A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
D3: The Mighty Ducks
D3: The Mighty Ducks is a 1996 American sports comedy-drama film directed by Robert Lieberman. It is the third and final installment in The Mighty Ducks trilogy and was produced by Walt Disney Pictures and distributed by Buena Vista Pictures Distribution. After their victory at the Junior Goodwill Games in Los Angeles, the Ducks are awarded junior varsity hockey scholarships to Eden Hall Academy, the prestigious prep school that coach Gordon Bombay attended. Bombay announces he is leaving the team to take a job with the Junior Goodwill Games, much to the team’s dismay, his position is filled by former Minnesota North Stars player Ted Orion. The Ducks clash with Orion's controversial decisions, he starts Julie Gaffney in goal over Greg Goldberg after Julie's superior play in tryouts, directs the team to play defense over scoring, strips Charlie Conway of his Captain's'C', declaring the team’s past strategies ineffective. He is proven right in their first game when the Ducks, cocky at their initial dominance, lose a 9-goal lead and take an embarrassing tie.
Orion tells the Ducks they will have to learn "two-way hockey" and not choke when things are going their way. Charlie meets Linda, a student petitioning to change the school’s team name, the Warriors, as it perpetuates an offensive Native American stereotype. Though she writes him off as a mindless jock, the two soon hit it off; the team faces disdain from most Eden Hall students and parents the Varsity hockey team into which Adam Banks is recruited. The two teams engage in an escalating prank war, culminating in an unofficial match on the school ice rink where the Ducks are badly beaten; when Coach Orion forbids the old Ducks name and uniforms, declaring "The Ducks are dead", Charlie is fed up with Orion, whom he considers washed-up, leaves the team with Fulton Reed. Venting to Hans and Gordon's mentor, Charlie is further upset when Hans appears to take Orion's side. After skipping school at the Mall of America with Charlie, who proposes returning to public school before pursuing hockey careers, Fulton realizes he might not want to follow Charlie or play hockey for the rest of his life, suggests Charlie rejoin the Ducks.
Chagrined, Charlie learns. Bombay takes Charlie back to Eden Hall, he explains to Charlie that Orion was a great pro player who only left the sport to care for his daughter after a car accident. Bombay reveals his own circumstances that led to coaching the Ducks and changing his life for the better, that he told Orion that Charlie was the heart and soul of the team, hoping they both would learn something from each other. Touched, Charlie agrees to rejoin the team. At the team bus for the next game, Charlie apologizes to Orion who, surprised by his sincerity, welcomes him back. Fulton has rejoined, Adam leaves the Varsity team to return to the JV Ducks. Dean Buckley, the school's headmaster, informs the team that its board of trustees is going to vote to revoke the Ducks' scholarships, due to the unpopularity of their admission and their mediocre performance on the ice; the Dean offers Orion a chance to start a new team but Orion refuses, assuring his team he will fight the decision. At the trustees’ meeting, no one listens to the Ducks until Bombay arrives, threatening to tie up the matter in court.
The board reluctantly votes to reinstate the Ducks' scholarships. The JV Ducks and the Varsity Warriors agree that if Varsity beats JV in the upcoming exhibition game, JV will leave the school, but if JV wins, the official team name will be changed to the Mighty Ducks. Orion and the Ducks train hard, focusing on defense around the goal. Orion returns the Ducks' jerseys just before the game, feeling they have earned them; the game begins, Varsity dominates on offense, but the Ducks' newly acquired defensive skills keep the game scoreless. Varsity resorts to viciously checking every player they can, leaving the Ducks battered by the third period. At the second intermission, Dean Portman, who had refused the school's scholarship, returns to the team with a much-needed spark; the Ducks receive two penalties and must play 5 vs 3. Orion urges him to go for the win. With seconds left, Charlie is on a breakaway but, in a surprise move, passes the puck to Goldberg who scores, securing a 1–0 victory for the Ducks.
Charlie spots Bombay in attendance. They watch as the Warriors emblem is replaced by a banner with the Ducks' logo, establishing the Eden Hall Mighty Ducks. Linda kisses Charlie, Bombay departs with a smile, knowing his protege has matured. Emilio Estevez as Gordon Bombay Joshua Jackson as Charlie Conway #96 Jeffrey Nordling as Coach Ted Orion David Selby as Dean Buckley Heidi Kling as Casey Conway Margot Finley as Linda Joss Ackland as Hans Elden Henson as Fulton Reed #44 Shaun Weiss as Greg "Goldie" Goldberg #33 Vincent Larusso as Adam Banks #99 Matt Doherty as Lester Averman #4 Garette Ratliff Henson as Guy Germaine #00 Marguerite Moreau as Connie Moreau #18 Michael Cudlitz as Cole Christopher Orr as Rick Riley Aaron Lohr as Dean Portman #21 Colombe Jacobsen as Julie Gaffney #6 Kenan Thompson as Russ Tyler #56 Mike Vitar as Luis Mendoza #22 Ty O'Neal as Dwayne Robertson #7 Justin Wong as Ken Wu #16 Scott Whyte as Scott "Scooter" Holland Benjamin Salisbury as Josh, the sports announcer Paul Kariya, at the time was captain of the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, makes a cameo appearance during the second intermission of the Ducks/Varsity Warriors game.
Brandon Adams, who played Jesse Hall, is the only actor from the previous fi
D2: The Mighty Ducks
D2: The Mighty Ducks is a 1994 American sports comedy-drama film directed by Sam Weisman. It is the second and penultimate installment in The Mighty Ducks trilogy and it is a sequel to the 1992 film The Mighty Ducks and produced by Walt Disney Pictures, The Kerner Entertainment Company and Avnet–Kerner Productions. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the film was titled The Mighty Ducks. Former Pee-Wee hockey coach Gordon Bombay is a star in the minor leagues, expected to reach the National Hockey League. However, a career-ending knee injury brings him back to his hometown of Minneapolis. Bombay is offered a chance to coach a team representing the United States in the Junior Goodwill Games in Los Angeles, he manages to reunite most of his former Ducks players, while the Hawks try to enact revenge for their humiliating loss two years earlier. Their plans are foiled by Fulton. Team USA consists of many of the old Ducks, in addition to five new players with special talents. In Los Angeles, the lure of celebrity distracts Bombay, who begins to neglect the team for a luxurious lifestyle.
The team wins easy victories over Trinidad and Tobago and Italy in the double-elimination tournament. Fulton Reed and Dean Portman gain recognition for their enforcer skills, are dubbed the "Bash Brothers". Backup goaltender Julie Gaffney asks Bombay for a chance to play, but is told to wait as goalie Greg Goldberg is on a hot streak; the team suffers an embarrassing 12–1 defeat against Iceland, coached by ex-NHL player Wolf "The Dentist" Stansson. USA plays badly, star center Adam Banks is slashed in the wrist. Frustrated, Bombay drives his players harder, but they begin to suffer from complete exhaustion. Realizing the children are too tired to complete their school work or stay awake in class, the team's tutor Michelle McKay intervenes, cancelling practice and confronting Bombay over his thoughtlessness. Once better rested, the players encounter a street hockey team who teaches them to play like "the real Team USA". Bombay continues to suffer from the pressure until Jan, brother of Hans and reminds him of his love for the game.
In their match against Germany, Bombay fails to arrive on time, forcing Charlie to tell the referee Michelle is the team's assistant coach. The team struggles, entering the third period tied, until Bombay arrives and apologizes to the team for his behavior. Inspired by the true return of their coach, the players win the game with their signature "Flying V", advance to the next round; the renewed Bombay realizes Adam's wrist injury and benches him despite his complaints. To fill the open roster spot, Charlie recruits street hockey player Russ Tyler, whose unique "knucklepuck" – which rotates end over end rather than spinning around its centerline – secures USA's victory over Russia, advancing them to the championship game for a rematch against Iceland. Adam's injury is healed only to find Team USA with a full roster. Knowing the team needs Russ's knucklepuck and Adam's skill against Iceland, Charlie gives up his own spot, cementing his leadership as true team captain. In the final game, the physically imposing Iceland dominates as the Ducks incur penalties: Ken picks a fight with an opposing player, the Bash Brothers fight the entire Iceland bench and Dwayne lassos an opposing player before he can check Connie.
An annoyed Bombay observes, "this isn't a hockey game, it's a circus." After a rousing locker room speech from Bombay and new Duck jerseys from Jan, the team emerges rejuvenated. The Ducks tie the game with goals from Connie, Banks and Russ, targeted by Iceland but disguised himself as Goldberg to pull off a successful "knucklepuck"; the game is forced to go to a five-shot shootout. With a 4–3 score in favor of the Ducks, Gunnar Stahl, the tournament's leading scorer, is Team Iceland's final shooter. Bombay replaces Goldberg with Julie. Gunnar fires a hard slapshot, Julie falls to the ice; the entire stadium waits in breathless anticipation as she opens her glove and drops the puck, revealing the game-winning save and the Ducks’ triumph over Iceland to win the tournament. Despite Wolf's disappointment, he congratulates Bombay and Charlie, stating "Good work, Captain Duck"; the team returns to Minnesota, sing Queen's "We Are the Champions" around a campfire as the credits roll. Emilio Estevez as Gordon Bombay Kathryn Erbe as Michelle McKay Michael Tucker as Mr. Tibbles Jan Rubeš as Jan Carsten Norgaard as Wolf "The Dentist" Stansson Maria Ellingsen as Maria Joshua Jackson as Charlie Conway, #96 Elden Henson as Fulton Reed, #44 Shaun Weiss as Greg Goldberg, #33 Brandon Adams as Jesse Hall, #9 Matt Doherty as Les Averman, #4 Vincent Larusso as Adam Banks, #99 Garette Ratliff Henson as Guy Germaine, #00 Marguerite Moreau as Connie Moreau, #18 Colombe Jacobsen as Julie "The Cat" Gaffney, #6 Aaron Lohr as Dean Portman, #21 Ty O'Neal as Dwayne Robertson, #7 Kenan Thompson as Russ Tyler, #56 Mike Vitar as Luis Mendoza, #22 Justin Wong as Ken Wu, #16 Scott Whyte as Gunnar Stahl, #9 of Team Iceland Patrick Goudy as Knucklepuck watcher #1, Team Russia Sean Goudy as Knucklepuck watcher #2, Team Russia There are several cameo appearances in D2: The Mighty Ducks from famous athletes.
Kristi Yamaguchi – Champion Olympic figure skater Greg Louganis – Champion Olympic diver Kareem Abdul-Jabbar – Basketball player Wayne Gretzky, Chris Chelios, Luc Robitaille, Cam Neely – National Hockey League players Bob Miller - play-by-play announcer for the championship game vs. Iceland Darren Pang - Color Commentator for the championship game vs Iceland Mike Em
Martin Zellar is a Minnesota-based musician and songwriter. Martin Zellar is the brother of writer Brad Zellar. Zellar grew up in Minnesota. While still in high school, Zellar formed his first band, with childhood friend and bassist Nick Ciola. Zellar and Ciola have played in bands together for more than 30 years. Upon graduation, Zellar moved to the Twin Cities and in 1984 joined fellow Austin, Minnesotans Ciola, guitarist Randy Broughten, drummer and fellow songwriter James "Billy" Dankert as the Gear Daddies; the band enjoyed much regional and some national success, released three albums. They broke up in 1992, but began playing enthusiastically attended reunion shows a few years later. With the dissolution of the Gear Daddies, the songwriter began making albums and performing with a band that would become known as Martin Zellar and The Hardways, including at various times Nick Ciola, Scott Wenum, Wilson Zellar, Jesse Duke, Luke Kramer, Whelan Keenan, Dan Neale, Adam Levy, Noah Levy, Jon Duncan, Marc Retish, Patrik Tanner, Randy Broughten.
In the late'90s, Zellar began singing with a Neil Diamond tribute band that remains popular into the present. Neil! Includes musicians Ali Gray, Patrik Tanner, Scott Wenum, Nick Ciola, JJ Benson. In 2007, Zellar's song I Wanna Drive the Zamboni, which appears in various movies and television shows, is ubiquitous at hockey games, was released as a single; the song was a hidden track on the Gear Daddies album "Billy's Live Bait". On February 10, 2012 Martin Zellar and the Hardways kicked off a tour in support of new album Rooster's Crow. Pat Maske produced, it includes the talents of Kelly Willis, Lloyd Maines, Kevin McKinney, Bukka Allen, Chojo Jacques, Brian Standefer, Billy Bright, Michael Ramos, Terri Hendrix. Chris Riemenschneider of the Minneapolis StarTribune calls it "the best record of his 25-year career." 1988: Let's Go Scare Al, 1990: Billy's Live Bait 1992: Can't Have Nothin' Nice 1994: Born Under 1996: Martin Zellar and the Hardways 1998: The Many Moods of Martin Zellar and the Hardways 2000: Two Guitars Bass & Drums, recorded live 2002: Scattered 2003: Live From the Mercury Lounge 2003: They Even Use The Hooves, B-sides and other rarities 2011: Martin Lee Zellar, limited edition 2012: Rooster's Crow 2017: Fan-Selected Sampler 1998-2014 Official Website Martin Zellar at AllMusic Martin Zellar discography at Discogs Gear Daddies at AllMusic Gear Daddies discography at Discogs Martin Zellar Youtube Playlist
A soundtrack written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, television program, or video game. In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production; the dialogue, sound effects, music in a film each has its own separate track, these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track, heard in the film. A dubbing track is later created when films are dubbed into another language; this is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue, supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called "soundtrack albums" in the late 1940s. First conceived by movie companies as a promotional gimmick for new films, these commercially available recordings were labeled and advertised as "music from the original motion picture soundtrack", or "music from and inspired by the motion picture."
These phrases were soon shortened to just "original motion picture soundtrack." More such recordings are made from a film's music track, because they consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue and sound effects. The abbreviation OST is used to describe the musical soundtrack on a recorded medium, such as CD, it stands for Original Soundtrack. Types of soundtrack recordings include: Musical film soundtracks are for the film versions of musical theatre; the soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack. It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues; the first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, Till the Clouds Roll By. The album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records.
Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it; the playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry". This made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca Broadway show cast albums because the material on the discs would not lock to picture, thereby creating the largest distinction between `Original Motion Picture Soundtrack' which, in its strictest sense would contain music that would lock to picture if the home user would play one alongside the other and `Original Cast Soundtrack' which in its strictest sense would refer to studio recordings of film music by the original film cast, but, edited or rearranged for time and content and would not lock to picture.
In reality, soundtrack producers remain ambiguous about this distinction, titles in which the music on the album does lock to picture may be labeled as OCS and music from an album that does not lock to picture may be referred to as OMPS. The phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack" was used for a while in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to differentiate material that would lock to picture from that which would not, but again, in part because many'film takes' consisted of several different attempts at the song and edited together to form the master, that term as well became nebulous and vague over time when, in cases where the master take used in the film could not be found in its isolated form, the aforementioned alternate masters and alternate vocal and solo performances which could be located were included in their place; as a result of all this nebulo