The capital city is Lusaka, in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the century, Zambia became the British protectorate of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century. For most of the period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company. On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom, Kaundas socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in diplomacy, cooperating closely with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia, Angola. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the legal political party under the motto One Zambia. Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth, after Mwanawasas death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata. Sata died on 28 October 2014, the second Zambian president to die in office, Guy Scott served briefly as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the worlds fastest economically reformed countries, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911 and it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river, the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures, in particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago. The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by pre-historic man. The early history of tribes of modern-day Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by successive generations through word of mouth, in the 12th century, major waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the big sea, by the late 12th century, more advanced kingdoms and empires had been established in most regions of modern-day Zambia
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues, promotion and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between two divisions based on their performance for the completed season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings. This process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, the number of teams exchanged between the divisions is almost always identical. Such variations will almost inevitably cause an effect through the lower divisions. Even in the absence of such circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European football league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. The system is said to be the characteristic of the European form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions and they also maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian teams final games serve little purpose, although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated, some leagues offer parachute payments to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. If these are not satisfied, a team may be promoted in their place. While the primary purpose of the system is to maintain competitive balance. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have involved in match-fixing. This occurred most recently in 2006, when the initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B. An exception is the proposed UEFA Nations League, which will feature promotion and relegation across four levels, in tennis, the Davis Cup has promotion and relegation where each group uses a knockout tournament format in which first-round losers play off to avoid relegation. In the United States, Canada, and Australia, teams are not promoted or relegated. The USL set up two leagues, now known as the United Soccer League and the Premier Development League, although the system is now in place, it is not compulsory and is rarely used
MTN Group, formerly M-Cell, is a South Africa-based multinational mobile telecommunications company, operating in many African, European and Asian countries. Its head office is in Johannesburg, as of 30 June 2016, MTN recorded 232,6 million subscribers across its operations. Although MTN operates in over 20 countries, One-third of its revenues come from Nigeria, on 18 March 2010, it was announced that MTN signed a sponsorship deal with English football club Manchester United F. C. In March 2016, MTN Group, LTD appointed Rob Shuter as Chief Executive Officer, MTN acquired Investcom, mainly under the Areeba and Spacetel brands. As of Q22016, MTN is active in, MTNs competitors in South Africa includes Vodacom, Cell C, Virgin Mobile, in May 2008, it emerged that Bharti Airtel, an India-based telecommunications company, was exploring the possibility of buying MTN Group. The Financial Times reported that Bharti was considering offering US$19 billion for a 51% stake in MTN, talks fell through after a few days and Bharti Airtel pulled out of the proposed deal on 24 May. Two days later, it was reported that another Indian telecommunications company, if realised, the estimated worth of the combined entity would have been $70 billion, with 116 million subscribers worldwide. On 18 July, the two announced that they had mutually decided to end discussions regarding the merger. In June 2008, MTN Group agreed to purchase Verizon Business South Africa, the acquisition was completed on 28 February 2009. MTN positioned themselves to provide DSL Broadband services in Africa, particularly South Africa, through its partnership with leading South African ISP, Afrihost. On 26 June 2009, MTN Group participated in Belgacom International Carrier Services, BICS will function as official international gateway for all international carrier services of Belgacom, Swisscom and MTN Group. These companies respectively hold 57. 6%,22. 4% and 20. 0% of the shares of the company, South African holding company Shanduka Group acquired a minority stake in MTN Groups Nigeria business for $335 million in November 2012. On 22 October 2015, MTN emerged as the Most Admired, MTN has won a number of brand awards in recent years. MTN has been criticised for its activities in Irans telecommunications sector, MTN has a 49 percent stake in government-controlled MTN Irancell, the second-largest mobile phone operator in Iran, and 21 percent of MTNs subscriber base is from the country. In January 2012, the US-based advocacy group United Against Nuclear Iran launched a campaign calling for MTN to scale back its operations in Iran. UANI alleges that MTN technology is enabling the Iranian government to locate, oracle, which owns Sun Microsystems, said that it was investigating and denied involvement, saying that it complies with US export laws. MTN Group denied the allegations, saying that it complied with US sanctions against Iran. Turkeys Turkcell filed a $4.2 billion lawsuit in Washington, the court delayed the case in October 2012 pending a US Supreme Court decision on the Alien Tort Statute, the US human rights law on which Turkcells suit is based
Kabwe Warriors F.C.
Kabwe Warriors is a Zambian football club based in Kabwe that plays in the MTN/FAZ super Division. In the 2013/14 season, Kabwe Warriors was relegated to division 1 and they play their home games at Godfrey Ucar Chitalu 107 Stadium in Kabwe. The club is sponsored by Zambia Railways, Zambian football great Godfrey Chitalu played for the club between 1971 and 1982. In 1972 he scored 107 goals in all competitions for club and country, more than Lionel Messis officially recognized record set in 2012
Lusaka Dynamos F.C.
Lusaka Dynamos Football Club is a Zambian football club based in Lusaka. They play in the top division in Zambian football. It is renowned for its ability to nurture upcoming footballers into full-fledged players, the club is owned by Hanif Adams, a businessman and experienced administrator. At the moment, Hanif is seeking election for President of the Football Association of Zambia, all home games are played at Queensmead Stadium in Lusaka. The Club was formed in 1979 by Hanif Adams who was a popular DJ around Lusaka nightclubs. He was also a part time player at the club and it evolved into one that focused on giving youths from different communities an opportunity to expose themselves. Lusaka Dynamos has sold players to Germany, Isreal, South Africa to name a few destinations, Lusaka Dynamos has also in the past given opportunity to footballers who arrived as refugees in Zambia to revive their careers at the club with a number coming from Rwanda and Liberia. The club a few years ago decided to change its strategy in a bid to compete for honors, the club has signed several star players from across Africa this year as well as identifying potential stars of the Zambian game. The club has been in preseason in Livingstone over the last three weeks, Zambian Challenge Cup,12008 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, sashi Chalwe Philimon Chipeta Dudley Fichite Kalililo Kakonje Lloyd Mumba Kennedy Mweene Lameck Njovu
Confederation of African Football
The Confederation of African Football is the administrative and controlling body for African association football. CAF represents the football associations of Africa, runs continental, national, and club competitions. CAF is the biggest of six continental confederations of FIFA, CAF has been given 5 slots out of the 32 available since the 1998 FIFA World Cup in France, this increased to 6 in 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, to include the hosts. The number of places returned to 5 for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and its first headquarters was situated in Khartoum, Sudan for some months until a fire outbreak in the offices of the Sudanese Football Association when the organization moved near Cairo. Youssef Mohammad was the first General Secretary and Abdel Aziz Abdallah Salem the president, the administrative center since 2002 is located in 6th of October City, near Cairo. It was initially made up of 4 national associations, currently there are 56 associations,55 full members since the inclusion of Zanzibar in March 2017 and Réunion Island as associate. The current CAF President is Ahmad Ahmad, suketu Patel is the 1st Vice-President, Almamy Kabele Camara is the 2nd Vice-President while Essam El Dine Ahmed is the Acting Secretary General. Hayatou announced that he would seek another term as president for the 16 March 2017 election. On March 16,2017, Ahmad Ahmad from Madagascar was elected president, in July 2016, Total has secured an eight-year sponsorship package from the Confederation of African Football to support 10 of its principal competitions. Total started with the Africa Cup of Nations that was held in Gabon therefore renaming it Total Africa cup of Nations. Reunion holds associate membership of CAF, Zanzibar held associate membership from 1980 to 2017 when it became a full member - albeit without voting rights for CAF presidency elections, the main competition for mens national teams is the Africa Cup of Nations, started in 1957. In 2009, CAF will be organising another competition for national teams. CAF also runs national competitions at Under-20 and Under-17 levels, a third competition, the CAF Cup, started in 1992 and was absorbed into the CAF Confederation Cup in 2004. The CAF Super Cup, which pits the winners of the Champions League against the winners of the CAF Confederation Cup, the Afro-Asian Club Championship was jointly organised with AFC between the winners of the CAF Champions League and the winners of the AFC Champions League. The last Afro-Asian Club Championship took place in 1998, * jointly organised with AFC Legend For each tournament, the number of teams in each finals tournament are shown. Teams are sorted by number of appearances, Legend Legend The following clubs are the top 10 clubs in CAF competitions