Zaleplon, sold under the brand names Sonata among others, is a sedative-hypnotic, used to treat insomnia. It is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic from the pyrazolopyrimidine class, it is manufactured by King Pharmaceuticals and Gedeon Richter Plc.. It has been discontinued in Canada but can be manufactured if a prescription is brought to a compounding pharmacy, it is prescribed in the United Kingdom, with zopiclone being the preferred Z-drug by the National Health Service. Zaleplon is effective in insomnia characterized by difficulty falling asleep. Due to its ultrashort elimination half-life, zaleplon may not be effective in reducing premature awakenings, it may result in an impaired ability to drive the next day, though it has proven promising when compared to other sedative/hypnotics and next-day residual sedation. It may have advantages over benzodiazepines with fewer adverse effects. Neither zaleplon, nor any nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic class medication should be combined with alcohol, as both modulate GABAA receptor sites, in a synergistic manner increase the chances of fatal respiratory depression and asphyxiation from vomiting.
Zaleplon is not recommended for chronic use in the elderly. The elderly are more sensitive to the adverse effects of zaleplon such as cognitive side effects. Zaleplon may increase the risk of injury among the elderly, it should not be used while in pregnancy or lactation, in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse, psychotic illness or depression, clinicians should devote more attention. When compared with benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines offer few significant advantages in efficacy and tolerability among elderly individuals. Long-term use of sedative/hypnotics for insomnia has traditionally been discouraged for reasons that include concerns about addiction and rebound insomnia, as well to the risk of side effects associated to GABAA agonists, such as cognitive impairment, anterograde amnesia, daytime sedation, musculoskeletal impairment, subsequently an increased risk of harm to oneself and to others. Though, quite as the body and brain age, these aforementioned phenomena are expected events, as they occur daily regardless of ingestion of a sedative/hypnotic.
Thus, statistically significant and empirical evidence are arguably still absent as dramatic precautions and conclusions are drawn irrespective of the debilitating realities that accompany insomnia and the fact that these medicines do indeed provide assistance to millions of elderly individuals. It is important to distinguish between the extrapolation of potential side effects relative to the vast number of examples, wherein the sedative/hypnotic has proven therapeutically beneficial and appropriate. In addition, some contend the efficacy and safety of long-term use of these agents remains to be enumerated, but nothing concrete suggests long-term use poses any direct harm to a person. Still, as of today neither benzodiazepines nor nonbenzodiazepines are recommended for the long-term treatment of insomnia; the adverse effects of zaleplon are similar to the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, although with less next-day sedation, in two studies zaleplon use was found not to cause an increase in traffic accidents, as compared to other hypnotics on the market.
Sleeping pills, including zaleplon, have been associated with an increased risk of death. Available data cannot provide a reliable estimate of the incidence of dependence during treatment at recommended doses of zaleplon. Other sedative/hypnotics have been associated with various signs and symptoms of a withdrawal syndrome, following abrupt discontinuation, ranging from mild dysphoria and insomnia to more serious cases that include abdominal and muscle cramps, sweating and convulsions. Following abrupt cessation, the seizure threshold is further lowered, wherein coma and death are possible outcomes if untreated; some evidence suggests zaleplon is not as chemically reinforcing and exhibits far fewer rebound effects when compared with other nonbenzodiazepines, or Z-drugs. Cimetidine and thioridazine cause interactions with zaleplon. Cimetidine and grapefruit are known to increase blood plasma concentrations of benzodiazepines metabolized by the P450 CYP3A4 liver enzyme by extending the time by which the drug leaves the body extending the half-life and enhancing effects to toxic levels.
Thus, given the similarities between zaleplon and benzodiazepines in effect, not just chemical structure, it is reasonable to take precautions before one consumes cimetidine while taking zaleplon. Zaleplon is a high-affinity ligand of positive modulator sites of GABAA receptors, which enhances GABAergic inhibition of neurotransmission in the central nervous system; the ultrashort half-life gives zaleplon a unique advantage over other hypnotics because of its lack of next-day residual effects on driving and other performance-related skills. Unlike nonselective benzodiazepine drugs and zopiclone, which distort the sleep pattern, zaleplon appears to induce sleep without disrupting the natural sleep architecture. A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials which compared benzodiazepines against zaleplon or other Z-drugs such as zolpidem and eszopiclone has found few clear and consistent differences between zaleplon and the benzodiazepines in terms of sleep onset latency, total sleep duration, number of awakenings, quality of sleep, adverse events, rebound insomnia, daytime alertness.
Zaleplon has a pharmacological profile similar to benzodiazepines, characterized by an increase in slow wave deep sleep with rapid onset of hyp
Florence Chia-ying Yeh known as Ye Jiaying, by her married name Chia-ying Yeh Chao, is a Chinese-born Canadian poet and sinologist. She was a scholar of classical Chinese poetry, she taught for twenty years at the University of British Columbia, has been Professor Emerita since her retirement in 1989. She is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. After retiring from UBC, she has been teaching at Nankai University in Tianjin where she is the founding Director of the Institute of Chinese Classical Culture. Chia-ying Yeh was born in Beijing in 1924, her family was from the prominent Manchu clan of Yehe Nara of Tümed Mongol ethnicity. The famous Qing dynasty poet Nalan Xingde was from the same clan, her grandfather was a Qing official, her sinicized family shortened its surname to the Han Chinese Yeh after the fall of the Manchu Qing dynasty in 1911. Yeh began composing poetry at the age of ten, she was admitted to the Chinese department of Fu Jen Catholic University in 1941, where she studied under the well known scholar of poetry Gu Sui.
After graduating in 1945, she taught in the capital Nanjing, married Chao Chung-sun, a navy employee, in March 1948. By the end of the year, the Kuomintang government was losing the Chinese Civil War and busy retreating to Taiwan. Yeh moved with her husband to Taiwan, settled in Changhua, where Yeh found a teaching job at a secondary school, she gave birth to her first daughter Chao Yen-yen in August 1949. During the White Terror period of Taiwan, numerous intellectuals were suspected of being Communist sympathizers and imprisoned without trial. In December 1949, Yeh's husband Chao Chung-sun was arrested on suspicion of being a Communist spy. In June 1950, Yeh was herself jailed, together with the principal and six other teachers at her school, she brought her daughter to the prison. She was released soon afterwards. In the 1950s, Yeh taught classical Chinese poetry at National Taiwan University, Tamkang University, Fu Jen University in Taiwan. Writers Pai Hsien-yung, Chen Yingzhen, Xi Murong, Jiang Xun were some of her students.
She is honoured as "the teacher of masters."She moved to the United States in 1966, taught at Michigan State University and Harvard University. She settled in Vancouver, British Columbia, where she taught at the University of British Columbia from 1969 until retiring in 1989. After Canada established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, Yeh returned to China for the first time in 1974, visited her brother who still lived in their old home, she composed a long poem to commemorate the visit. Starting in 1979, Yeh returned to China every summer to teach at numerous universities, including Peking University, Beijing Normal University, Nankai University, Tianjin Normal University, Fudan University, Nanjing University, Nanjing Normal University, Xinjiang University, Lanzhou University, she paid for her own travel expenses and taught for free. She said that in mainland China there was a great desire to rediscover classical Chinese literature after the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution.
After Yeh retired from UBC in 1989, many Chinese universities invited her to teach in China full-time. She chose to teach at Nankai University in Tianjin, because her nephew was an alumnus and it was near her hometown Beijing. Nankai established the China Comparative Literature Institute in 1993, headed by Yeh, she returns to UBC every summer to research. In May 2014, Nankai University held the Chinese Poetry International Seminar to commemorate Chia-ying Yeh's 90th birthday. For the occasion, former Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao wrote a work of calligraphy of one of Yeh's poems. Yeh donated half of her pension fund from UBC to establish two scholarships at Nankai University. One is called the Yongyan Scholarship, which combines the given names of her elder daughter Chao Yen-yen and son-in-law Chung Yung-t'ing, who died together in a car accident in 1976; the other is called Tuo'an, in memory of her teacher Gu Sui. Chia-ying Yeh has published many scholarly works all in Chinese, her only major publication in English was Studies in Chinese Poetry, co-written with Harvard University scholar James Robert Hightower.
Her Jialing Poetry Manuscript, published in 2000 in Taipei, includes 540 poems she composed between 1939 and 1995. She has been called a modern the famous Song dynasty Chinese poet. In 1997, Hebei Education Publishing House published The Collected Works of Jialing in 10 volumes. In 2000, Guiguan Book Company of Taiwan published The Collected Works of Chia-ying Yeh in 24 volumes. Kang-i Sun Chang
Isra Hirsi is an American environmental activist. She co-founded and serves as the co-executive director of the U. S. Youth Climate Strike. Hirsi won a Brower Youth Award for her climate activism. Hirsi grew up in Minneapolis, Minnesota and is the daughter of the U. S. congresswoman Ahmed Abdisalan Hirsi. While in middle school, Hirsi was focused on the Black Lives Matter movement. At the age of 12, she was one of the participants protesting for justice for Jamar Clark at the Mall of America. Hirsi attends South High School in Minneapolis, she started her climate activism after joining her high school's environmental club in her freshman year. Hirsi has coordinated the organization of hundreds of student-led strikes across the United States on March 15 and May 3, 2019, she co-founded the U. S. Youth Climate Strike, the American arm of a global youth climate change movement, in January 2019, she acts as the co-executive director of this group. In 2019, she won a Brower Youth Award; that same year, Hirsi received the Voice of the Future Award.
In 2020, Hirsi was placed on BET's "Future 40" list, a list of “40 of the most inspiring and innovative vanguards who are redefining what it means to be unapologetically young, gifted & black”. Fernands, Maddy. "Adults won't take climate change seriously. So we, the youth, are forced to strike". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Hirsi, Isra. "The climate movement needs more people like me". Grist