Norman Wells is the regional centre for the Sahtu Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The town is situated on the north side of the Mackenzie River and provides a view down the valley of the Franklin and Richardson mountains. According to the 2016 Census, the town has a 7 % increase from the last census. A total of 315 people identified as Indigenous, of these, 195 were First Nations, 80 were Métis, 15 were Inuit and 20 gave multiple Indigenous responses; the main languages in the town are North English. Of the population, 78.1% is 15 and older, with the median age being 32.8 less than the NWT averages of 79.3% and 34.0. In 2012 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 809 with an average yearly growth rate of -0.1 from 2001. Oil was first seen by Alexander MacKenzie during his exploration of the river in 1789 but it was not until 1911 that an oil bearing formation was discovered. Imperial Oil, a major employer in the town, was established in the area in 1937 with a refinery built in 1939.
During the Second World War, Norman Wells was deemed important as a source of oil for military operations in Alaska and Yukon. The Canol Road and Canol pipeline project was undertaken to enable the piping of oil to Whitehorse, with the flow starting in 1944. Although Norman Wells crude was light and flowed at temperatures as low as −62 °C, the line did not work well and was shut down shortly after the war ended; the road, which began at Canol Camp across the river, was abandoned. The Canol Heritage Trail is what remains of the road in the NWT; the Norman Wells Proven Area Agreement of 1944 is a partnership between Imperial Oil and the federal government that has lasted to this day. The completion of an oil pipeline from Norman Wells to Zama City in 1985 connected to the North American pipeline grid and resulted in increased activity; the Norman Wells Metis, a Métis group, signatory to the Sahtu Dene and Metis Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement, are negotiating self-government powers and signed a framework agreement towards a new treaty.
Norman Wells is accessible by navigating the Mackenzie River, in summer, or by driving over the winter ice road, December to March, that connects with Wrigley and Fort Simpson. The most common method of travel into Norman Wells is by air via the Norman Wells Airport and the town is connected with both Yellowknife and Inuvik. Scheduled flights are provided by Canadian North-Wright Airways. Beginning in June 2010, First Air offered a scheduled service into the community. In the summer floatplane access to the town is possible at the Norman Wells Water Aerodrome. During the summer months there are barge services, sealifts to the town by Northern Transportation Company Limited from Hay River and Cooper Barging Services from Fort Simpson. Other aviation companies that have a presence in the community include Canadian Helicopters and Discovery Air. Services include a three-member Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment and a community health centre with two nurses with dental visits two or three times a year.
There is a branch of the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and two grocery stores including the Northern and Rampart Rentals along with three hotels and two restaurants. Norman Wells has a liquor store and has the only one in the Sahtu Region. Phone service is provided by Northwestel with cable Internet access available. Mobile phone services are available through Bell Mobility or Northwestel's Latitude Wireless service, now owned by Bell. Former member of parliament for the Western Arctic, Ethel Blondin-Andrew, has a consulting service, Mountain Dene Ventures, in the town; the community is part of the Sahtu Divisional Education Council and they operate, through the Norman Wells District Education Authority, the "Mackenzie Mountain School". The school, which has an enrollment of 150, provides education from Junior Kindergarten to Grade 12. Aurora College has a presence in the community with a community learning a career centre. Norman Wells has a subarctic climate with summer lasting for about three months.
Although winter temperatures are below freezing, every month of the year has seen temperatures above 0 °C. Rainfall averages 171.7 mm and snowfall 161.5 cm. On average, there are 92.9 days, October to April, when the wind chill is below -30, which indicates that frostbite may occur within 10 – 30 minutes. There is an average of 35.9 days, November to April, when the wind chill is below -40, which indicates that frostbite may occur within 5 – 10 minutes. List of municipalities in the Northwest Territories NormanWells.com 1920 The Discovery of Oil NWT Historical Timeline, Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre
An aerodrome or airdrome is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither. Aerodromes include small general aviation airfields, large commercial airports, military airbases; the term airport may imply a certain stature. This means that all airports are aerodromes. Usage of the term "aerodrome" remains more common in the Ireland and Commonwealth nations. A water aerodrome is an area of open water used by seaplanes or amphibious aircraft for landing and taking off. According to the International Civil Aviation Organization an aerodrome is "A defined area on land or water intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival and surface movement of aircraft." The word aerodrome derives from Ancient Greek ἀήρ, δρόμος, road or course meaning air course. An ancient linguistic parallel is hippodrome, derived from ἵππος, δρόμος, course. A modern linguistic parallel is an arena for velocipedes. Αεροδρόμιο is the word for airport in Modern Greek.
In British military usage, the Royal Flying Corps in the First World War and the Royal Air Force in the First and Second World Wars used the term—it had the advantage that their French allies, on whose soil they were based and with whom they co-operated, used the cognate term aérodrome. In Canada and Australia, aerodrome is a legal term of art for any area of land or water used for aircraft operation, regardless of facilities. International Civil Aviation Organization documents use the term aerodrome, for example, in the Annex to the ICAO Convention about aerodromes, their physical characteristics, their operation. However, the terms airfield or airport superseded use of aerodrome after World War II, in colloquial language. In the early days of aviation, when there were no paved runways and all landing fields were grass, a typical airfield might permit takeoffs and landings in only a couple of directions, much like today's airports, whereas an aerodrome was distinguished, by virtue of its much greater size, by its ability to handle landings and take offs in any direction.
The ability to always take off and land directly into the wind, regardless of the wind's direction, was an important advantage in the earliest days of aviation when an airplane's performance in a crosswind takeoff or landing might be poor or dangerous. The development of differential braking in aircraft, improved aircraft performance, utilization of paved runways, the fact that a circular aerodrome required much more space than did the "L" or triangle shaped airfield made the early aerodromes obsolete; the city of the first aerodrome in the world is a French commune named Viry-Chatillon. The unimproved airfield remains a phenomenon in military aspects; the DHC-4 Caribou served in the U. S. military in Vietnam, landing on rough, unimproved airfields where the C-130 workhorse could not operate. Earlier, the Ju 52 and Fieseler Storch could do the same, one example of the latter taking off from the Führerbunker whilst surrounded by Russian troops. An airport is an aerodrome certificated for commercial flights.
An air base is an aerodrome with significant facilities to support crew. The term is reserved for military bases, but applies to civil seaplane bases. An airstrip is a small aerodrome that consists only of a runway with fueling equipment, they are in remote locations. Many airstrips were built on the hundreds of islands in the Pacific Ocean during World War II. A few airstrips grew to become full-fledged airbases as strategic or economic importance of a region increased over time. An Advanced Landing Ground was a temporary airstrip used by the Allies in the run-up to and during the invasion of Normandy, these were built both in Britain, on the continent. A water aerodrome is an area of open water used by seaplanes or amphibious aircraft for landing and taking off, it may have a terminal building on land and/or a place where the plane can come to shore and dock like a boat to load and unload. The Canadian Aeronautical Information Manual says "...for the most part, all of Canada can be an aerodrome", however there are "registered aerodromes" and "certified airports".
To become a registered aerodrome the operator must maintain certain standards and keep the Minister of Transport informed of any changes. To be certified as an airport the aerodrome, which supports commercial operations, must meet safety standards. Nav Canada, the private company responsible for air traffic control services in Canada, publishes the Canada Flight Supplement, a directory of all registered Canadian land aerodromes, as well as the Canada Water Aerodrome Supplement. Casement Aerodrome is the main military airport used by the Irish Air Corps; the term "aerodrome" is used for airports and airfields of lesser importance in Ireland, such as those at Abbeyshrule. Spaceport
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Hay River, Northwest Territories
Hay River, known as "the Hub of the North," is a town in the Northwest Territories, located on the south shore of Great Slave Lake, at the mouth of the Hay River. The town is separated into two sections, a new town 60°48′45″N 115°47′20″W and an old town 60°51′13″N 115°44′19″W with the Hay River/Merlyn Carter Airport between them; the town is in the South Slave Region, along with Fort Smith is one of the two regional centres. The area has been in use by First Nations, known as the Long Spear people, as far back as 7000 BC. According to the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories the first buildings were those of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1868 followed by a Roman Catholic Mission in 1869 and an Anglican Mission in 1894. However, according to the history of the area provided by the town, the first permanent settlement in the area of Hay River was established in what is now the Katl'odeeche First Nation or Hay River Reserve; this was sometime between 1892-93. This first settlement was established by Chief Chiatlo and a group of people by the building of log cabins and bringing dairy cows.
This was followed in 1893 by the Anglican Mission, at the request of Chief Chiatlo in 1893 with the Roman Catholic Mission and the Hudson's Bay Company arriving later. A school, health centre and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police followed, as part of the Canol Road project the United States Army Corps of Engineers built a runway on Vale Island. In 1948 the Government of Canada built a gravel road, now the Mackenzie Highway, from Grimshaw, Alberta to Hay River making it the first community in the NWT to be linked with southern Canada; the settlements role as terminus of all-season trucking, the establishment of a commercial fishing industry, started an economic boom. In 1949, the community organized its first community government, forming an Administrative District under the direction of the Government of Canada, run by a trustee board with two elected members, two appointed members, a chairman. In 1959, the Northern Transportation Company Limited located their main base in Hay River and over the years developed the facilities.
Today the base is the major staging point for the annual sealift along the Mackenzie River, via Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk and the communities of the Arctic Ocean, as far east as Taloyoak and west to Utqiagvik, Alaska. By 1964, as part of the Pine Point Mine development, the Mackenzie Northern Railway was constructed; the railway, through Canadian National Railway in Edmonton, makes Hay River the northernmost point in Canada, all of North America, connected to the continental railway system. The Alaska Railroad is orphaned from the network. In 1978, Hay River, along with the now-abandoned Pine Point, hosted the fifth Arctic Winter Games; the community has a full hospital, the H. H. Williams Memorial Hospital, a woman's shelter/transition house, a dental clinic and an ambulance service; the RCMP detachment has eight members and the South Mackenzie Correctional Centre is located here. There are two grocery stores in Hay River, including the Northern Store, branches of both the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and the Royal Bank of Canada and both TRU Hardware and Home Hardware.
There is a museum detailing the history of Hay River and the Hudson's Bay Company in Old Town. Airlines servicing Hay River include the locally based Buffalo Airways, who provide scheduled flights to Yellowknife as well as charter services and a courier service throughout the north. First Air provides scheduled services to Yellowknife with connections elsewhere. Northwestern Air offers scheduled service to Edmonton and Fort Smith. Other companies offering charter services in Hay River include Landa Air, Carter Air Services, Denendeh Helicopters and Remote Helicopters. Religious services include a Catholic church, an Anglican/Grace United church, a Baptist church, a Pentecostal church, a Community Fellowship within New Town. There is a Jehovah's Witness Kingdom Hall along the highway coming into town. On the Katl'odeeche First Nations Reserve there are a small Catholic church, a larger Pentecostal church. There is an Anglican church, destroyed in the 2008 Hay River ice breakup; the religious diversity in Hay River exceeds the outward appearance given by these services.
The town hosts four schools, three of which are administered by South Slave Divisional Education Council. The SSDEC is responsible for Harry Camsell K-3 School, Princess Alexandra Middle School, Diamond Jenness Secondary School, while École Boréale Francophone school is administered separately by the Commission scolaire francophone des Territoires du Nord-Ouest. Harry Camsell is a primary school and serves students from kindergarten to Grade 3. Princess Alexandra, named for and opened by Princess Alexandra in 1967, is a middle school and serves the Grade 4 to the Grade 7. École Boréale is a francophone school, opened in 2005 and works with students from PK4 to grade 12. Diamond Jenness, named for scientist and anthropologist Diamond Jenness and opened in 1973, is the high school and serves Grade 8 to Grade 12; the town supports a Community Learning Centre and a Career Centre. CKHR-FM 107.3 is a community radio station in Hay River, the only station in Hay River to maintain local studios. Other radio stations in Hay River are repeaters of stations based in Yellowknife.
The Hay River Community Service Society controls television broadcasting and it is paid for through property taxes, at a rate of $36 per household per year. Channels 2-5, 7, 8-13 rebroadcast Canadian and US channels in analog format from towers atop the Mackenzie Place highrise. Transmitter powers range from 9W to 2
Petitot is a river in northern Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. It is a tributary of the Liard River. Petitot River originates from Bistcho Lake in northwestern Alberta, flows westwards along the northern borders of Alberta and British Columbia, it passes in the Northwest Territories, where it discharges in the Liard River at the village of Fort Liard. From there, its waters are carried to the Arctic Ocean through the Mackenzie River; the river takes its name from Father Émile Petitot, one of the first European to reach the area in 1867–68. The name in the Dene language of the Slavey First Nations is mbehcholah, "The Black", it has a drainage area of 23,200 square kilometres. Thinahtea Lake Creek July Lake Creek Sahdoanah Creek Thetlaandoa Creek Tsea River Dilly Creek D'Easum Creek List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of British Columbia
Rainbow Lake, Alberta
Rainbow Lake is a town in northwest Alberta, Canada. It is located west of High Level in Mackenzie County; the town carries the name of the nearby lake, formed on the Hay River, so called due to its curved shape. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Rainbow Lake recorded a population of 795 living in 303 of its 475 total private dwellings, a change of −8.6% from its 2011 population of 870. With a land area of 10.76 km2, it had a population density of 73.9/km2 in 2016. The population of the Town of Rainbow Lake according to its 2015 municipal census is 938, a change of −13.3% from its 2007 municipal census population of 1,082. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Rainbow Lake had a population of 870 living in 305 of its 424 total dwellings, a change of -9.8% from its 2006 population of 965. With a land area of 11.04 km2, it had a population density of 78.8/km2 in 2011. The community is served by the Rainbow Lake Airport; the town is home to the Rainbow Lake School operated by the Fort Vermilion School Division, which offers curriculum for kindergarten through grade 12.
List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website