Aram Il'yich Khachaturian was a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor. He is considered one of the leading Soviet composers. Born and raised in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, Khachaturian moved to Moscow in 1921 following the Sovietization of the Caucasus. Without prior music training, he enrolled in the Gnessin Musical Institute, subsequently studying at the Moscow Conservatory in the class of Nikolai Myaskovsky, among others, his first major work, the Piano Concerto, popularized his name outside the Soviet Union. It was followed by the Cello Concerto, his other significant compositions include the Masquerade Suite, the Anthem of the Armenian SSR, three symphonies, around 25 film scores. Khachaturian is best known for his ballet music -- Spartacus, his most popular piece, the "Sabre Dance" from Gayane, has been used extensively in popular culture and has been covered by a number of musicians worldwide. His style is "characterized by colorful harmonies, captivating rhythms, virtuosity and sensuous melodies".
During most of his career, Khachaturian was approved by the Soviet government and held several high posts in the Union of Soviet Composers from the late 1930s, although he joined the Communist Party only in 1943. Along with Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich, he was denounced as a "formalist" and his music dubbed "anti-people" in 1948 but was restored that year. After 1950 he turned to conducting, he traveled to Latin America and the United States with concerts of his own works. In 1957 Khachaturian became the Secretary of the Union of Soviet Composers, a position he held until his death. Khachaturian, who created the first Armenian ballet music, symphony and film score, is considered the most renowned Armenian composer of the 20th century. While following the established musical traditions of Russia, he broadly used Armenian and, to lesser extent, Caucasian and Central European, Middle Eastern peoples' folk music in his works, he is regarded in Armenia, where he is considered a "national treasure".
Aram Khachaturian was born on 6 June 1903 in the city of Tiflis into an Armenian family. Some sources indicate a village near Tiflis, as his birthplace, his father, was born in the village of Upper Aza near Ordubad in Nakhichevan and moved to Tiflis at the age of 13. His mother, Kumash Sarkisovna, was from Lower Aza a village near Ordubad. Khachaturian's parents were betrothed before knowing each other, when Kumash was 9 and Yeghia was 19, they had one daughter and four sons, of whom Aram was the youngest. Khachaturian received primary education at the commercial school of a school for merchants, he considered a career either in engineering. In the 19th and early 20th centuries and throughout the early Soviet period, Tiflis was the largest city and the administrative center of the Caucasus. In Tiflis, multicultural, Khachaturian was exposed to various cultures; the city had a large Armenian population and was a major Armenian cultural center until the Russian Revolution and the following years. In a 1952 article "My Idea of the Folk Element in Music", Khachaturian described the city environment and its influence on his career: I grew up in an atmosphere rich in folk music: popular festivities, rites and sad events in the life of the people always accompanied by music, the vivid tunes of Armenian and Georgian songs and dances performed by folk bards and musicians — such were the impressions that became engraved on my memory, that determined my musical thinking.
They shaped my musical consciousness and lay at the foundations of my artistic personality... Whatever the changes and improvements that took place in my musical taste in years, their original substance, formed in early childhood in close communion with the people, has always remained the natural soil nourishing all my work. In 1917, the Bolsheviks rose to power in Russia in the October Revolution. After over two years of fragile independence, Armenia fell to Soviet rule in late 1920. Georgia was Sovietized by the spring of 1921. Both countries formally became part of the Soviet Union in December 1922. Khachaturian wrote that "the October Revolution fundamentally changed my whole life and, if I have grown into a serious artist I am indebted only to the people and the Soviet Government. To this people is dedicated my entire conscious life, as is all my creative work." Khachaturian always remained enthusiastic about communism, was an atheist. When asked about his visit to the Vatican, Khachaturian responded: "I'm an atheist, but I'm a son of the people who were the first to adopt Christianity and thus visiting the Vatican was my duty."
In 1921, the eighteen-year-old Khachaturian moved to Moscow to join his oldest brother, who had settled in Moscow earlier and was a stage director at the Moscow Art Theatre by the time of his arrival. He enrolled at the Gnessin Musical Institute in 1922 studying biology at the Moscow University, he studied the cello under Sergei Bychkov and under Andrey Borysyak. In 1925, Mikhail Gnessin started a composition class a
Andrei Aleksandrovich Kostrichkin was a Soviet actor. He appeared in more than 50 films between 1925 and 1971. Honored Artist of the RSFSR. Wife actress Yanina Zhejmo. Kostrichkin's daughter Yanina works on duplicating films. Andrei Kostrichkin on IMDb
Music of Armenia
The music of Armenia has its origins in the Armenian Highlands, where people traditionally sang popular folk songs. Armenia has a long musical tradition, collected and developed by Komitas, a prominent priest and musicologist, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Armenian music has been presented internationally by composers Aram Khachaturian, Alexander Arutiunian, Arno Babadjanian, Karen Kavaleryan as well as by pop musicians and performers such as duduk player Djivan Gasparyan, composer/instrumentalist Ara Gevorgyan, singers Sirusho, Eva Rivas and many others. Traditional Armenian folk music as well as Armenian church music is not based on the European tonal system but on a system of Tetrachords; the last note of one tetrachord serves as the first note of the next tetrachord – which makes a lot of Armenian folk music more or less based on a theoretically endless scale. Armenians have had a long tradition of folk music from the antiquity. Under Soviet leadership, Armenian folk music was taught in state-sponsored conservatoires.
Instruments played include qamancha, dhol, duduk, blul, shvi and to a lesser degree saz. Other instruments are used such as violin and clarinet; the duduk is Armenia's national instrument, among its well-known performers are Margar Margarian, Levon Madoyan, Saro Danielian, Vatche Hovsepian, Gevorg Dabaghyan and Yeghish Manoukian, as well as Armenia's most famous duduk player, Djivan Gasparyan. Earlier in Armenian history, instruments like the kamancha were played by popular, travelling musicians called ashoughs. Sayat Nova, an 18th-century Ashough, is revered in Armenia. Performers such as Armenak Shahmuradian, Vagharshak Sahakian, Norayr Mnatsakanyan, Hovhannes Badalyan, Hayrik Muradyan, Raffi Hovhannisyan, Avak Petrosyan, Papin Poghosian, Hamlet Gevorgyan have been famous in Armenia and are still acclaimed; the most notable female vocalists in the Armenian folk genre have been Araksia Gyulzadyan, Ophelia Hambardzumyan, Varduhi Khachatrian, Valya Samvelyan, Rima Saribekyan, Susanna Safarian, Manik Grigoryan, Flora Martirosian.
Armenian emigrants from other parts of the Middle East settled in various countries in the California Central Valley, the second- and third-generation have kept their folk traditions alive, such as Richard Hagopian, a famous oud-player. Another oud player, John Berberian, is noted in particular for his fusions of traditional music with jazz and rock in the 1960s. From Lebanon and Syria, George Tutunjian, Karnig Sarkissian and others performed Armenian Revolutionary Songs which became popular among the Armenian Diaspora, notably ARF supporters. In Tehran Iran the folk music of the Armenian community is characterized by the work of Nikol Galanderian and the Goghtan choir. Other Armenian musicians include Ara Topouzian who performs on the kanun and VANArmenya, who sings both folk, children's and patriotic songs, performs on keyboards, promotes the music of "the other Gomidas," Grikor Mirzaian. There are several folk ensembles from Armenia, the Shoghaken Folk Ensemble, founded in 1995 in Yerevan, has worldwide popularity, others such as the Arev Armenian Folk Ensemble.
Arto Tunçboyacıyan is a well known Turkish musician of Armenian descent, famous in Turkey and worldwide, has his own jazz club in Yerevan, Armenia. He was the founder of the Armenian Navy Band. Ruben Hakobyan is a well recognized Armenian ethnographic and patriotic folk singer who has achieved widespread national recognition due to his devotion to Armenian folk music and exceptional talent. Armenian classical composers include Kemani Tatyos Ekserciyan, one of the best-remembered composers of Ottoman classical music. Alexander Spendiarov, Armen Tigranian, Haro Stepanian are best known for their Armenian operas. Sargis Barkhudaryan and Caro Zakarian are representative composers of the pre- and early Soviet Armenian era; the most famous, was Aram Khatchaturian, internationally well known for his music for various ballets and the immortal Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayane. Gevorg Armenian, Anahit Tsitsikian, Arno Babadjanyan, Barseg Kanatchian, Edward Mirzoyan, Boris Parsadanian, Ashot Zohrabyan, Aram Satian represent other Soviet era Armenian composers.
Iosif Andriasov's music and ethics made him internationally recognized as one of the most important figures in contemporary culture. Alexander Arutiunian is best known for his Trumpet Concerto in A-flat major. Alexander Dolukhanian composed/arranged numerous Armenian songs including the well-known "Swallow". Alexander Adgemian, Ashot Satian and Vagarshak Kotoyan are known for their contributions to Armenian choral and vocal music. Eduard Abramian wrote songs on the poetry of Armenian poets Hovhannes Tumanyan and Avetik Isahakian which are now part of the standard repertoire. Artemi Ayvazyan wrote the first Soviet musical comedies, including the popular "Dentist from the Orient". In recent years, Avet Terterian, Tigran Mansurian, Vache Sharafyan and Aram Petrosyan have achieved global success. Another acclaimed, more recent, classical composer is Khachatur Avetissian, many of whose compositions are based on traditional folklore themes. Uruguayan-Armenian composer Coriún Aharonián, besides a notable body of avant-garde compositions has done extensive musicological and political work.
The Armenian nationalist composer Alexander Kaloian is known
'Hasmik was an Armenian actress. People's Artist of the Armenian SSR Hero of Labour Order of Red Banner of Labor Evil Spirit Gikor Pepo Zangezur David Bek Hasmik on IMDb
The Bolsheviks known in English as Bolshevists, were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk, Belarus to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name, they became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks, or Reds, came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. With the Reds defeating the Whites and others during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in December 1922; the Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia.
Their beliefs and practices were referred to as Bolshevism. In the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP held in Brussels and London, UK during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules. Lenin wanted members who financially supported the party and participated in it. Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations". Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a smaller core of active members as opposed to card carriers who might only be active in party branches from time to time or not at all; this active base would develop the cadre, a core of professional revolutionaries, consisting of loyal communists who would spend most of their time organising the party toward a mass revolutionary party capable of leading a workers' revolution against the Tsarist autocracy. A main source of the factions could be directly attributed to Lenin's steadfast opinion and what was described by Plekhanov as his inability to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own".
It was obvious at early stages in Lenin's revolutionary practices that he would not be willing to concede on any party policy that conflicted with his own predetermined ideas. It was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia. Lenin was seen by fellow party members as being so narrow-minded that he believed that anyone who didn't follow him was his enemy. Leon Trotsky, one of Lenin's fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin in 1904 to the French revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre. Lenin's view of politics as verbal and ideological warfare and his inability to accept criticism if it came from his own dedicated followers was the reason behind this accusation; the root of the split was a book titled What Is To Be Done? that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile. In Germany, the book was published in 1902. In Russia, strict censorship outlawed its distribution. One of the main points of Lenin's writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person over the masses.
After the proposed revolution had overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power to allow socialism to encompass the nation. Lenin wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their entire lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenin said that if professional revolutionaries did not maintain control over the workers they would lose sight of the party's objective and adopt opposing beliefs abandon the revolution entirely. Lenin's view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a complete supporter of Marxist theory, which created some party unrest. For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, but in his utopian society there would still be visible distinctions between those in politics and the common worker. Most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral and were loyal to the idea of a classless society, therefore Lenin's variations caused internal dissonance. Although the party split of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks would not become official until 1903, the differences began to surface with the publication of What Is To Be Done?.
Through the influence of the book, Lenin undermined another group of reformers known as "Economists", who were pushing for economic reform while wanting to leave the government unchanged and who failed to recognize the importance of uniting the working population behind the party's cause. Other than the debate between Lenin and Martov, Lenin felt membership should require support of the party program, financial contributions and involvement in a party organization whereas Martov did not see the need for joining Party organizations, internal unrest rose over the structure, best suited for Soviet power; as discussed in What Is To Be Done?, Lenin believed that a rigid political structure was needed to initiate a formal revolution. This idea was met with opposition from his once close followers including Julius Martov, Georgy Plekhanov, Leon Trotsky and Pavel Axelrod. Plekhanov and Lenin's major dispute arose addressing the topic of nationalizing land or leaving it for private use. Lenin wanted to nationalize to aid in collectivization whereas Plekhanov thought worker motivation would remain higher if individuals were able to maintain their own property.
Those who opposed Lenin and wanted to continue on the Marxist path t
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been associated with the 20th century; the fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films end with them. Themes explored include combat and escape, camaraderie between soldiers, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the stories told may be historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance. Subgenres, not distinct, include anti-war, animated and documentary. There are subgenres of the war film in specific theatres such as the western desert, the Pacific in the Second World War, or Vietnam.
The war film genre is not tightly defined: the American Film Institute, for example, speaks of "films to grapple with the Great War" without attempting to classify these. However, some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions; the director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that "a war film’s objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war." John Belton identified four narrative elements of the war film within the context of Hollywood production: a) the suspension of civilian morality during times of war, b) primacy of collective goals over individual motivations, c) rivalry between men in predominantly male groups as well as marginalization and objectification of women, d) depiction of the reintegration of veterans. The film critic Stephen Neale suggests that the genre is for the most part well defined and uncontentious, since war films are those about war being waged in the 20th century, with combat scenes central to the drama. However, Neale notes, films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War.
The critic Julian Smith argues, on the contrary, that the war film lacks the formal boundaries of a genre like the Western, but that in practice, "successful and influential" war films are about modern wars, in particular World War II, with the combination of mobile forces and mass killing. The film scholar Kathryn Kane points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western. Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace and savagery. War films frame World War II as a conflict between "good" and "evil" as represented by the Allied forces and Nazi Germany whereas the Western portrays the conflict between civilized settlers and the savage indigenous peoples. James Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch and "war-movie escapades" like The Dirty Dozen. Film historian Jeanine Basinger states that she began with a preconception of what the war film genre would be, namely that What I knew in advance was what every member of our culture would know about World War II combat films—that they contained a hero, a group of mixed types, a military objective of some sort.
They take place in the actual combat zones of World War II, against the established enemies, on the ground, the sea, or in the air. They contain many repeated events, such as mail call, all presented visually with appropriate uniforms and iconography of battle. Further, Basinger considers Bataan to provide a definition-by-example of "the World War II combat film", in which a diverse and unsuited group of "hastily assembled volunteers" hold off a much larger group of the enemy through their "bravery and tenacity", she argues. Since she notes that there were in fact only five true combat films made during the Second World War, in her view these few films, central to the genre, are outweighed by the many other films that lie on the margins of being war films. However, other critics such as Russell Earl Shain propose a far broader definition of war film, to include films that deal "with the roles of civilians, espionage agents, soldiers in any of the aspects of war" Neale points out that genres overlap, with combat scenes for different purposes in other types of film, suggests that war films are characterised by combat which "determines the fate of the principal characters".
This in turn pushes combat scenes to the climactic ends of war films. Not all critics agree, that war films must be about 20th-century wars. James Clarke includes Edward Zwick's Oscar-winning Glory among the war films he discusses in detail; the military historian Antony Beevor "despair" at how film-makers from America and Britain "play fast and loose with the facts", yet imply that "their version is as good as the truth." For example, he calls the 2000 American film U-571 a "shameless deception" for pretending that a US warship had helped to win the Battle of the Atlantic—seven months before America entered the war. He is critical of Christopher Nolan's 2017 film Dunkirk with its unhistorically empty beaches, low-level air combat over the sea, res
Pepo is a 1935 Soviet drama film based on Gabriel Sundukyan's 1876 play of the same name and directed by Hamo Beknazarian, with music composed by Aram Khachaturian. Considered the'most outstanding' film in Soviet cinema before the outbreak of World War II, the film has gained international recognition and has come to represent Armenian culture abroad. Set in 19th century Tiflis, the film details the day-to-day life of a poor but honest Armenian fisherman Pepo who opposes a cunning trader Arutin Kirakozovich Zimzimov, who has robbed the former by trickery; the story comes to a conclusion of sorts. Pepo on IMDb