Apostolic Vicariate of Zamora in Ecuador
The Apostolic Vicariate of Zamora en Ecuador is a missionary circonscription of the Roman Catholic Church. Its cathedral see is located in the city of Zamora, in Ecuador's Amazonian Zamora-Chinchipe province, it is i.e. directly subject to the Holy See, not part of any ecclesiastical province. On 17 February 1893, Pope Leo XIII established the Vicariate Apostolic of Zamora from the Ecuadorian Apostolic Vicariate of Napo, its name was changed by Pope John Paul II to the Apostolic Vicariate of Zamora en Ecuador on 22 February 1991. This avoids confusion with other cities called Zamora, in Europe and the Americas. So far, all its apostolic vicars have been Franciscans. Jorge Francisco Mosquera Barreiro, O. F. M. †1990 Serafín Luis Alberto Cartagena Ocaña, O. F. M. Fausto Trávez Trávez, O. F. M. Appointed, Bishop of Babahoyo Walter Jehowá Heras Segarra, O. F. M. Roman Catholicism in Ecuador
Zamora is a city in Castile and León, the capital of the province of Zamora. It lies on a rocky hill in the northwest, near the frontier with Portugal and crossed by the Duero river, some 50 kilometres downstream as it reaches the Portuguese border. With its 24 characteristic Romanesque style churches of the 12th and 13th centuries it has been called a "museum of Romanesque art". Zamora is the city with the most Romanesque churches in all of Europe; the most important celebration in Zamora is the Holy Week. After the Roman victory over the Lusitanian hero Viriathus the settlement was named by the Romans, Occelum Durii or Ocellodurum. During Roman rule it was in the hands of the Vaccaei, was incorporated into the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis, it was on the road from Emerita to Asturica Augusta.. Two coins from the reign of the Visigothic king Sisebuto, show that it was known at the time as "Semure". During the period of Moorish rule the settlement became known by the names of "Semurah" or "Azemur".
After the establishment of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias, the settlement became a strategic frontier post and was the scene of many fierce military engagements between the Muslims and Christians. Control of the town shifted between the two sides a number of times from the early 8th century to the late 10th century. During this period it became fortified; the most notable historic episode in Zamora was the assassination outside the city walls of the king Sancho II of Castile in 1072. Some decades before, king Ferdinand I of León had divided his kingdoms between his three sons. To his daughter, Doña Urraca, he had bequeathed the "well fortified city of Zamora". All three sons warred among themselves, till the ultimate winner, was left victorious. Zamora, under his sister, allied with Leonese nobles, resisted. Sancho II of Castile, assisted by El Cid, lay siege to Zamora. King Sancho II was murdered by a duplicitous noble of Zamora, Bellido Dolfos, who tricked the king into a private meeting. After the death of Sancho, Castile reverted to his deposed brother Alfonso VI of León.
The event was commemorated by the Portillo de la Traición. Zamora was the scene of fierce fighting in the 15th century, during the conflict between the supporters of Isabella the Catholic and Juana la Beltraneja; the Spanish proverb, No se ganó Zamora en una hora Zamora wasn't won in an hour, is a reference to these battles. It is the Spanish equivalent of the English proverb "Rome wasn't built in a day." During the 12th century, the city was extraordinarily important for its strategic position in the wars between the Kingdom of León and the Almoravids and Almohads. As a result, the city preserves many buildings from that time. In the 1140s and 1150s it was ruled by Prince Ponce Giraldo de Cabrera, who has a street named after him in the city today. In the next centuries, the city lost its political and economic relevance and suffered emigration to South America. Henry IV granted Zamora the epithet of "most noble and most loyal city". During the Spanish Civil War, Zamora was from the start of the military rebellion a nationalist held city.
The savagery of the repression against leftists and liberals is captured in Ramón Sender Barayón's'A Death in Zamora', which tells of the extrajudicial murder of his mother, Amparo Barayon, the wife of the famous novelist Ramon Sender. Main sights of Zamora include: Cathedral, in Romanesque style, dating to the 12th century, taking only 23 years to build. Medieval Castle of Zamora. Palacio de los Condes de Alba y Aliste, built in 1459 by the first Count of Alva y Aliste, it boasts a staircase decorated with carvings by artists from Lombardy. Calle Balborraz. Church of San Pedro y San Ildefonso, built from the 11th century over a Visigothic temple, it was reformed in Romanesque style in the 12th–13th centuries, but was much renovated in the 15th and 18th centuries. It has presently a single nave with cross vaults Church of Santa María Magdalena; the southern façade is in Romanesque style. Church of San Isidoro, it has one nave, having a square major chapel. The exterior features two ogival arcades with archivolts.
Church of San Claudio de Olivares, known from the 12th century. Of small size, it has a single nave with a semicircular apse; the columns of the nave have carvings. Church of San Juan de Puerta Nueva. Church of Santa María la Nueva. Church of Santiago de los Caballeros, located outside the city walls. El Cid was created knight here. Church of Santiago El Burgo City walls: three walled enclosures dating back to the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. Museo de Semana Santa de Zamora: Opposite the Church of Santa María la Nueva, dedicated to Semana Santa de Zamora the processions during which are celebrated with particular ceremony in Zamora; the museum holds a large collection of pasos, the figures which are carried in procession through the streets by various'cofradías' or brotherhoods. See Holy Week in Zamora Arcenillas church Hiniesta church The Church of San Pedro de la Nave, was founded in the 7th century, rebuilt in the 12th century, is one of the three best-preserved Visigothic churches in all of Spain.
It was moved stone by stone and re-erected, owing to the const
The Hyborian Age is the fictional period within the artificial mythology created by Robert E. Howard in which the sword and sorcery tales of Conan the Barbarian are set; the word "Hyborian" is derived from the legendary northern land of the ancient Greeks, is rendered as such in the earliest draft of Howard's essay "The Hyborian Age." Howard described the Hyborian Age taking place sometime after the sinking of Atlantis and before the beginning of recorded ancient history. Most editors and adaptors such as L. Sprague de Camp and Roy Thomas placed the Hyborian Age around 10,000 BC. More Dale Rippke proposed that the Hyborian Age should be placed further in the past, around 32,500 BC, prior to the beginning of the last glacial period. Rippke's date, has since been disputed by Jeffrey Shanks who argues for the more traditional placement at the end of the ice age. Howard had an intense love for history and historical dramas. By conceiving a timeless setting – a vanished age – and by choosing names that resembled our history, Howard avoided the problem of historical anachronisms and the need for lengthy exposition.
Howard explained the origins and history of the Hyborian civilization in his essay "The Hyborian Age". The essay begins with the civilizations of the Thurian Age and Atlantis being destroyed by a cataclysm. According to the essay, after this cataclysm, a tribe of primitive humans were at a technological level hardly above the Neanderthal, they fled to the northern areas of. They discovered the region to be safe, but covered with snow and inhabited by a race of vicious apes; the apes were large with white fur and native to their land. The Stone Age invaders engaged in a territorial war with them and managed to drive them off, past the Arctic Circle. Believing their enemies were destined to perish and no longer interested in them, the arrived group adapted to their new, harsh environment and its population increased. One thousand five hundred years the descendants of this initial group were called "Hyborians", they were named after Bori. The essay mentions that Bori had been a great tribal chief of their past who had undergone deification.
Their oral tradition remembered him as their leader during their initial migration to the north, though the antiquity of this man had been exaggerated. By this point, the various related but independent Hyborian tribes had spread throughout the northern regions of their area of the world; some of them were migrating south at a "leisurely" pace in search of new areas in which to settle. The Hyborians had yet to encounter other cultural groups. Howard describes them as a powerful and warlike race with the average individual being tall, tawny-haired, gray-eyed. Culturally, they were accomplished poets. Most of the tribes still relied on hunting for their nourishment, their southern offshoots, had been practicing animal husbandry on cattle for centuries. The only exception to their long isolation from other cultural groups came due to the actions of a lone adventurer, unnamed in the essay, he had traveled past the Arctic Circle and returned with news that their old adversaries, the apes, were never annihilated.
They had instead evolved into apemen and, according to his description, were by numerous. He believed they were evolving to human status and would pose a threat to the Hyborians in the future, he attempted to recruit a significant military force to campaign against them, but most Hyborians were not convinced by his tales. None of them returned. With the population of the Hyborian tribes continuing to increase, the need for new lands increased; the Hyborians expanded outside their familiar territories, beginning a new age of wanderings and conquests. For 500 years, the Hyborians spread towards the west of their nameless continent, they encountered other tribal groups for the first time in millennia. They conquered many smaller clans of various origins; the survivors of the defeated clans merged with their conquerors, passing on their racial traits to new generations of Hyborians. The mixed-blooded Hyborian tribes were in turn forced to defend their new territories from pure-blooded Hyborian tribes which followed the same paths of migration.
The new invaders would wipe away the defenders before absorbing them, resulting in a tangled web of Hyborian tribes and nations with varying ancestral elements within their bloodlines. The first organized Hyborian kingdom to emerge was Hyperborea; the tribe that established it entered their Neolithic age by learning to erect buildings in stone for fortification. These nomads lived in tents made out of the hides of horses, but soon abandoned them in favor of their crude but durable stone houses, they permanently settled in fortified settlements and developed cyclopean masonry to further fortify their defensive walls. The Hyperboreans were by the most advanced of the Hyborian tribes and set out to expand their kingdom by attacking their backwards neighbors. Tribes who defended their territories were forced to migrate elsewhere. Others fled the path of Hyperborean expansion before engaging them in war. Meanwhile, the apemen of the Arctic Circle emerged as a new race of tall humans, they started their own migration to the south.
For the next thousand years, the warlike H
Zamora is a city in southeastern Ecuador. Zamora is most populous city in Zamora-Chinchipe, it is located in the foothills of the Andes mountains at 970 m above sea level, at the convergence of the Zamora and Jamboé rivers. Zamora, which has experienced a boom in growth in since the recent discovery of gold in the surrounding region, is known as the "Mining Capital of Ecuador'", as the "City of Birds and Waterfalls'", referring to the presence of various species of birds and several waterfalls on the streams that surround the city; the city stretches from west to east towards Cumbaratza. It is connected by several bus and coach trips to other cantons and provinces
Zamora (Congress of Deputies constituency)
Zamora is one of the 52 constituencies represented in the Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of the Spanish parliament, the Cortes Generales. The constituency elects four deputies, its boundaries correspond to those of the Spanish province of Zamora. The electoral system uses the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation, with a minimum threshold of 3 percent; the constituency was created as per the Political Reform Act 1977 and was first contested in the 1977 general election. The Act provided for the provinces of Spain to be established as multi-member districts in the Congress of Deputies, with this regulation being maintained under the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Additionally, the Constitution requires for any modification of the provincial limits to be approved under an organic law, needing an absolute majority in the Cortes Generales. Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprises all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.
The only exception was in 1977, when this was limited to nationals over twenty-one and in full enjoyment of their political and civil rights. Amendments to the electoral law in 2011 required for Spaniards abroad to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote. 348 seats are elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which includes blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold are not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method may result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude; each provincial constituency is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla are allocated the two remaining seats; the electoral law provides that parties, federations and groupings of electors are allowed to present lists of candidates.
However, groupings of electors are required to secure the signature of at least 1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they are seeking election—0.1 percent and, at least, the signature of 500 electors, until 1985—. Since 2011, federations or coalitions who have not obtained a mandate in either House of Parliament at the preceding election are required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they are seeking election. Electors are barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election are required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called
Zamora Chinchipe, Province of Zamora Chinchipe is a province of the Republic of Ecuador, located at the southeastern end of the Amazon Basin, which shares borders with the Ecuadorian provinces of Azuay and Morona Santiago to the north and Azuay to the west, with Peru to the east and south. The province comprises an area of 10,456 km² and is covered with a uniquely mountainous topography which markedly distinguishes it from the surrounding Amazonian provinces. Zamora-Chinchipe is characterized and identified by its mining industry; the province takes its name from the bureaucratic fusion of the Chinchipe cantons. The provincial capital is the city of Zamora. Human habitation in the region is thought to date to at least 4500 BCE, was grounded in the Mayo-Chinchipe cultural complex. In 1548, Spaniards made their first contact with the region's indigenous people. On October 4, 1549, Hernando de Barahona, accompanied by Alonso de Mercadillo and Hernando de Benavente, founded the city of Zamora de los Alcaides.
Fifty years after their arrival, the Spanish were driven from the city by the Shuar revolt. In 1850, the Zamora de los Alcaides city ruins were discovered by a group of colonists, it cannot be established when the first white and mixed race settlers arrived in the province, but the oldest verifiable data shows that in the late 1840s, the Chinchipe River basin was inhabited by people arriving from the Loja Province of modern Ecuador and Peru. The migration was made from the Ecuadorian Province of Azuay to the Yacuambi Canton, where the Saraguros and mixed race people arrived. During the Spanish Colonial period, several explorers surveyed the territory, such as the French geographer and mathematician Charles Marie de La Condamine in a 1743 expedition. In 1781, the Spanish made a second attempt at colonization in the area, lured by the exploitation of gold deposits, but they found it impossible to dominate the natives; the current settlement known as Zamora was not permanently reestablished by white and mixed race settlers until March 12, 1921, when the Catholic church founded the Apostolic Vicariate of Zamora, after many prior attempts at colonization, each repelled by the resistance of the Shuar people.
In 1911, the Zamora parish became cantonal head of the Zamora Canton of the Provincia de Oriente. On December 15, 1920, the Santiago-Zamora Province was created, it consisted of the Chinchipe, Macas and Zamora cantons. The Chinchipe and Zamora cantons were each constituted by three parishes. On January 5, 1921, the Yacuambi Canton was created for the Santiago-Zamora Province. On July 5, 1941, Ecuador was invaded by Peru, with part of the unpopulated territory of the province in contention. A ceasefire was brokered between the Foreign Ministers of Peru and Ecuador capped with the signing of the Rio Protocol; the treaty brought an end to the state of war which had existed between Ecuador and Peru, left part of the Ecuadorian provinces of El Oro and Zamora-Chinchipe under Peruvian occupation. After the 1941 war, forced migration of impoverished peasants and citizens to the province was accelerated by drought in Loja Province, resulting in colonization of many areas of the Zamora-Chinchipe territory, theretofore uninhabited.
The creation of the Zamora-Chinchipe Province was a twelve-year process, due, in large part, to the indefatigable efforts of one Benjamin Carrión, a citizen of the Ecuadorian province of Loja, and, on November 10, 1953, Zamora-Chinchipe was designated an autonomous province, being separated from the Santiago-Zamora Province by means of a legal term issued in the Ecuadorian Official Registry No. 360. In 1981, the tensions with Peru were rekindled by a military confrontation over the Cenepa River in the Cordillera del Cóndor; the conflict was centered in the Paquisha and Manchinaza localities. By 1995 the conflict had reemerged, in 1999 the signing of the Peace Agreement between Ecuador and Peru settled the contours of Zamora-Chinchipe's borders with its southern neighbor; the province is divided into nine cantons. The following table lists each with its population at the 2001 census, its area in square kilometres, the name of the canton seat or capital. Pachamama Raymi Podocarpus National Park Provinces of Ecuador Cantons of Ecuador Map of the Zamora-Chinchipe Province
The Zamora River is a tributary of the Santiago River located in the south-east of Ecuador. It was known to the Spanish as Yaya Mayu, from the river's name among a group of Shuar encountered nearby; the sources of the Zamora River are in the Podocarpus National Park at the Nudo de Cajanuma. The river descends towards the city of Loja, it crosses the provinces of Loja, Zamora-Chinchipe and Morona-Santiago, where it empties into the Santiago. The Zamora is the dominant river in southeastern Ecuador, has many tributaries the source of its native name; the most significant tributaries by province include: Loja ProvinceMalacatos River Jipiro River Zamora Huayco RiverZamora-Chinchipe ProvinceTambo Blanco River San Francisco River Sabanilla River Bombuscaro River Jamboé River Nambija River Yacuambi River Chicaña River Nangaritza River Pachicutza River Chuchumbletza RiverMorona-Santiago ProvinceBomboiza River Bobonaza River Rivers of Ecuador