Anjirak is a village in Amanabad Rural District, in the Central District of Arak County, Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 303, in 86 families
Markazi Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The word markazi means central in Persian. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4. Markazi lies in western Iran, its capital is Arak. Its population is estimated at 1.41 million. The present borders of the province date to the 1977, when the province was split into the current Markazi and the Tehran Province, with portions being annexed by Esfahan, Semnan Province, Zanjan; the major cities of the province are: Saveh, Mahallat, Khomein, Tafresh, Ashtian and Farahan Markazi province was part of the Median Empire in the first millennium BC, which included all of the central and western parts of modern-day Iran. The region is considered to be one of the ancient settlements on the Iranian plateau. Numerous remaining ruins testify to the antiquity of this area. In the early centuries Islam, the name of the area was changed to Qahestan. By the early 10th century, Khorheh had become a famous city of Jibal province, followed by Tafresh and Khomein. In recent times, the expansion of the North-South railroad and the establishing of major industries helped boost development in the area.
Many figures in Iranian history trace their beginnings to this province. Namely: Mirza Abu'l-Qasem Qa'em-Maqam, Abbas Eqbal Ashtiani, Mirza Taqi Khan Amir Kabir, Mirza Bozorg Qa'em-Maqam, Mahmoud Hessabi, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Araki, many others. Arak University of Medical Sciences Arak University of Technology University of Arak Tafresh University Islamic Azad University of Khomein Islamic Azad University of Arak Islamic Azad University of Saveh Islamic Azad University of Farahan Islamic Azad University of Ashtian Islamic Azad University of Tafresh Farhangian University of Arak Energy University Markazi province consists of 12 counties and 18 districts Khondab County was added in 2007). Farahan County was added. Markazi Government General Foreign Commercial Centre of Markazi Province Cultural Heritage Organization of Markazi province Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries & Mines
Arak, is the capital of Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 526,182, in 160,761 families; this city nicknamed the Industrial Capital of Iran. A major industrial city, Arak hosts several industrial factories inside and within a few kilometers outside the city, including the factory of Machine Sazi Arak and the Iranian Aluminium Company; these factories produce nearly half of the needs of the country in steel and locomotive industries. As an industrial city in a developing country, Arak is subject to the issue of Air pollution; the term Arâk remains from a name given to the region since the medieval period. It derives from Arabic al-ʿIrāq, meaning "edge", itself derived from Akkadian Uruk. During the Seljuk era, a region comprising the whole territory of Media and the lower part of Mesopotamia was referred to as Iraq; the term Soltân Âbâd is a Persian compound word. Soltân, deriving from Arabic sulṭān, is a Near Eastern noble title given to a powerful governor. Modern Persian âbâd, meaning "settlement" or "abode", derives from Middle Persian āpāt.
However, according to linguist Sasha Lubotsky, the Persian term ābād might derive from Proto-Iranian *āpāta, rooting from Proto-Indo-European *peh₂-. Named Soltan Abad, the modern-day city of Arak was founded in 1808 by Yusef Khan-e Gorji, a pro-Iranian warlord of Georgian origin, given refuge by Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan following a territorial dispute with his cousins, who were supported by Russian empress Catherine the Great. Between 1795 and 1797, Yusef Khan-e Gorji, renamed Yusef Khan-e Sepahdar by the Qajar ruler, settled his army in the fertile but poorly-controlled territory that would become the modern-day Arak. Hostile tribes in the region had operated autonomously from the Qajar rule. With the Shah's approval, Yusef Khan diverted the main river to drive out the hostiles and build the war fortress of Soltan Abad to act as a buffer. According to early modern historians, Yusef Khan built the city with the aid of effluents; until 1892, the town fortress. The fortress of Soltan Abad had a thick wall surrounded by 7-meter-deep moats.
Eight towers were constructed around the town and the governmental building was established in its northern part. In 1891, shops and government buildings of Soltan Abad were repaired by the order of deputy governor Mirza Hasan. Large parts of the city were annexed as personal property to the pre-existing army commanders, were ultimately turned over to the state around 1918–1922. Beginning by the last quarter of the 19th century, the city achieved major developments in carpet industry, became Iran's most important center of carpet production for export markets, continuing up until at least 1940. Under the reign of Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, the city was renamed Arak. Modern factories for vegetable oil, sugar beet, wool industries were established within the city. Arak became an important station for the Trans-Iranian Railway, a major railway project directed by Reza Shah, completed in 1938. In 1972, two major state-owned enterprises were established in the city, including an aluminum smelter and a heavy engineering plant.
The aluminum smelter was built under the Regional Cooperation for Development project of the Central Treaty Organization, in cooperation with the company of Reynolds and Reynolds. The engineering plant was processed with equipment and technical advice from the Soviets, in return of gas sales to the Soviet Union; the city became a metropolis on April 6, 2013, after the merger with Karahrud and Senjan. Arak is surrounded by mountains in the south and east, its average altitude is about 1750m above sea level, it is located 260 km from the city of Tehran, is in the vicinity of the cities of Qom and Isfahan. Arak has a mediterranean continental climate that is, in general cold and dry; the weather of the city is hot and dry in summer and cool in autumn and snowy in winter, mild in spring. Its maximum temperature may raise up to 35 degrees Celsius in summer and fall to below -25 degrees Celsius in winter; the average rainfall is around 350mm and the annual relative humidity is 46%. Arak is served by the International Airport of Arak, located north of the city.
The airport was opened in 1938, is one of the oldest airports of Iran. The railway system of Arak was connected to the Iranian Railways in 1935. Destinations stretch directly from Bandar-e-Shapur in the southwestern Iran to Bandar-e-Torkman under the Caspian Sea. Buses provide the bulk of the local public transport in Arak. Arak is one of industrial cities of Iran, that in terms of diversity is the 1st, in terms of heavy industries is the 2nd and is one of four industrial hubs of Iran; this city because of the heavy industries, manufacturing 80% of Iran energy equipment, the largest Iranian Machinery company, the largest heavy equipment manufacturer in the Middle East, the largest locomotive and wagon manufacturer in the middle east, the largest Aluminum company in Iran, Iran's largest mineral company and the largest combine manufacturer in the middle east. Arak has chemical, energy, machinery, mining, textile and petrochemical Industries that some of those are between basic industries of Iran.
The following are a number of important industrial factories based in Arak. Machin
Hazaveh is a village in Amiriyeh Rural District, in the Central District of Arak County, Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,587, in 474 families
Senjan was a city in the Central District of Arak County, Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 10,592, in 2,897 families; the city was reorganized as part of Arak, becoming Arak Municipality district 5
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab