International Trade Union Confederation
The International Trade Union Confederation is the world's largest trade union federation. It was formed on 1 November 2006, out of the merger of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions and the World Confederation of Labour; the Founding Congress of the ITUC was held in Vienna and was preceded by the dissolution congresses of both the ICFTU and the WCL. The ITUC has three main regional organizations – the Asia-Pacific Regional Organization, the American Regional Organization, the African Regional Organization; the Trade Union Development Cooperation Network is an initiative of the ITUC whose main objective is to bring the trade union perspective into international development policy debates and improve the coordination and effectiveness of trade union development cooperation activities. The ITUC represents 207 million workers through its 331 affiliated organizations within 163 countries and territories. Sharan Burrow is the current General Secretary; the ITUC traces its origins back to the First International and in 2014 commemorated the 150th anniversary of the founding of the International Working Men's Association at its own world congress held in Berlin.
In 2014, the ITUC debuted the Global Rights Index, which ranks nations on 97 metrics pertaining to workers' rights, such as freedom from violent conditions and the right to strike and unionise. The founding congress of the ITUC was held from 1 to 3 November 2006 in Austria; the first day of the congress saw the formal creation of the ITUC followed by an address by Juan Somavia, the Director-General of the International Labour Organization. Day two included Pascal Lamy, the Director-General of the World Trade Organization responding to panel discussions on the impact of globalisation, including the topics "Cohesion and chaos - the global institutions" and "Global unions - global companies". Technical difficulties limited Lamy's satellite video link participation. Leadership and officers were elected on the final day of the congress. Guy Ryder, the former general secretary of the ICFTU, was elected to the same position in the new organisation. Sharan Burrow was elected president. A Governing Council was established, with 70 elected members, 8 additional seats reserved for youth and women’s representatives.
A Council of Global Unions was formed on the final day of the congress. It was established jointly with ten global union federations and the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD; the Council will enable us to mobilize global membership around political and strategic initiatives and actions in order to confront global forces that work against the interests of working people and families. The second congress of the ITUC was held from 21 to 25 June 2010 in Canada. On 25 June 2010, at the conclusion of the congress, Sharan Burrow was elected General Secretary, succeeding Guy Ryder. In anticipation of her election, Burrow had resigned from her position as President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions effective 1 July 2010. Speaking to the Congress after her election, Burrow paid tribute to her predecessor and emphasised the continuing role of organised labour in the world's emergence from the Global Financial Crisis, she made special mention of the significance of her election as the first female leader of the world's largest trade union: I am a warrior for woman and we still have work to ensure the inclusion of women in the work place and in our unions.
The struggles for women are multiple – too within their families for independence in the workplace for rights and equal opportunity, in their unions for access and representation and as union leaders. But the investment in and participation of women is not only a moral mandate it is an investment in democracy and a bulwark against fundamentalism and oppression. Organising woman is and must continue to be a priority for the ITUC; the Pan-European Regional Council, a European trade union organisation within the ITUC was formed 19 March 2007. It consists of a total membership of 87 million, it works with the European Trade Union Confederation, Bernadette Ségol is the general secretary of both organisations. The ITUC raises capital through charging dues to its member organisations. Global union federation List of federations of trade unions World Federation of Trade Unions General Confederation of Trade Unions Decent work Fabio Bertini, Gilliatt e la piovra. Il sindacalismo internazionale dalle origini ad oggi, Aracne Ed Mustill, The Global Labour Movement: An Introduction, a short guide to the global union federations, the ITUC, other international bodies Official website "Workers of the world unite in Vienna".
WikiLeaks. 9 November 2006. WikiLeaks cable: 06VIENNA3297. Retrieved 8 July 2015
Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder
Gwyneth Williams is the controller of BBC Radio 4. She attended St Hugh's College, Oxford. Williams joined the BBC World Service in 1976 as a trainee, having worked as researcher at the Overseas Development Institute. In the 1980s she became producer and duty editor of BBC Radio 4's The World Tonight, Deputy Editor, Special Current Affairs Programmes, responsible for broadcasting general elections and other major events. In 1994 as Editor and Social Programmes she launched current affairs programmes on BBC Radio Five Live and became Head of Radio Current Affairs and editor of the BBC Reith Lectures – responsible for the department that produced such programmes as File On 4, From Our Own Correspondent, Crossing Continents, 5 Live Report, Money Box and In Business. In 2007 she returned to the World Service as Director of English Networks and News, responsible for all of the service's English-language programming, until she was made redundant in 2010. Williams took over from former Radio 4 controller Mark Damazer in September 2010.
Her job includes responsibility for BBC Radio 4 Extra, which under her tenure has been rebranded from BBC Radio 7. Her salary was reported to be £175,000 - a 20% reduction on that of her predecessor; the BBC website states her salary to be £183,618. On 18 November 2011, she was interviewed by Roger Bolton on the Radio 4 programme Feedback about the changes she had made to Radio 4, it was pointed out on the programme that she had caused the biggest changes to Radio 4 for ten years. The changes for which she was responsible included extending the length of The World at One to 45 minutes, reducing the number of history programmes but increasing Radio 4's coverage of science. In January 2019 it was announced that Williams was due to leave the corporation after 43 years
A trade union called a labour union or labor union, is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers; the most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades, or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry; the agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.
Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them to their negotiations and functioning. Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, past workers, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries. Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association on wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment." Karl Marx described trade unions thus: "The value of labour-power constitutes the conscious and explicit foundation of the trade unions, whose importance for the working class can scarcely be overestimated.
The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level, traditionally maintained in the various branches of industry. That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value". A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."Yet historian R. A. Leeson, in United we Stand, said: Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies... the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all'labouring men and women' for a'different order of things'. Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Oddfellows, friendly societies, other fraternal organizations.
The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote: We hear, it has been said, of the combination of masters, though of those of workmen, but whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combination of servants and journeymen. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, although Smith argued that it should remain illegal to fix wages or prices by employees or employers. There were severe penalties for including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power resulting in a body of labour law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions.
The origins of trade unions can be traced back to 18th century Britain, where the rapid expansion of industrial society taking place drew women, rural workers and immigrants into the work force in large numbers and in new roles. They encountered a large hostility in their early existence from employers and government groups; this pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, would be an important arena for the development of trade unions. Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed, as the masters of the guilds employed workers who were not allowed to organize. Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England but their way of thinking was the one that endured dur
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ
Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. One of the fastest developing cities in southern Africa, Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about 1,279 metres; as of 2010, the city's population was about 1.7 million. Lusaka is the centre of both commerce and government in Zambia and connects to the country's four main highways heading north, south and west. English is the official language of the city, Nyanja and Bemba are common. Lusaka was the site of a village named after its Chief Lusaka, according to history, was located at Manda Hill, near where the Zambia's National Assembly building now stands. In the Nyanja language, Manda means graveyard; the area was expanded by European settlers in 1905 with the building of the railway. In 1935, due to its central location, its situation on the railway and at the crossroads of the Great North Road and Great East Road, it was chosen to replace Livingstone as the capital of the British colony of Northern Rhodesia.
After the federation of Northern and Southern Rhodesia in 1953, it was a centre of the independence movement amongst some of the educated elite that led to the creation of the Republic of Zambia. In 1964, Lusaka became the capital of the newly independent Zambia. In recent years, Lusaka has become a popular urban settlement for tourists alike, its central nature and fast growing infrastructure sector have increased donor confidence and as such Zambians are seeing signs of development in the form of job creation, etc. It is thought that with proper and effective economic reforms, Lusaka as well as Zambia as a whole will develop considerably. Lusaka is home to a diverse community of foreign nationals, many of whom work in the aid industry as well as diplomats, representatives of religious organisations and some business people; as the national capital, Lusaka is the seat of the legislative and judicial branches of government, epitomized by the presence of the National Assembly, the State House, the High Court.
The Parliament is situated at the Parliament complex. The city is the capital of Lusaka Province, the smallest and most populous of the country's nine provinces, forms an administrative district run by Lusaka City Council. In 2007, the mayor was Steven Chilatu, the deputy mayor was Mary Phiri. List of mayors: F. Payne 1954–55. H. K. Mitchell 1955–56 Ralph Rich 1956–57 H. F. Tunaley 1957–58 H. K. Mitchell 1958–60 Jack Fischer 1960–61 Richard Sampson 1962–63 S. H. Chilesh 1964–65 W. Banda 1965–69 Fleefort Chirwa 1969–71? Simon C. Mwewa up to 1982List of Governors Simon C. Mwewa 1982 to 1983 Donald C. Sadoki Michael Sata Rupiah Banda Bautius Kapulu Lt. Muyoba – up to 1991List of Mayors – Multi-party era John Chilambwe 1993–94 Fisho Mwale 1994–96 Gilbert R. Zimba Local Government Administrator – 1996–99 Patricia Nawa Patrick Kangwa John Kabungo Levy Mkandawire Stephen Mposha Christine Nakazwe Stephen Chilatu Robert Chikwelete Daniel Chisenga Mulenga Sata Wilson Chisala Kalumba – 2016 – May 2018 Miles Sampa – July 2018 – present Zambia's largest institution of learning, the University of Zambia, is based in Lusaka.
Other universities and colleges located in Lusaka include: University of Lusaka, Zambia Open University, Chainama Hills College, Evelyn Hone College, Zambia Centre for Accountancy Studies University, National Institute of Public Administration, Cavendish University, Lusaka Apex Medical University and DMI-St. Eugene University. Lusaka has some of the finest schools in Zambia, including the American International School of Lusaka, International School of Lusaka, Rhodes Park School, the Lusaka International Community School, the French International School, the Italian international School, the Lusaka Islamic Cultural and Educational Foundation, the Chinese International School, Baobab College. Rhodes Park School is not an international school, though there is a large presence of Angolans, Congolese, South Africans, Chinese; the children of the late President, Levy Mwanawasa as well as the children of Vice-President George Kunda, attend the Rhodes Park School. Other well known schools located in Lusaka include: Matero Boys' Secondary School, Roma Girls' Secondary School, Munali Boys' and Girls' Secondary Schools, Chudleigh House School, Kabulonga Boys' and Girls' Secondary Schools, Lake Road PTA School, David Kaunda Technical School, Ibex Hill School and St. Mary's Secondary School.
Most major world religions are represented in Lusaka with the outstanding majority belonging to Christianity, a large number belonging to Protestant churches. Attractions include Lusaka National Museum, the Political Museum, the Zintu Community Museum, the Freedom Statue, the Zambian National Assembly, the Agricultural Society Showgrounds, the Moore Pottery Factory, the Lusaka Playhouse theatre, two cinema, a cenotaph, a golf club, the Lusaka Central Sports Club, Kalimba Reptile Park, Monkey Pools and the zoo and botanical gardens of the Munda Wanga Environmental Park; the city is home to the University of Zambia. Along Great East Road are three of the largest shopping malls in Zambia: Arcades shopping mall, Eastpark shopping mall and Manda Hill shopping mall, revamped and is home to international stores such as Shoprite and Woolworths, a new movie theatre and many others; the city centre includes several blocks west of Cairo Road, around which lie the New City Market and Kamwala Market, a major shopping area, as well