to realize his dreams of regaining the Swedish crown, gaining fame by defeating the Ottoman Empire, strengthening royal power, reforming the Commonwealth. He died without a legitimate male heir and was succeeded to the Polish throne by his half-brother, John II Casimir Vasa.
Władysław's death marked the end of relative stability in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as conflicts and tensions, growing over several decades came to a head with devastating consequences, notably the largest of the Cossack uprisings – the Khmelnytsky Uprising – and the Swedish invasion. In Latin: "Vladislaus Quartus Dei gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Prussiae, Samogitiae, necnon Suecorum, Gothorum Vandalorumque haereditarius rex, electus magnus dux Moschoviae." In English: "Władysław IV, by grace of God the King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Prussia, Samogitia and hereditary King of the Swedes and Vandals, elected Grand Duke of Muscovy."In 1632 Władysław Sigismund Vasa–Jagiellon was elected King of Poland. He claimed to be King of Sweden by paternal inheritance, but was never able to gain possession of the throne, his titles were the longest of any Polish king ever. Władysław IV's father, Sigismund III Vasa, grandson of Sweden's King Gustav I, had succeeded his father to the Swedish throne in 1592, only to be deposed in 1599 by his uncle, subsequently King Charles IX.
This resulted in a long-standing feud, with the Polish kings of the House of Vasa claiming the Swedish throne. This led to the Polish–Swedish War of 1600–29 and to the Deluge of 1655; the marriage of Anne of Austria to Sigismund III was a traditional, politically motivated marriage, intended to tie the young House of Vasa to the prestigious Habsburgs. Władysław was born 9 June 1595 at the King's summer residence in Łobzów, near Kraków, a few months after the main Wawel Castle had been consumed by fire. Władysław's mother died on 10 less than three years after giving birth to him, he was raised by one of her former ladies of the court, Urszula Meierin, who became a powerful player at the royal court, with much influence. Władysław's Hofmeister was a Polish-Prussian noble. Around early 17th century Urszula lost much of her influence, as Władysław gained new teachers and mentors, such as priests Gabriel Prowancjusz, Andrzej Szołdrski and Marek Łętkowski, in the military matters, Zygmunt Kazanowski.
Much of his curriculum was designed by priest Piotr Skarga, much respected by Sigmismund III. Władysław studied for several years in the Kraków Academy, for two years, in Rome. At the age of 10 Władysław received his own prince court. Władysław formed a friendship with his brother, Stanisław, it is reported. He spoke and wrote in German and Latin. Władysław was liked by the szlachta, but his father's plans to secure him the throne of Poland were unpopular and crushed in the Zebrzydowski Rebellion. With the intensification of the Polish intervention in Muscovy, in 1609, the royal family moved to their residence in Vilnius, capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. There he witnessed the fire of Vilnius, which required the royal family to evacuate their residence in the Vilnius Castle. Shortly afterwards, that year, Władysław, aged 15, was elected Tsar by Muscovy's aristocracy council of Seven boyars, who overthrew tsar Vasily Shuysky during the Polish-Muscovite War and Muscovy's Time of Troubles.
His election was ruined by his father, who aimed to convert Muscovy's population from Orthodox religion to Catholicism. Sigismund refused to agree to the boyar's request to send prince Władysław to Moscow and his conversion to Orthodoxy. Instead, Sigismund proposed; this unrealistic proposal led to a resumption of hostilities. Beginning in 1610, Władysław struck Muscovite silver and gold coins in the Russian mints in Moscow and Novgorod with his titulary Tsar and Grand Prince Vladislav Zigimontovych of all Russia. Władysław tried to regain the tsar's throne himself, organizing a campaign in 1616. Despite some military victories, he was unable to capture Moscow; the Commonwealth gained some disputed territories in the Truce of Deulino, but Władysław was never able to reign in Russia. He held on to the title, without any real power, until 1634; the failure of this campaign showed Władysław the limits of royal power in Poland, as major factors for the failure included significant autonomy of the military commanders, which did not see Władysław as their superior, lack of funds for the army, as the Polish parliament refused
Ryazan is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, located on the Oka River 196 kilometers southeast of Moscow. Population: 524,927 , it was known as Peryslavl-Ryazansky. The area of Ryazan was settled by Slavic tribes around 6th century, it is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, as a part of their drive into territory populated by Finnic peoples. It was built of wood replaced by masonry; the oldest preserved part of the Kremlin dates back to the 12th century. However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, dates to 1095. At that time, the city was part of the independent Principality of Ryazan, which had existed since 1078 and, centered on the old city of Ryazan; the first ruler of Ryazan was Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan and Murom. The lands of Ryazan, situated on the border of forest and steppe, suffered numerous invasions from the south as well as from the north, carried out by a variety of military forces including Cumans, but the Principality was in a conflict with Vladimir-Suzdal.
By the end of the 12th century, the capital of Duchy was burnt several times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan. On December 21, 1237, it was devastated and never recovered; as result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometers to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, which subsequently took the name of the destroyed capital. The site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan, close to Spassk-Ryazansky. In 1380, during the Battle of Kulikovo, the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg and his men came under a coalition of Mamai, a strongman of the Tatar Golden Horde, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, against the armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitry Donskoy. Late in the 13th century, the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, known as Ryazan from the 16th century; the principality was incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521. Ryazan was bombed by Germany in World War II and was an Extermenent Camp of Jews and Poles, 1917-1991.
After World War II, rapid development of the city began. Ryazan became a major industrial and military center of the European part of Russia. Massive factories were constructed in the city; such establishments included the largest refinery in Europe, the Soviet Union's only producer of potato-harvesting equipment - Ryazselmash Plant, accounting machines, a machine-tool plant, heavy forging equipment, foundry Centrolit, chemical fiber company, instrument factory and others. Leading areas of industry are heavy and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining and machine-tool industry, mechanical engineering and food industries. More than half of the plants produce for export; the military potential of the city has developed: Ryazan became the main training center of the Airborne Forces of the Soviet Union - a city surrounded by numerous training centers and military training-grounds. Several positioned MANPADS protect the urban sky. Besides the Airborne School, Ryazan hosts the Automobile School and Institute of Communications, a regiment of railway troops, airbase strategic bombers, a training center in Diaghilev.
Ryazan developed rapidly while Nadezhda Nikolaevna Chumakova served as Chair of the Council of People's Deputies of Ryazan and Ryazan mayor. Under Chumakova, the city's population increased more than seven times: from 72 to 520 thousand people. Chumakova oversaw the construction of social and cultural amenities, more than 20 urban areas, hundreds of kilometers of trolleybus and bus routes. Landscaping became a fundamental strategy for the development of the city at that time. A "green" ring of forests and garden associations surrounded Ryazan, with large parks located in each area of the city, compositions of flowers and vertical gardening became customary, not only for the main streets, but for industrial zones and factory buildings. Ryazan won recognition among the cities of the Soviet Union for its landscaping. During her 26 years in office, Nadezhda Chumakova accepted awards of the Red Banner of the USSR on behalf of Ryazan. In September 1999, Ryazan became one of the cities involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode, though it did not experience a successful bomb attack.
Ryazan's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style. Many famous Russian architects worked in Ryazan. Example: Kazakov, who worked and died in this city, built the house of Politech University. Ryazan's churches were built between the 19th centuries. Ryazan classicism is interesting. In 1900s style moderne was popular. Soviet Constructivism was an important step in Ryazan architecture. Ryazan is one of the leading tourist destinations in the Central Russia; the monuments of history and culture attract many tourists. The Ryazan Kremle is famous symbol and main landmark in Ryzan, it is ensemble of The Old main of beautiful churches and Palace of Oleg. Sobornaia Bell is one of the highest bells of The Orthodox Church. Ryazan State Museum of Art is one of the largest museums of European arts, it has paintings of A. van Ostade, V. V. Kandinsky and others. In the Political system of Ryazan, the legislature, a city council is the Ryazan City Duma. Kind of the lower house of the municipality - Youth Parliament, preparing draft le
Vasili IV of Russia
Vasili IV was Tsar of Russia between 1606 and 1610 after the murder of False Dmitriy I. His reign fell during the Time of Troubles, he was the only member of House of Shuysky to become Tsar and the last member of the Rurikid dynasty to rule. He was a son of Ivan Andreyevich Shuisky. Born Prince Vasili Ivanovich Shuisky, he was descended from sovereign princes of Nizhny Novgorod and a 20th generation male line descendant of the Varangian prince Rurik, he was one of the leading boyars of Tsardom of Russia during the reigns of Feodor I and Boris Godunov. In all the court intrigues of the Time of Troubles and his younger brother Dmitry Shuisky acted together and fought as one, it was he who, in obedience to the secret orders of Tsar-to-be Boris, went to Uglich to inquire into the cause of the death of the Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich, the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, who had perished there in mysterious circumstances. Shuisky reported that it was a case of suicide, though rumors abounded that the Tsarevich had been assassinated on the orders of the regent Boris Godunov.
Some suspected that Dmitry escaped the assassination and that another boy was killed in his place, providing impetus for the repeated appearance of impostors. On the death of Boris, who had become tsar, the accession of his son Feodor II, Shuisky went back upon his own words in order to gain favour with the pretender False Dmitriy I, attempting to gain the throne by impersonating the dead Tsarevich. Shuisky recognized the pretender as the "real" Dmitry despite having earlier determined the boy had committed suicide, thus bringing about the assassination of the young Feodor. Shuisky conspired against the false Dmitriy and brought about his death. After stating publicly that the real Dmitriy had indeed been slain and that the reigning tsar was an impostor, Shuisky's adherents thereupon proclaimed him tsar on 19 May 1606, he reigned until 19 July 1610, but was never recognized. In Moscow itself he had little or no authority, he only avoided deposition by the dominant boyars because they had no one to replace him with.
The popularity of his cousin, Prince Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky, who commanded an army aided by a small allied Swedish army led by Jacob de la Gardie, demanding cessions of Russian territory in Karelia in return, allowed Shuisky, for a time, to remain on his unstable throne. In 1610, he was deposed by his former adherents Princes Mstislavsky, he was made a monk and transported together with his two brothers to Warsaw by the Polish hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski. He died a prisoner in the castle of Gostynin, near Warsaw, in 1612, followed soon by his brother Dmitry. There they were forced to perform the Shuysky Tribute before Senate; the Romanovs, elected in 1613, did recognize Vasili posthumously as a legal tsar, during their negotiations with the Polish authorities demanded the right to rebury his body in Russia. Following the Treaty of Polyanovka in 1635, Vasili's remains were returned to Moscow and laid to rest in the Archangel Cathedral. Vasili Shuisky was married twice, his first wife, Elena Mikhailovna Repnina, died prior his election to tsardom, he had no children from that marriage.
After his coronation, Vasili remarried Princess Ekaterina Buynosova-Rostovskaya, whose name was changed to Maria, deemed more suitable for a tsarina consort. They had two daughters together, Princesses Anna and Anastasia of all the Russias, but both died in infancy during their father's reign, were buried in the Old Maiden's Convent in Kremlin; as both brothers of Vasili, Princes Dmitri Shuisky and Ivan Shuisky the Button, died childless, the Shuiskys' princely house became extinct after the death of the latter in 1638. The future Tsar Vasili IV serves as a character in Alexander Pushkin's blank verse drama Boris Godunov and Modest Mussorgsky's opera of the same name. In both depictions, the character is a master of palace intrigue. Despite being aware that Tsar Boris ordered the assassination of the child Tsarevich Dmitriy, Vasili Shuisky remains outwardly loyal, only switching his support to the Pretender when the latter appears to win. Pushkin described his intention to write further plays about the Time of Troubles.
About Vasili Shuisky, Pushkin wrote, "I intend to return to Shuisky also. In the historical account he shows a singular mixture of audacity and strength of character. Lackey of Godunov, he is one of the first boyars to go over to Dmitri's side, he is the first one who conspires, note this, he is the one who risks himself. He is about to lose his head, Dmitri pardons him when he's on the scaffold, he exiles him, with the thoughtless generousity of this amiable adventurer, he recalls him to court, covers him with gifts and honors. What does Shuisky do -- he who has come so close to the hatchet and the block? He has nothing more important to do than conspire anew, to succeed, to have himself elected Tsar, to fall and during his fall to preserve more dignity and strength of spirit than he had had in his entire life." Only Pushkin's death in a duel at the age of 37 prevented him from composing further plays about the reigns of Tsars Dmitriy and Vasili IV. Tsars of Russia family tree Shuysky Tribute Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bain, Robert Nisbet.
"Basil s.v. Basil IV.". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11t
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation in the receiving state. In practice, a diplomatic mission denotes the resident mission, namely the embassy, the main office of a country's diplomatic representatives to another country but not the receiving state's capital city. Consulates, on the other hand, are smaller diplomatic missions which are located outside the capital of the receiving state; as well as being a diplomatic mission to the country in which it is situated, it may be a non-resident permanent mission to one or more other countries. There are thus non-resident embassies. A permanent diplomatic mission is known as an embassy, the head of the mission is known as an ambassador or high commissioner; the term "embassy" is used as a section of a building in which the work of the diplomatic mission is carried out, but speaking, it is the diplomatic delegation itself, the embassy, while the office space and the diplomatic work done is called the chancery.
Therefore, the embassy operates in the chancery. The members of a diplomatic mission can reside within or outside the building that holds the mission's chancery, their private residences enjoy the same rights as the premises of the mission as regards inviolability and protection. All missions to the United Nations are known as permanent missions, while EU member states' missions to the European Union are known as permanent representations, the head of such a mission is both a permanent representative and an ambassador. European Union missions abroad are known as EU delegations; some countries have more particular naming for their missions and staff: a Vatican mission is headed by a nuncio and known as an apostolic nunciature. Under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, Libya's missions used the name "people's bureau", headed by a secretary. Missions between Commonwealth countries are known as high commissions, their heads are high commissioners. Speaking and high commissioners are regarded as equivalent in status and function and embassies and high commissions are both deemed to be diplomatic missions.
In the past a diplomatic mission headed by a lower-ranking official was known as a legation. Since the ranks of envoy and minister resident are obsolete, the designation of legation is no longer used today. A consulate is similar to, but not the same as a diplomatic office, but with focus on dealing with individual persons and businesses, as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. A consulate or consulate general is a representative of the embassy in locales outside of the capital city. For instance, the United Kingdom has its Embassy of the United Kingdom in Washington, D. C. but maintains seven consulates-general and four consulates elsewhere in the US. The person in charge of a consulate or consulate-general is known as a consul or consul-general, respectively. Similar services may be provided at the embassy in what is called a consular section. In cases of dispute, it is common for a country to recall its head of mission as a sign of its displeasure; this is less drastic than cutting diplomatic relations and the mission will still continue operating more or less but it will now be headed by a chargé d'affaires who may have limited powers.
A chargé d'affaires ad interim heads the mission during the interim between the end of one chief of mission's term and the beginning of another. Contrary to popular belief, most diplomatic missions do not enjoy full extraterritorial status and – in those cases – are not sovereign territory of the represented state. Rather, the premises of diplomatic missions remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while being afforded special privileges by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Diplomats themselves still retain full diplomatic immunity, the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country to put out a fire. International rules designate an attack on an embassy as an attack on the country it represents; the term "extraterritoriality" is applied to diplomatic missions, but only in this broader sense. As the host country may not enter the representing country's embassy without permission, embassies are sometimes used by refugees escaping from either the host country or a third country.
For example, North Korean nationals, who would be arrested and deported from China upon discovery, have sought sanctuary at various third-country embassies in China. Once inside the embassy, diplomatic channels can be used to solve the issue and send the refugees to another country. See the list of people who took refuge in a diplomatic mission for a list of some notable cases. Notable violations of embassy extraterritoriality include repeated invasions of the British Embassy, the Iran hostage crisis, the Japanese embassy hostage crisis at the ambassador's residence in Lima, Peru; the Vienna Convention states:The functions of a diplomatic mission consist, inter alia, in representing the sending State in the receiving State.
Kuzma Minin was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early 17th century. A native of Balakhna, Minin was a prosperous butcher in the city of Nizhny Novgorod; when the popular patriotic movement to organize volunteer corps in his home city was formed, the merchants chose Minin, a trusted and respected member of the guild, to oversee the handling of the public funds donated by them to raise and equip the Second Volunteer Army. The army led by prince Dmitry Pozharsky was credited with clearing the Moscow Kremlin of Polish forces on November 1, 1612. Minin distinguished himself as a skilled commander and was made a nobleman and member of the Boyar Duma under the newly elected Tsar Michael Romanov, he was interred in the Archangel Cathedral of Nizhny Novgorod. A central square of that city is named after Prince Pozharsky. Minin had Nefed. After Minin's death his property rights passed to his widow, Tatyana Semyonovna, his son.
A royal decree was issued on July 5, 1616, confirming the family's possession of an estate in the Nizhny Novgorod district consisting of the town of Bogorodskoye with its associated villages. Additionally, Nefed Minin owned property in the Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod, although after the completion of his service, he lived in Moscow where he worked as a government clerk. In 1625 he attended the departure of the Persian ambassador and in 1626 he is recorded as standing by the sovereign's lantern at two royal weddings. No mention is made of him in official records after 1628. Nefed died in 1632 and the lands granted to his father reverted to the crown before being passed to Prince Jacob Kudenekovich Cherkassky. Tatyana Minin continued to live in Nizhny Novgorod, it appears that at an advanced age she took monastic vows and entered a convent – most the Resurrection Convent, located inside the city's Kremlin. Minin is well regarded by historians such as Ivan Zabelin and Mikhail Pogodin, having gained respect for his heroic actions.
Inline General"The ancient heroes of the Russian people's militia" in "Kommersant-Den'gi", available online Kuzma Minin in the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Minin, Kuzma in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
The Russian nobility originated in the 14th century. In 1914 it consisted of 1,900,000 members. Up until the February Revolution of 1917 the noble estates staffed most of the Russian government; the Russian word for nobility, derives from Slavonic dvor, meaning the court of a prince or duke and of the tsar or emperor. Here, dvor referred to servants at the estate of an aristocrat. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the word dvoryane described the highest rank of gentry, who performed duties at the royal court, lived in it, or were candidates to it. A nobleman is called a dvoryanin. Pre-Soviet Russia shared with other countries the concept that nobility connotes a status or social category rather than a title. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, the title of nobleman in Russia became a formal status, rather than a reference to a member of aristocracy, due to a massive influx of commoners via the Table of ranks. Many descendants of former ancient Russian aristocracy, including royalty, had changed their formal standing to merchants, burghers or peasants, while people descended from serfs or clergy gained formal nobility.
The nobility arose in the 12th and 13th centuries as the lowest part of the feudal military class, which comprised the court of a prince or an important boyar. From the 14th century land ownership by nobles increased, by the 17th century the bulk of feudal lords and the majority of landowners were nobles; the nobles were granted estates out of State lands in return for their service to the Tsar, either for as long as they performed service, or for their lifetime. By the 18th century, these estates had become private property, they made up the Landed army —the basic military force of Russia. Peter the Great finalized the status of the nobility, while abolishing the boyar title; the adoption of the fashions and ideals of Western Europe by the Russian nobility was a gradual process rooted in the strict guidelines of Peter the Great and the educational reforms of Catherine the Great. While cultural westernization was superficial and restricted to court, it coincided with the efforts of Russian autocrats to link Russia to Western Europe in more fundamental ways – economically and politically.
However, Russia's existing economic system, which lacked a sizable middle class and which relied on forced labor, proved an insurmountable obstacle to the development of a free market economy. Furthermore, the lower classes lived isolated from the upper classes and the imperial court. Thus, most of the nobility's “western” tendencies were aesthetic and confined to a tiny proportion of the populace; as different rulers ascended the throne in the 19th century, each figure brought a different attitude and approach to ruling the nobility. By introducing the nobility to political literature from Western Europe, Catherine exposed Russia's autocracy to them as archaic and illiberal. While the nobility was conservative as a whole, a liberal and radical minority remained constant throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, resorting to violence on multiple occasions to challenge Russia's traditional political system. Although Peter the Great is considered by many to be the first westernized person of Russia, there were, in fact, contacts between the Muscovite nobility and Western Europe before his reign.
Ivan III, starting in 1472, sent numerous agents to Italy to study architecture. Both Michael Romanov and his son Alexis invited and sponsored European visitors – military and building specialists – who came to Moscow in foreign dress, speaking foreign languages; when the boyars began to imitate the westerners in dress and hair style, Tsar Alexis in 1675 and Tsar Feodor in 1680 restricted foreign fashions to distinguish between Russians and outsiders, but due to ineffective enforcement these efforts proved ineffective until the 1690s. Peter the Great was and foremost, eager to do away with Russia's reputation as an Asiatic land and to propel his new empire onto the political stage of Western Europe. One of the many ways he hoped to achieve this was by changing upper class culture. In 1697, he began to send nobles on compulsory trips abroad to England and Italy. While the Tsar designed these expeditions for naval training, he encouraged the noblemen to learn about the arts of the west. Furthermore Peter prioritized sending Russian natives as opposed to foreign expatriates.
When the travelers returned to Moscow, Peter tested them on their training, insisting on further education for those whose accumulated knowledge was unsatisfactory. By 1724, he had established – for the purpose of scientific study and discovery – the Academy of Sciences, which he modeled after “the ones in Paris, London and other places”. Peter's westernizing efforts became more radical after 1698 when he returned from his expedition through Europe known as the Grand Embassy. Upon arriving Peter summoned the nobility to his court and shaved every b
Ivan Isayevich Bolotnikov was the leader of a popular uprising in Russia in 1606–1607 known as the Bolotnikov Rebellion. The uprising was part of the Time of Troubles in Russia. Little information is available about Ivan Bolotnikov's life before the uprising, it is belonged to the household of Prince Andrei Telyatevsky. It appears that Bolotnikov fled from his master's estate was captured by the Crimean Tatars, sold to the Turks as a galley slave, he somehow managed to escape from his owners, reached Venice, was captured in Poland en route to Russia by the associates of Mikhail Molchanov. Molchanov sent Ivan Bolotnikov to the town of Putyvl to meet a voyevoda named Grigory Shakhovskoy; the latter put him in charge of a Cossack unit. Ivan Bolotnikov used this opportunity to muster a small army of runaway kholops, peasants and vagabonds, disgruntled with social and economic situation in Russia, he promised them to establish a new social system. By the order of Grigory Shakhovskoy and his army advanced to Kromy in August 1606, defeating the Muscovite army under the command of Prince Yury Trubetskoy.
From there, he ravaged the city. At the time there were several other rebellions taking place across Russia, the participants of which would join Ivan Bolotnikov's army. Most of the insurgents organized themselves into three main groups under the command of Grigory Sumbulov, Prokopy Lyapunov, Istoma Pashkov. All these rebels united and besieged Moscow, settling in a village of Zagorye on October 12, 1606; the consensus among these rebellious groups, did not last long. Soon, the noblemen realized that most of Ivan Bolotnikov's plans had been aimed against them, so they figured it would be much safer to return their support to Vasili Shuisky. On November 15, Sumbulov and Lyapunov left Zagorye and gave themselves up to the authorities, asking the tsar for forgiveness. Now that Bolotnikov's army had lost some of its men, Vasili Shuisky decided to make his move. On December 2, Prince Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky attacked the enemy near Kolomenskoye. During the battle, Istoma Pashkov and his men joined the Muscovite army.
Left all by himself, Ivan Bolotnikov fled to Kaluga. Vasili Shuisky's commanders Fyodor Mstislavsky and Ivan Shuisky laid siege to the city, but Bolotnikov and his Cossacks managed to repel their attacks until the end of winter. In the spring of 1607, another imposter by the name of False Peter came to Tula with a whole mob of robbers to meet with Prince Grigory Shakhovskoy. After this, the latter dispatched Prince Andrei Telyatevsky and his men to help out Ivan Bolotnikov, forcing Prince Mstislavsky to lift the siege of Kaluga. Bolotnikov moved to Tula. Thus, all the rebels met together in one place, their joint forces numbering some 30,000 people, it was that Vasili Shuisky decided to attack all of them at once and left Moscow on May 21, 1607. He besieged Tula, but the insurgents managed to hold out until October despite deprivations and hunger. Bolotnikov sent letters to no avail. Bolotnikov decided to negotiate his surrender; the tsar promised to pardon the insurgents in return for Tula. On October 10, the rebels surrendered to the authorities.
Shuisky, did not keep his promise. Instead, he transported all of the rebel leaders to Moscow on October 30, executed each of them in a different way. Ivan Bolotnikov was transported to Kargopol and drowned; this article includes content derived from the Russian Biographical Dictionary, 1896–1918