The Chaplin's barbet or Zambian barbet is a bird species in the family Lybiidae, until united with the other barbets in the Capitonidae. This bird was named in honor of a former colonial governor; the species was renamed to emphasize its status as Zambia's only true endemic bird species. It is endemic to South Central Zambia and is restricted to the area between the Upper Kafue River to Kabanga in the Kalomo District, its natural habitats are arable land. It is threatened by habitat loss, it was classified as a Near Threatened species by the IUCN. But new research has shown it to be rarer, it is uplisted to Vulnerable status in 2008. Chaplin's barbet is a small bird species, measuring up to 19 centimetres in length with a weight of 64–75 grams, it is a heavy bill with bristles. Its plumage is white with red around the eyes, its tail is black and the wings are black with yellow on the edges. These birds are found in open woodland areas where figs are abundant, where this species prefers to gather food and nest.
Chaplin's barbets occur in groups of two to six individuals and guard their territories aggressively. When calling to each other, these barbets snap their bills loudly and emit a chorus of buzzy, grating notes like an accelerating noisy cackle; this particular barbet's breeding season is from August to November. They nest in cavities in branches of the fig trees and lay between two and four eggs that they incubate for 13–15 days; the parents share the parental care responsibilities. These barbets can be parasitized by lesser honeyguides, which lay eggs in the barbets' nest and leave them for the barbets to raise as their own. Sometimes the honeyguides will destroy some of the barbet chicks offspring and replace them with the parasite offspring. BirdLife Species Factsheet
The livre was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed; the livre was the name of both units of account and coins. The livre was established by Charlemagne as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver, it was subdivided into each of 12 deniers. The word livre came from a Roman unit of weight; this system and the denier itself served as the model for many of Europe's currencies, including the British pound, Italian lira, Spanish dinero and the Portuguese dinheiro. This first livre is known as the livre carolingienne. Only deniers were minted, but debasement led to larger denominations being issued. Different mints in different regions used different weights for the denier, leading to several distinct livres of different values. "Livre" is a homonym of the French word for "book", the distinction being that the two have a different gender. The monetary unit is la/une livre, while "book" is masculine, le/un livre.
For much of the Middle Ages, different duchies of France were semi-autonomous if not independent from the weak Capetian kings, thus each minted their own currency. Charters would need to specify which region or mint was being used: "money of Paris" or "money of Troyes"; the first steps towards standardization came under the first strong Capetian monarch, Philip II Augustus. Philip II conquered much of the continental Angevin Empire from King John of England, including Normandy and Touraine; the currency minted at the city of Tours in Touraine was considered stable, Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois as the standard currency of his lands replacing the livre of Paris, the currencies of all French-speaking areas he controlled. This was a slow process lasting many decades and not completed within Philip II's lifetime; the result was that from 1200 onwards, following the beginning of King Philip II's campaigns against King John, the currency used within French speaking lands was in a state of flux, as the livre tournois was introduced into other areas.
Until the thirteenth century and onwards, only deniers were minted as coin money. Both livres and sous did not exist as coins but were used only for accounting purposes. Upon his return from the crusades in the 1250s, Louis IX instigated a royal monopoly on the minting of coinage in France and minted the first gold écu d'or and silver gros d'argent, whose weights were equivalent to the livre tournois and the denier. Between 1360 and 1641, coins worth 1 livre tournois were minted known as francs; this name persisted in common parlance for 1 livre tournois but was not used on coins or paper money. The official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549. However, in 1577, the livre tournois accounting unit was abolished and replaced by the écu, at that time the major French gold coin in actual circulation. In 1602, the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back. Louis XIII of France stopped minting the franc in 1641, replacing it with coins based on the silver écu and gold Louis d'or.
The écu and louis d'or fluctuated in value, with the écu varying between three and six livres tournois until 1726 when it was fixed at six livres. The louis was worth ten livres, fluctuated too, until its value was fixed at twenty-four livres in 1726. In 1667, the livre parisis was abolished. However, the sole remaining livre was still referred to as the livre tournois until its demise; the first French paper money was denominated in livres tournois. However, the notes did not hold their value relative to silver due to massive over–production; the Banque Royale crashed in 1720. In 1726, under Louis XV's minister Cardinal Fleury, a system of monetary stability was put in place. Eight ounces of gold was worth 9 sols; this led to a strict conversion rate between gold and silver and established the values of the coins in circulation in France at: the Louis d'or of 24 livres the double Louis d'or of 48 livres the demi-Louis d'or or half-Louis of 12 livres the écu of 6 livres or 120 sols, along with 1⁄2, 1⁄4 and 1⁄8 écu denominations valued at 60, 30 and 15 sols the sol denominated in 1 and 2 sol units valued at 1⁄20 livre per sol the denier denominated in 3 and 6 denier units valued at 1⁄4 and 1⁄2 sol respectively.
A coin of value 1 livre was not, minted. Yet in 1720 a special coin minted in pure silver was assigned an over-value of 1 livre. Additionally, France took Navarrese 20-sol coins minted in 1719 and 1720, re-struck them as 1⁄6 écu creating a coin worth 1 livre; these re-struck coins, however were assigned the value of 18 sols. A kind of paper money was reintroduced by the Caisse d'Escompte in 1776 as actions au porteur, denominated in livres; these were issued until 1793, alongside assignats from 1789. Assignats were backed by government-held land. Like the issues of the Banque Royale, their value plummeted; the last coins and notes of the livre currency system were issued in Year II of the Republic. In 1795, the franc was intro
The Manx pound is the currency of the Isle of Man, in parity with the pound sterling. The Manx pound is divided into 100 pence. Notes and coins, denominated in pounds and pence, are issued by the Isle of Man Government; the Isle of Man is in a one-sided de facto currency union with the United Kingdom: the Manx government has decided to make UK currency legal tender on the island, to back its own notes and coins with Bank of England notes. Manx government notes may, on demand, be exchanged at par for Bank of England notes of equivalent value at any office of the Isle of Man Bank. All notes and coins which are legal tender in any part of the United Kingdom are legal tender within the Isle of Man. Unlike Northern Irish and Scottish notes, the UK does not require the Isle of Man government to back the Manx notes and coins with Bank of England notes or securities. There is no restriction under UK law on the number of coins they may issue; the notes and coins are not underwritten by the UK government, there is no guarantee of convertibility beyond that given by the Manx authorities.
However, the requirement in the island's Currency Act 1992 for the Isle of Man Treasury to exchange Manx Pound banknotes on demand for Bank of England notes in practice restricts the issue of unbacked currency, the aggregate total of notes issued must be pre-approved by Tynwald. ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Manx pound, but where code distinct from GBP is desired, IMP is used. UK notes and coins are accepted in the Isle of Man, but Manx notes and coins are not accepted in the UK. To assist those travelling, the ATMs at the Sea Terminal, at Isle of Man Airport issue Bank of England notes only. A number of businesses accept euros; the first Manx coinage was issued in 1668 by John Murrey, a Douglas merchant, consisting of pennies equal in value to their English counterparts. These "Murrey Pennies" were made legal tender in 1679, when the Court of Tynwald outlawed the unofficial private coinage, circulating prior to and alongside John Murrey's pennies. Due to the difficulty of maintaining the supply of coins on the island, in 1692, the value of the Manx coinage was decreased, with English crowns circulating at 5 shillings 4 pence, half-crowns at 2 shillings 8 pence and guineas at 22 shillings.
At that time, Tynwald forbade the removal of money from the island, in an attempt to maintain supply. In 1696, a further devaluation occurred, with all English silver and gold coins valued at 14 Manx pence for every shilling. Between 1696 and 1840, Manx copper coins circulated alongside first English, British silver and gold coins at the rate of 14 pence to 1 shilling; as in England, there were 20 shillings to the pound. Thus, after 1696, £100 sterling was worth £116 13s 4d Manx. In 1708, the Isle of Man Government approached the Royal Mint, requested that coinage be issued for the island; the Master of the Mint, Sir Isaac Newton, refused. As a result, the first Government issue of coins on the island was in 1709; this coinage was made legal tender on 24 June 1710. In 1733 Tynwald prohibited the circulation of any "base" coinage other than that issued by the Government; because of the similarity between Manx and British coins, it was profitable to change shillings to Manx coinage and pass it off as British currency in Great Britain, making a profit of £2 for every £12 in Manx coinage so transferred.
This happened on such a scale that by 1830 the island was totally deprived of copper coinage. In an attempt to resolve this problem, a proposal was introduced to abandon the separate Manx coinage in favour of British coins; this was rejected by the House of Keys in 1834, but they were overruled by the British Government in 1839. An Act was passed declaring that "... the currency of Great Britain shall be and become, is hereby declared to be, the currency of the Isle of Man", this remains Manx law to this day. This change was resented: some islanders felt defrauded, there was serious rioting in Douglas and Peel; these were known as the "Copper Row" riots, were put down by the Manx militia. The Royal Mint issued a total of £1,000 in copper coins. Following an Act in 1840, these were valued at 12 pence to the shilling. All coins issued before 1839 were declared by this law to be no longer current, were recalled by the Board of Customs and exchanged by the Royal Mint at their original nominal value for the new coinage.
After 1839, no further Manx coins were issued, they became scarce and were replaced in general circulation on the island by the coinage of the United Kingdom. They did not cease to be legal coinage on Mann until decimalisation in 1971. Banknotes had been issued for the island since 1865. In 1971 the United Kingdom moved with the pound subdivided into 100 pence; the Isle of Man Government, having issued its own banknotes for ten years, took the opportunity to approach the Royal Mint and request its own versions of the decimal coins, which were introduced in 1971. The "Murrey Pennies" of 1668 were the first to depict the'triskeles' symbol and the Island motto "Quocunque Gesseris Stabit", both of which have continued to feature on Manx coinage until the present day. In 1709, pennies and halfpennies were introduced. More of these coins were issued in 1733; these issues of coins have the crest of the Stanley family, Lords of Mann, on the obverse, together
A currency, in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use for people in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars, pounds sterling, Australian dollars, European euros, Russian rubles and Indian Rupees are examples of currency; these various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote and money; the latter definition, pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the currency's value.
Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions. Others are traded for their economic value. Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of the Internet. Money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and in Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities; this formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place, safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. A trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the northwest to Elam and Bahrain in the southeast.
It is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency. It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end, it was only the recovery of Phoenician trade in the 10th and 9th centuries BC that led to a return to prosperity, the appearance of real coinage first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ivory, various forms of weapons, the manilla currency, ochre and other earth oxides; the manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, in many places, various forms of barter still apply; these factors led to the metal itself being the store of value: first silver both silver and gold, at one point bronze.
Now we have other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined and stamped into coins; this was to assure the individual accepting the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but the existence of standard coins created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be tested for their fine weight of metal, thus the value of a coin could be determined if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with. Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins of different values, made of copper and gold. Gold coins were the most valuable and were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities. Units of account were defined as the value of a particular type of gold coin. Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, sometimes defined a unit of account, while coins of copper or silver, or some mixture of them, might be used for everyday transactions.
This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. The exact ratios between the values of the three metals varied between different eras and places. However, the rarity of gold made it more valuable than silver, silver was worth more than copper. In premodern China, the need for credit and for a medium of exchange, less physically cumbersome than large numbers of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, i.e. banknotes. Their introduction was a gradual process which lasted from the late Tang dynasty into the Song dynasty, it began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes by wholesalers' shops. These notes were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song dynasty government began to circulate these notes amongst the traders in its monopolized salt industry; the Song government granted several shops the right to issue banknotes, in the early 12th century the government took over these shops to produce state-issued currency.
Yet the banknotes issued w
Brixton is a district of South London, within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Brixton is residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector, it is a multiethnic community, with a large percentage of its population of Afro-Caribbean descent. It lies within Inner South London and is bordered by Stockwell, Streatham, Tulse Hill and Herne Hill; the district houses the main offices of the London Borough of Lambeth. Brixton is 2.7 miles south-southwest from the geographical centre of London near Brixton Underground station. The name Brixton is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, a Saxon lord. Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey; the location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, long before any settlement in the area.
Brixton marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham. At the time the River Effra flowed from its source in Upper Norwood through Herne Hill to Brixton. At Brixton the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road and Clapham Road; the main roads were connected through a network of medieval country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton Water Lane and Lyham Road Black Lane. It was only at the end of the 18th century that villages and settlements formed around Brixton, as the original woodland was reduced until the area was covered in farmland and market gardens known for game and strawberries; the area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, the main settlements being near Stockwell, Brixton Hill and Coldharbour Lane. With the opening of Vauxhall Bridge in 1816, improved access to Central London led to a process of suburban development; the largest single development, one of the last in suburban character, was Angell Town, laid out in the 1850s on the east side of Brixton Road, so named after a family that owned land in Lambeth from the late 17th century until well into the 20th.
One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill and surrounded by houses built during Brixton's Victorian expansion. When the London sewerage system was constructed during the mid-19th century, its designer Sir Joseph Bazalgette incorporated flows from the River Effra, which used to flow through Brixton, into his'high-level interceptor sewer' known as the Effra sewer. Brixton was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1890s. Railways linked Brixton with the centre of London when the Chatham Main Line was built through the area by the London and Dover Railway in the 1860s. In 1888, Electric Avenue was so named after it became the first street in London to be lit by electricity. In this time, large expensive houses were constructed along the main roads in Brixton, which were converted into flats and boarding houses at the start of the 20th century as the middle classes were replaced by an influx of the working classes. By 1925, Brixton attracted thousands of new people.
It housed the largest shopping centre in South London at the time, as well as a thriving market, pubs and a theatre. In the 1920s, Brixton was the shopping capital of South London with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britain's major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road is the main shopping area, fusing into Brixton Market. A prominent building on Brixton High Street is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1880s. On the western boundary of Brixton with Clapham stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco factory building. Designed by architect F. E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, this is one of the few art deco buildings, still owned by the firm that commissioned it and is still used for its original purpose; the Brixton area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by the building of council housing. In the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants from the West Indies and Ireland, settled in Brixton.
More recent immigrants include other European citizens. Brixton has an ageing population, which affects housing strategies in the area; the first wave of immigrants who formed the British African-Caribbean community arrived in 1948 at Tilbury Docks on the HMT Empire Windrush from Jamaica and were temporarily housed in the Clapham South deep shelter. The nearest Labour Exchange was on Coldharbour Lane and the new arrivals spread out into local accommodation. Many immigrants only intended to stay in Britain for a few years, but although a number returned to the Caribbean, the majority remained to settle permanently; the arrival of the passengers has become an important landmark in the history of modern Britain, the image of West Indians filing off its gangplank has come to symbolise the beginning of modern British multicultural society. In 1998 the area in front of the Tate Library in Brixton was renamed "Windrush Square" to mark the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the Windrush. Brixton was the scene of riots in April 1981 at a time when Brixton underwent deep social and economic problems—high unemployment, high crime, poor housing, no amenities—in a predominantly African-Caribbean community.
The Metropolitan Police began Operation Swamp 81 at the beginning of April, aimed at reducing street crime through the repeated u
The Lebanese pound is the currency of Lebanon. It used to be divided into 100 piastres but high inflation in the Lebanese Civil War has eliminated the subdivisions; the plural form of lira, as used on the currency, is either lirat or the same, whilst there were four forms for qirsh: the dual qirshan, the plural qirush used with numbers 3–10, the accusative singular qirsha used with 11–99, or the genitive singular qirshi used with multiples of 100. In both cases, the number determines. Before the Second World War, the Arabic spelling of the subdivision was غرش. All of Lebanon's coins and banknotes are bilingual in French. Before World War I, the Ottoman lira was used. In 1918, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the currency became the Egyptian pound. Upon gaining control of Syria and Lebanon, the French replaced the Egyptian pound with a new currency for Syria and Lebanon, the Syrian pound, linked to the French franc at a value of 1 pound = 20 francs. Lebanon issued its own coins from 1924 and banknotes from 1925.
In 1939, the Lebanese currency was separated from that of Syria, though it was still linked to the French franc and remained interchangeable with Syrian money. In 1941, following France's defeat by Nazi Germany, the currency was linked instead to the British pound sterling at a rate of 8.83 Lebanese pounds = 1 pound sterling. A link to the French franc was restored after the war but was abandoned in 1949. Before the Lebanese Civil War, 1 U. S. dollar was worth 3 pounds. During the civil war the value decreased until 1992, when one dollar was worth over 2500 pounds. Subsequently the value increased again, since December 1997 the rate of the pound has been fixed at 1507.5 pounds per US$. Lebanon's first coins were issued in 1924 in denominations of 2 and 5 girush with the French denominations given in "piastres syriennes". Issues did not include the word "syriennes" and were in denominations of 1⁄2, 1, 2, 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 girsha. During World War II, rather crude 1⁄2, 1 and 2 1⁄2 girsh coins were issued.
After the war, the Arabic spelling was changed from girsh to qirsh. Coins were issued in the period 1952 to 1986 in denominations of 1, 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 qirsh and 1 lira. No coins were issued between 1994, when the current series of coins was introduced. Coins in current use are: Lebanon's first banknotes were issued by the Banque du Syrie et Grand-Liban in 1925. Denominations ran from 25 girsha through to 100 pounds. In 1939, the bank's name was changed to the Bank of Lebanon; the first 250-pound notes appeared that year. Between 1942 and 1950, the government issued "small change" paper money in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 girsh or qirsh. After 1945, the Bank of Syria and Lebanon continued to issue paper money for Lebanon but the notes were denominated in "Lebanese pounds" to distinguish them from Syrian notes. Notes for 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 pounds were issued; the Banque du Liban was established by the Code of Money and Credit on 1 April 1964. On 1 August 1963 decree No. 13.513 of the “Law of References: Banque Du Liban 23 Money and Credit” granted the Bank of Lebanon the sole right to issue notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 pounds, expressed in Arabic on the front, French on the back.
Higher denominations were issued in the 1980s and 1990s as inflation drastically reduced the currency's value. Banknotes in the current use are: All current notes feature an Arabic side with the value in Arabic script numerals of large size; the other side is in French with the serial number in both Arabic and Latin script and in bar code below the latter one. Economy of Lebanon Banque du Liban Historical and current banknotes of Lebanon
The pound is the currency of Jersey. Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland, it can be exchanged at par with notes. For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Jersey pound, but where a distinct code is desired JEP is used. Both Jersey and Bank of England notes are legal tender in Jersey and circulate together, alongside the Guernsey pound and Scottish banknotes; the Jersey notes are not legal tender in the United Kingdom but are legal currency, so creditors and traders may accept them if they so choose. The livre was the currency of Jersey until 1834, it consisted of French coins which, in the early 19th century, were exchangeable for sterling at a rate of 26 livres = 1 pound. After the livre was replaced by the franc in France in 1795, the supply of coins in Jersey dwindled leading to difficulties in trade and payment.
In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling. Because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous; this system continued until 1877. Along with the rest of the British Isles, Jersey decimalised in 1971 and began issuing a full series of circulating coins from 1⁄2p to 50p. £1 and £2 denominations followed later. As of December 2005, there was £64.7m of Jersey currency in circulation. A profit of £2.8m earned on the issue of Jersey currency was received by the Treasurer of the States in 2005. £1 coins have a different design each year. Each new coin featured one of the coats of arms of the 12 parishes of Jersey; these were followed by a series of coins featuring sailing ships built in the island.
The motto round the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is: Caesarea Insula. Jersey £1 coins ceased to be legal tender in Jersey on 15 October 2017 to coincide with the withdrawal of the circular £1 coin in the UK; the UK's new 12-sided £1 coin is the only £1 coin, legal tender in the Island. In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender to replace the Jersey livre, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling; because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous. In 1841, copper 1⁄52, 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling coins were introduced, followed by bronze 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling in 1866. In 1877 a penny of 1⁄12 of a shilling was introduced, the system changed to 12 pence to the shilling. Bronze 1⁄48, 1⁄24 and 1⁄12 shilling were introduced.
This was the only issue of the 1⁄48 shilling denomination. Between 1949 and 1952 the end of the German occupation of the Channel Islands was marked by one million commemorative Liberation pennies that were struck for Jersey. In 1957, a nickel-brass 3 pence coin was introduced carrying the denomination "one fourth of a shilling"; the 1957 and 1960 issues were round, with a dodecagonal version introduced in 1964. In 1968, 5 and 10 pence coins were introduced, followed by 50 pence in 1969 and 1⁄2p, 1p and 2 pence in 1971 when decimalisation took place. All had the same size as the corresponding British coins; the reverse of the first issue of decimal coinage bore the coat of arms of Jersey as had previous coins. The ½ penny coin was last minted in 1981. A square £1 coin was issued in circulation in 1981 to mark the bicentenary of the Battle of Jersey; the square pound could not be accepted by vending machines and was not issued after 1981 although it remains in circulation today. When the rest of the British Isles started to introduce a standardised pound coin in 1983, Jersey changed to a round coin to match.
The square version although rare is still used in the islands. Neither round nor square versions of the coin are as common in Jersey as the £1 note. 20 pence coins were introduced in 1982 and £2 coins in 1998. In 1797 Hugh Godfray and Company, a wine merchant, issued £ 1 notes. Due to the shortage of livre tournois coinage and companies issued a large number of low value notes until in 1813 the States laid down that notes had to have a minimum value of £1; until 1831, a large number of bodies and individuals in Jersey issued their own banknotes. The parishes of Jersey issued notes. Legislation in 1831 attempted to regulate such issues by requiring note issuers to be backed by two guarantors, but the parishes and the Vingtaine de la Ville were exempted from the regulatory provisions. Most of the notes were 1 pound denominations; these locally produced notes, which were issued to fund public works, ceased to be issued after the 1890s. During the German occupation in the Second World War, a shortage of coinage led to the passing of the Currency Notes Law on 29 April 1941.
A series of 2 shilling notes were issued. The law was amended on 29 November 1941 to provide for further issues of notes of various denominations, a series of banknotes desi