Atarneus was an ancient Greek city in the region of Aeolis, Asia Minor. It lies on the mainland opposite the island of Lesbos, northeast of the town of Dikili in modern-day Turkey, Atarneus flowered in the 4th century BC, when it was the seat of government of Hermias of Atarneus, ruling over the area from Atarneus to Assos. The city was deserted by inhabitants in the 1st century AD, the city is known by many for its association with the life of Aristotle. After the death of his father, Aristotle was cared for and educated by Proxenus of Atarneus, at the Academy Aristotle made friends with Hermias, who was to become the ruler of Atarneus. Indeed, after the death of Plato, Aristotle went to stay with Hermias, foss, C. S. Mitchell, G. Reger, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies
Alabanda or Antiochia of the Chrysaorians was an ancient city of Caria, the site of which is near Doğanyurt, Çine, Aydın Province, Turkey. The city is located in the saddle between two heights, the area is noted for its dark marble and for gemstones that resembled garnets. Stephanus of Byzantium claims that there were two cities named Alabanda in Caria, but no ancient source corroborates this. According to legend, the city was founded by a Carian hero Alabandus, in the Carian language, the name is a combination of the words for horse ala and victory banda. On one occasion, Herodotus mentions Alabanda being located in Phrygia, instead of in Caria, amyntas II, son of the Persian official Bubares, is known to have been given the rule over the city by king Xerxes I. In the early Seleucid period, the city was part of the Chrysaorian League, the city was renamed Antiochia of the Chrysaorians in honor of Seleucid king Antiochus III who preserved the citys peace. It was captured by Philip V of Macedon in 201 BC, the name reverted to Alabanda after the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC.
The Romans occupied the city shortly thereafter, according to Cicero in Greece they worshiped a number of deified human beings, at Alabanda there was Alabandus. In 40 BC, the rebel Quintus Labienus at the head of a Parthian army took the city, after Labienuss garrison was slaughtered by the citys inhabitants, the Parthian army stripped the city of its treasures. Under the Roman Empire, the city became a conventus and Strabo reports on its reputation for high-living, the city minted its own coins down to the mid-third century. During the Byzantine Empire, the city was a created a bishopric, famous residents included the orators Menecles and Hierocles, who were brothers. The ruins of Alabanda are 8 km west of Çine and consist of the remains of a theatre and a number of other buildings, the names of some bishops of Alabanda are known because of their participation in church councils. The names of two bishops of the see are known, who was deposed for Monophysitism in 518, and Julian. No longer a residential diocese, Alabanda is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. J.
Ma, Antiochos III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor, ISBN 978-0-19-815219-4, p.175 Hazlitts Classical Gazetteer Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography at Perseus Project Briant, from Cyrus to Alexander, A History of the Persian Empire
Pontus is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. The extent of the region varied through the ages but generally extended from the borders of Colchis until well into Paphlagonia in the west, with varying amounts of hinterland. Pontus is sometimes considered as the home of the Amazons, with the name Amazon used not only for a city and these Greeks of Pontus are generally referred to as Pontic Greeks. Pontus remained outside the reach of the Bronze Age empires, of which the closest was Great Hatti, the region went further uncontrolled by Hattis eastern neighbours, Hurrian states like Azzi and Hayasa. In those days, the best any outsider could hope from this region was temporary alliance with a local strongman, the Hittites called the unorganised groups on their northeastern frontier the Kaška. As of 2004 little had been found of them archaeologically, in the wake of the Hittite empires collapse, the Assyrian court noted that the Kašku had overrun its territory in conjunction with a hitherto unknown group whom they labeled the Muški.
The Greeks, who spoke a related Indo-European tongue, followed them along the coast, the Greeks are the earliest long-term inhabitants of the region from whom written records survive. During the late 8th century BCE, Pontus further became a base for the Cimmerians, these were defeated by the Lydians, and became a distant memory after the campaigns of Alyattes II. Since there was so little literacy in northeastern Anatolia until the Persian and Hellenistic era, given that Kartvelian languages remain spoken to the east of Pontus, some are suspected to have been spoken in eastern Pontus during the Iron Age, the Tzans are usually associated with todays Laz. This fits in well with a date of 731 BC as reported by Eusebius of Caesarea for Sinope. The earliest known description of Pontus, however, is that of Scylax of Korianda. By the 6th century BC, Pontus had become officially a part of the Achaemenid Empire, when the Athenian commander Xenophon passed through Pontus around a century in 401-400 BC, in fact, he found no Persians in Pontus.
The peoples of this part of northern Asia Minor were incorporated into the third, iranian influence ran deep, illustrated most famously by the temple of the Persian deities Anaitis and Anadatos at Zela, founded by victorious Persian generals in the 6th century BCE. The Kingdom of Pontus extended generally to the east of the Halys River, Mithridates IIs son, called Mithridates, would proclaim himself Mithridates I Ktistes of Pontus. Iranica further states, and although there is one inscription attesting it, he seems to have adopted the title “king of kings. ”The very small number of Hellenistic Greek inscriptions that have been found anywhere in Pontus suggest that Greek culture did not substantially penetrate beyond the coastal cities. Thus, this Persian dynasty managed to survive and prosper in the Hellenistic world while the main Persian Empire had fallen and this kingdom reached its greatest height under Mithridates VI or Mithridates Eupator, commonly called the Great, who for many years carried on war with the Romans.
Under him, the realm of Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia but the seaboard from the Bithynian frontier to Colchis, part of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia. Despite ruling Lesser Armenia, King Mithridates VI was an ally of Armenian King Tigranes the Great, however, the Romans defeated both King Mithridates VI and his son-in-law, Armenian King Tigranes the Great, during the Mithridatic Wars, bringing Pontus under Roman rule
Aphrodisias was a small ancient Greek city in the historic Caria cultural region of western Anatolia, Turkey. It is located near the village of Geyre, about 100 km east/inland from the coast of the Aegean Sea. Aphrodisias was named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, who had here her unique cult image, according to the Suda, a Byzantine encyclopedic compilation, before the city became known as Aphrodisias it had three previous names, Lelégōn Pólis, Megálē Pólis, and Ninóē. Sometime before 640, in the Late Antiquity period when it was within the Byzantine Empire and blue grey Carian marble was extensively quarried from adjacent slopes in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, for building facades and sculptures. Marble sculptures and sculptors from Aphrodisias became famous in the Roman world, the site is in an earthquake zone and has suffered a great deal of damage at various times, especially in severe tremors of the 4th and 7th centuries. An added complication was that one of the 4th century earthquakes altered the water table, evidence can be seen of emergency plumbing installed to combat this problem.
Aphrodisias never fully recovered from the 7th century earthquake, and fell into disrepair, part of the town was covered by the modern village of Geyre, some of the cottages were removed in the 20th century to reveal the older city. A new Geyre has been built a distance away. In Byzantine times the city was renamed Stauropoli meaning “the city of the cross”, another bishop, Theopropios, is mentioned by an inscription. Bishops are known from the Notitia Episcopatuum of pseudo-Epiphanius, the town was home to the martyrs Diodorus and Rodopiano during the persecution of Diocletian. In the 7th century Stauropolis had twenty-eight suffragan bishops and twenty-six at the beginning of the 10th century, surviving acta record that between 1356 and 1368 it was without a metropolitan, but was under the administration of the metropolitan of Bizye. In 1369 metropolitan reappears as the recipient of the churches of Miletus and Antioch on the Maeander, isaias of Stauropolis attended the Council of Florence and fled to avoid signing the decree of union.
Stauropolis remains a Roman Catholic titular metropolitan see of the former Roman province of Caria, the Temple of Aphrodite was a focal point of the town, but the character of the building was altered when it became a Christian basilica. The Aphrodisian sculptors became renowned and benefited from a supply of marble close at hand. The school of sculpture was very productive, much of their work can be seen around the site, many full-length statues were discovered in the region of the agora, and trial and unfinished pieces pointing to a true school are in evidence. Sarcophagi were recovered in locations, most frequently decorated with designs consisting of garland. Pilasters have been showing what are described as peopled scrolls with figures of people, birds. A monumental gateway, or tetrapylon, leads from the main street of the town into a large forecourt in front of the Temple or Sanctuary of Aphrodite
Claros was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia. It contained a temple and oracle of Apollo, honored here as Apollo Clarius and it was located on the territory of Colophon, one of the twelve Ionic cities, twelve kilometers to the north. The coastal city Notion lay two kilometers to the south, the ruins of the sanctuary are now found north of the modern town Ahmetbeyli in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey. The Temple of Apollo at Claros was an important center of prophecy as in Delphi. The oldest information about this site goes back to the sixth and seventh centuries BC. through the Homeric Hymns. A sacred cave near the Temple of Apollo, which was an important place both in the Hellenistic and Roman eras, points to the existence of a Cybele cult in earlier periods here, games called the Claria were held at Claros every fifth year in honor of Apollo. It is unknown when the sanctuary was founded exactly and its origins are shrouded in mythology, archaeological excavations revealed structures dating back to the 10th century BC.
The high point for the fame of the sanctuary seems to have been the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, in the late Hellenistic period, a cargo ship carrying marble sank on its way to Claros off the southwest coast of modern-day Turkey. The ship was discovered in 1993, and has been under excavation since 2005, on this ship, an estimated fifty tons of marble columns were recovered that matched the description of the columns found at Claros, the temple of Apollo. Isotopic and meteorological data indicate Proconnesus as the source of the marble, the marble was being imported from Proconnesus Island to be used at the site, and was a special type of marble with distinctive blue and white bands known as Proconnesian Marble. The marble did not complete its 350 kilometer journey from Proconnesus Island to the Izmir Province of Turkey, the founding myth of Claros connects the city with the myth of the Epigoni who conquered Thebes. The two seers Teiresias and his daughter Manto became their captives along with other Thebans, the Epigoni sent them to Delphi to honor Apollo, but Teiresias died on the journey.
At Delphi, Manto was commanded by Apollo to sail to Ionia with the remaining Thebans to found a colony there, when they arrived at the site where Claros would be founded later, they were seized by armed Cretans under Rhacius, the Cretan settler of Caria. After learning from Manto who they were and why they had come, Rhacius married her and their heir was the seer Mopsus. Thus the origin of the oracle at Clarus was remembered by Greeks of the Classical period as Minoan-Mycenean in origin, archaeological investigations lend support to the myth. Intensely settled Mycenaean sites have been identified at Ephesus to the south, miletus had a historical Minoan settlement, discovered in 1995/96 by the German school. In Claros itself, deep trenches dug between the altar and the temple façade, revealed Protogeometric pottery of the 10th century BC. At Colophon, a Mycenaean-era tomb has been found, but the presence of Mycenaean pottery is uncertain, according to mythology the Greek seer Calchas, a participant in the Trojan War, died at Claros
In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, until the Tetrarchy, largest territorial and administrative unit of the empires territorial possessions outside of Italy. The word province in modern English has its origins in the used by the Romans. Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former praetors and this exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus personal property, following the tradition of earlier, Hellenistic kings. The territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought under various forms of treaty, the formal annexation of a territory created a province in the modern sense of an administrative unit geographically defined. Republican provinces were administered in one-year terms by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year, Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the First Punic War. The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicily in 241 BC, militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts.
The terms of provincial governors often had to be extended for multiple years,241 BC – Sicilia taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War. 237 BC – Corsica et Sardinia, these two islands were taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed soon after the Mercenary War, in 238 BC and 237 BC respectively. 197 BC – Hispania Citerior, along the east coast of the,197 BC - Hispania Ulterior, along the southern coast of the, part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. 147 BC – Macedonia, mainland Greece and it was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League. 146 BC – Africa, modern day Tunisia and western Libya, home territory of Carthage and it was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia. 67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae, Cyrenaica was bequeathed to Rome in 78 BC, however, it was not organised as a province. 58 BC – Cilicia et Cyprus, Cilicia was created as a province in the sense of area of command in 102 BC in a campaign against piracy.
The Romans controlled only a small area, in 74 BC Lycia and Pamphylia were added to the smal Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia came fully under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War - 73-63 BC, the province was reorganised by Pompey in 63 BC. Gallia Cisalpina was a province in the sense of an area of military command, during Romes expansion in Italy the Romans assigned some areas as provinces in the sense of areas of military command assigned to consuls or praetors due to risks of rebellions or invasions. This was applied to Liguria because there was a series of rebellions, Bruttium, in the early days of Roman presence in Gallia Cisalpina the issue was rebellion. Later the issue was risk of invasions by warlike peoples east of Italy, the city of Aquileia was founded to protect northern Italy form invasions
It is recorded that excellent wine was produced in the peninsula. Erythrae was notable for being the seat of the Erythraean Sibyl, the ruins of the city are found north of the town Ildırı in the Çeşme district of Izmir Province, Turkey. According to Pausanias, Erythrae was founded by Cretan settlers under the leadership of Erythrus the Red, son of Rhadamanthus, and at the time inhabited by Lycians, Carians. At a period came Knopos, son of Codrus, with an Ionian colony, the city did not lie exactly on the coast, but some little distance inland, and had a harbor on the coast named Cissus. In the 7th century BC as an Ionian city of Asia Minor, sometime during the 7th century Erythrae fought a war against the neighbouring island of Chios. The city gained fame as a producer of millstone during the period of tyrannical rule, Erythrae was never a large city, it sent only eight ships to the Battle of Lade. The Erythraeans were for a time subject to the supremacy of Athens. After the battle of Cnidus, they received Conon, the Erythraean Sibyl presided over the Apollonian oracle.
About 453 BC Erythrae, refusing to pay tribute, seceded from the Delian League, a garrison and a new government restored the union, but late in the Peloponnesian War it revolted again with Chios and Clazomenae. Later it was allied alternately with Athens and Persia, about the middle of the 4th century BC the city became friendly with Mausolus, in an inscription found on the site he is called a benefactor of Erythrae. About the same time the city signed a treaty with Hermias, Tyrant of Assus and Atarneus, at this time, Erythrae was renowned for its wine, goats and millstones, as well as its prophetic sibyls and Athenais. In the Roman period the city was plundered and its importance faded after the earthquakes of that region in the 1st century AD, the city experienced a revival of some sorts under the Roman Empire and into the Byzantine period. Bishops are attested from 431 to 1292, and an archon, from the mid-18th century until the early 20th century, Litri was a considerable place and port, extending from the ancient harbour to the acropolis.
It attracted smaller coasting steamers, and there was a trade with Chios. The archaeological site is situated within the settlement zone of the present-day Turkish village of Ildırı, the site was explored in depth in the 1960s by Professor Ekrem Akurgal, leading to precious discoveries, but has been left somewhat unattended since. The ruins include well-preserved Hellenistic walls with towers, of five are still visible. The acropolis has a theatre on its slope, and eastwards lie many remains of Byzantine buildings. List of traditional Greek place names This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Council of Chalcedon
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD451, at Chalcedon. The Council is numbered as the ecumenical council by the Great Church. A minority of Christians do not agree with the councils teachings and its most important achievement was to issue the Chalcedonian Definition. The Councils judgments and definitions regarding the divine marked a significant turning point in the Christological debates, Chalcedon was a city in Bithynia, on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, today the city it is part of the Republic of Turkey and is known as Kadıköy. The Council of Chalcedon issued the Chalcedonian Definition, which repudiated the notion of a nature in Christ. It insisted on the completeness of his two natures and manhood, the council issued 27 disciplinary canons governing church administration and authority. In a further decree, known as canon 28, the bishops declared that the See of Constantinople was, in honour, the teachings of the Council are accepted by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church, Old Catholics and various other Western Christian groups.
As such, it is recognized as infallible in its dogmatic definitions by the Catholic, most Protestants agree that the teachings regarding the Trinity and the Incarnation, as defined at Nicaea and Chalcedon, are orthodox doctrine to which they adhere. However, the Council is not accepted by the ancient Oriental Orthodox branch of the Church and this includes the Coptic, Eritrean, Malankara Syrian and Armenian Apostolic churches. They instead teach that The Lord Jesus Christ is God the Incarnate Word and he possesses the perfect Godhead and the perfect manhood. Nevertheless, the Oriental Orthodox churches refuse to accept the decrees of the Council regarding monophysitism, many Anglicans and most Protestants consider it to be the last authoritative ecumenical council. In 325, the first ecumenical council determined that Jesus Christ was God, consubstantial with the Father and this was reaffirmed at the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus. After the Council of Ephesus had condemned Nestorianism, there remained a conflict between Patriarchs John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria, Cyril claimed that John remained Nestorian in outlook, while John claimed that Cyril held to the Apollinarian heresy.
The two settled their differences under the mediation of the Bishop of Beroea, Acacius, on April 12,433, in the following year, Theodoret of Cyrrhus assented to this formula as well. He agreed to anathematize Nestorius as a heretic in 451, during the Council of Chalcedon and he claimed to be a faithful follower of Cyrils teaching, which was declared orthodox in the Union of 433. Cyril had taught that There is only one physis, since it is the Incarnation, Cyril had apparently understood the Greek word physis to mean approximately what the Latin word persona means, while most Greek theologians would have interpreted that word to mean natura. Thus, many understood Eutyches to be advocating Docetism, a sort of reversal of Arianism—where Arius had denied the divinity of Jesus. Cyrils orthodoxy was not called into question, since the Union of 433 had explicitly spoken of two physeis in this context, Leo I wrote that Eutyches error seemed to be more from a lack of skill on the matters than from malice