Scouting and Guiding in the Republic of the Congo
The Scout and Guide movement in the Republic of the Congo is served by at least thirteen associations. Five of them form the Conseil du Scoutisme congolais: Association des Scouts et Guides du Congo, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Association des Eclaireurs kimbanguistes du Congo Eclaireurs pluralistes du Congo Eclaireurs salutistes du Congo Eclaireurs unionistes du Congo Among the independent organizations are: Eclaireurs communautaires du Congo Eclaireurs d'Afrique Eclaireurs du Congo Eclaireurs Louzolo Amour Eclaireurs neutres du Congo Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs libres du Congo-Brazzaville There is no national organization, yet recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Scouting was founded in French Equatorial Africa in 1941, but was banned during the long Marxist period. Guiding was introduced to the Republic of the Congo in 1927, became a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1957, again in 1996 after the renewal of the organization.
The Eclaireurs Neutres du Congo were founded by the Eclaireurs Neutres de France, a French non-aligned Scouting organization, in 2004. The Scout Motto is Sois Toujours Prêt in French, depending on the organization. Scouting and Guiding in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Website on Scouting in the Republic of the Congo Conseil du Scoutisme congolais Eclaireurs Louzolo Amour Eclaireurs salutistes du Congo Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs libres du Congo-Brazzaville
World Scout Jamboree
The World Scout Jamboree is a Scouting jamboree of the World Organization of the Scout Movement attended by several tens of thousands of Scouts from around the world, aged 14 to 17. The first World Scout Jamboree was organized by The Boy Scout Association in London. With exceptions for the war years, it has been organized every four years, in the more recent years by the World Organization of the Scout Movement, in different locations over the world; the 21st World Scout Jamboree in 2007 was held in Hylands Park, United Kingdom, celebrated the Centenary of Scouting. The 22nd World Scout Jamboree was at Rinkaby, Sweden from 27 July to 8 August 2011; the next World Scout Jamboree will be held in the United States at The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in West Virginia, from 22 July to 2 August 2019. In lexicography, "Jamboree" is considered an Americanism that traces back to 1860–65 and refers to a joyful, noisy gathering; the term is believed to shivaree, with "m" from jam. While World Scout Jamboree is the expression used by the World Organization of the Scout Movement, other organizations held events called "jamborees" for their members.
The Scouting program became an international success following its founding by Robert Baden-Powell in 1907. With its continuing growth, the founder of the movement saw a need for a gathering of representatives of Scouting from all around the world; the general aim was to foster a worldwide brotherhood, to help the young Scouts in the movement learn about other peoples and nations by direct interaction with them. The idea of organizing such periodical international gatherings was conveyed to Baden-Powell by the General Chief of the Scouts of Greece, Konstantinos Melas, during the 1918 international Scout meeting, in England. Captain Melas proposed the gatherings should repeat every four years, in the same way Olympic Games were held in Ancient Greece; the suggestion was accepted with enthusiasm by Baden-Powell, who named the gatherings "Jamborees". It was in 1920 that the first World Scout Jamboree was realized, held in the Olympia halls in Kensington, London. Symbolically, the Jamboree site bore the name of the birthplace of Olympia.
8,000 Scouts from 34 countries attended the event. Thereafter, a Jamboree has been held every four years. There are two exceptions to this: no Jamboree was held between 1937 and 1947 because of the Second World War, the 1979 Jamboree, to be held in Iran, was cancelled due to the political upheaval in the region at that time; the Jamboree has been held in different countries around the world. The first seven Jamborees were held in Europe; the eighth World Jamboree was held in North America where the tradition of moving the Jamboree among the continents began. As yet, Africa has not hosted a jamboree. To replace the cancelled event of 1979, the World Scout Committee determined that an alternative celebration, the World Jamboree Year should take place. Several regional camps took place, such as the 12th Australian/4th Asia-Pacific Jamboree, held in Perth, Western Australia, along with countless Join-in-Jamboree activities — designed to allow Scouts from around the world to participate in an activity that thousands of other Scouts around the world were participating in at the same time.
This Join-in programme was reproduced again as part of the Scouting 2007 Centenary celebrations. So far, the greatest attendance of all Jamborees was in 2011, where over 40,000 members from around the world descended upon Rinkaby in Sweden; this number represented the permanent contingent. They were joined by hundreds of thousands of visiting Scouts; the first Jamboree was more akin to an exhibition of Scouting, allowing visitors to see how things were done in other parts of the world. The Second Jamboree was conducted on a camp basis and each successive Jamboree has developed on this format where the programme is more activity oriented, with plenty of time for Scouts from different nations to interact and learn about each other in less formal ways than an exhibition would allow; the 2007 Jamboree coincided with the Scouting Centenary celebrations. Because of this, the honour of hosting the event was again bestowed upon the United Kingdom, as the birthplace of Scouting. Over 40,000 young people camped in August at Hylands Park in Essex.
Hundreds of thousands of day visitors attended events in the south-east of England as part of the Jamboree. The following Jamboree was held at Rinkaby in Sweden, opening on 27 July 2011, followed in 2015 by Japan, the Jamboree in 2019 will be at The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in West Virginia. Jamboree on the Air referred to as JOTA, is an international Scouting and Guiding activity held annually on the third full weekend in October; the event was first held in conjunction with the fiftieth anniversary of Scouting in 1957, was devised by radio amateur operator Leslie R. Mitchell who used the callsign G3BHK, it is now considered the largest event organized by the WOSM annually. Amateur radio operators from all over the world participate with over 500,000 Scouts and Guides to teach them about radio and to assist them to contact their fellow Scouts and Guides by means of amateur radio and since 2004, by the VOIP-based Echolink. Scouts and Guides are encouraged to send paper or electronic confirmations known as "QSL cards", or "eQSLs" when they are sent electronically.
This provides the Scouts and Guides with a means of learning about fellow Scouts and Guides from around the world. It is
Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique
The Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique, the national Scouting organization of Mozambique, was founded in 1994, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1999. The coeducational Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique has 31,108 members as of 2017, with most members located in the major cities; the National Chief Scout Leonardo Adamowicz is from Poland, hence the Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique uniform is similar to the Polish uniform, adopted to climate differences. The similarities between the Mozambican Scout emblem and the Polish Scout lilijka may be noted, as well; the "D H P" in the emblem stands for God Honor Country. Mozambique hosted the 5th African Jamboree in 2006, was expected to host the cancelled World Scout Moot in 2008; the association is a member of the Comunidade do Escutismo Lusófono. The association is divided in four sections corresponding to age: Lobitos - ages 7 to 11 Exploradores juniores - ages 12 to 15 Exploradores séniores (Senior Explorers, i.e. Explorer Scouts — ages 16 to 18 Caminheiros - ages 19 to 21 Scout MottoThe Scout Motto is Sempre Pronto, Be Prepared, in Portuguese.
Scout PromiseTenho toda. Scout LawEscuteiro é verdadeiro e sua Palavra é sagrada. O Escuta é leal. O Escuta é prestavel. O Escuta é amigo de todos. O Escuta é cortes. O Escuta protege as plantas e os animais. O Escuta é obediente. O Escuta é alegre. O Escuta é sóbrio, económico e respeitador do bem alheio. O Escuta é nas palavras e nas acções. Mozambique Guides Official website
The Scout Motto of the Scout movement, in various languages, has been used by millions of Scouts around the world since 1907. Most of the member organizations of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts share this same motto. In English, this motto is most Be Prepared. In the third part of Scouting for Boys Robert Baden-Powell explains the meaning of the phrase: The Scout Motto is: BE PREPARED which means you are always in a state of readiness in mind and body to do your DUTY. Be Prepared in Mind by having disciplined yourself to be obedient to every order, by having thought out beforehand any accident or situation that might occur, so that you know the right thing to do at the right moment, are willing to do it. Be Prepared in Body by making yourself strong and active and able to do the right thing at the right moment, do it. "To do the right thing at the right moment" can be extreme: "Where a man has gone so far as to attempt suicide, a Scout should know what to do with him." "BE PREPARED to die for your country if need be, so that when the moment arrives you may charge home with confidence, not caring whether you are going to be killed or not"The first handbook for Girl Guides, How Girls Can Help to Build Up the Empire by Agnes and Robert Baden-Powell explains: The motto of the Girl Guides is "Be Prepared".
Why is this? It is because, like the other Guides, you have to be prepared at any moment to face difficulties and dangers by knowing what to do and how to do it. Hilary Saint George Saunders' book The Left Handshake: The Boy Scout Movement during the War, 1939–1945 had the first name of each chapter spell out the Scout motto; the chosen names are: Bravery, Purpose, Endurance, Assurance, Reformation and Devotion. Note-many languages have masculine and feminine forms of words – where gender changes the Scout Motto, differences are reflected here; the motto of the Young Pioneers, Always Prepared in various national languages, the Pioneers having been created as an alternative in countries where Scouting was banned The motto of the United States Coast Guard, Semper Paratus or ready
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, not all of which are related. Most of the 60 species of eagle are from Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, 3 in Australia. Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with heavy beaks; the smallest eagles, such as the booted eagle, comparable in size to a common buzzard or red-tailed hawk, have longer and more evenly broad wings, more direct, faster flight – despite the reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures; the smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle, at 40 cm. The largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have large, hooked beaks for ripping flesh from their prey, muscular legs, powerful talons; the beak is heavier than that of most other birds of prey. Eagles' eyes are powerful.
It is estimated that the martial eagle, whose eye is more than twice as long as a human eye, has a visual acuity 3.0 to 3.6 times that of humans. This acuity enables eagles to spot potential prey from a long distance; this keen eyesight is attributed to their large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction of the incoming light. The female of all known species of eagles is larger than the male. Eagles build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick kills its younger sibling once it has hatched; the dominant chick tends to be a female. The parents take no action to stop the killing. Due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world; the type of prey varies by genus. The Haliaeetus and Ichthyophaga eagles prefer to capture fish, though the species in the former capture various animals other water birds, are powerful kleptoparasites of other birds.
The snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are the top birds of prey in open habitats, taking any medium-sized vertebrate they can catch. Where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine black-chested buzzard-eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich genus Spizaetus, live predominantly in woodlands and forest; these eagles target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments. Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based their environment and prey at any given time. Most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it, so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart.
The bald eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird, since one eagle flew with a 6.8 kg mule deer fawn. However, a few eagles may target prey heavier than themselves. Golden and crowned eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg and a martial eagle killed a 37 kg duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the preying eagle. Authors on birds David Allen Sibley, Pete Dunne, Clay Sutton described the behavioral difference between hunting eagles and other birds of prey thus: They have at least one singular characteristic, it has been observed. All hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles. Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are markedly larger, it is debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in body mass, or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species.
For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the large harpy eagle, have short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in quick, short bursts through densely forested habitats. Eagles in the genus Aquila, though found strictly in open country, are superlative soarers, have long wings for their size; these lists of the top five eagles are based on weight and wingspan, respectively. Unless otherwise noted by reference, the figures listed are the median reported for each measurement in the guide Raptors of the World in which only measurements that could be verified by the authors were listed. Australasian Australia: wedge-tailed eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, little eagle. New Guinea: Papuan eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, pygmy eagle. Nearctic: golden eagle, bald eagle. Neotropical: Spizaetus, solitary eagles, harpy eagle, crested eagle, black-chested buzzard-eagle
The Gambia Scout Association
The Gambia Scout Association, the national scouting organization of the Gambia, was founded in 1921, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1984. The coeducational Gambia Scout Association has 18,448 members as of 2008. Special activities include community service projects such as tree planting. Scouts participate in camping and hiking. Music is a important part of Scouting in the Gambia, but because there is little money for instruments and sheet music, there is a waiting list to get into the Scout band, they learn all their music by ear. Alhaji Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof served the movement from 1938 to 2005. In 2007, David Hafner replaced Alieu Mamar Njie as chief commissioner. In September 2015, six executives of the association were arrested for conspiracy to commit a felony, obtaining money by false pretence and stealing a motor vehicle; the Gambia Girl Guides Association