A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power in a watermill. A water wheel consists of a wheel, with a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outside rim forming the driving surface. Water wheels were still in commercial use well into the 20th century but they are no longer in common use. Uses included milling flour in gristmills, grinding wood into pulp for papermaking, hammering wrought iron, ore crushing and pounding fiber for use in the manufacture of cloth; some water wheels are fed by water from a mill pond, formed when a flowing stream is dammed. A channel for the water flowing to or from a water wheel is called a mill race; the race bringing water from the mill pond to the water wheel is a headrace. In the mid to late 18th century John Smeaton's scientific investigation of the water wheel led to significant increases in efficiency supplying much needed power for the Industrial Revolution. Water wheels began being displaced by the smaller, less expensive and more efficient turbine, developed by Benoît Fourneyron, beginning with his first model in 1827.
Turbines are capable of handling high heads, or elevations, that exceed the capability of practical-sized waterwheels. The main difficulty of water wheels is their dependence on flowing water, which limits where they can be located. Modern hydroelectric dams can be viewed as the descendants of the water wheel, as they too take advantage of the movement of water downhill. Water wheels come in two basic designs: a horizontal wheel with a vertical axle; the latter can be subdivided according to where the water hits the wheel into backshot overshot, breastshot and stream-wheels. The term undershot can refer to any wheel where the water passes under the wheel but it implies that the water entry is low on the wheel. Most water wheels in the United Kingdom and the United States are vertical wheels rotating about a horizontal axle, but in the Scottish highlands and parts of Southern Europe mills had a horizontal wheel. Overshot and backshot water wheels are used where the available height difference is more than a couple of meters.
Breastshot wheels are more suited to large flows with a moderate head. Undershot and stream wheel use large flows at no head. There is an associated millpond, a reservoir for storing water and hence energy until it is needed. Larger heads store more potential energy for the same amount of water so the reservoirs for overshot and backshot wheels tend to be smaller than for breast shot wheels. Overshot and pitchback water wheels are suitable where there is a small stream with a height difference of more than 2 meters in association with a small reservoir. Breastshot and undershot wheels can be used on high volume flows with large reservoirs. A horizontal wheel with a vertical axle. Called a tub wheel, Norse mill or Greek mill, the horizontal wheel is a primitive and inefficient form of the modern turbine; however if it delivers the required power the efficiency is of secondary importance. It is mounted inside a mill building below the working floor. A jet of water is directed on to the paddles of the water wheel.
This is a simple system without gearing so that the vertical axle of the water wheel becomes the drive spindle of the mill. The earliest known reference to water wheels dates to about 400 BCE, the earliest horizontal axis wheels date to about 200 BCE, so vertical axis mills pre-date horizontal axis mills by about two centuries. A stream wheel is a vertically mounted water wheel, rotated by the water in a water course striking paddles or blades at the bottom of the wheel; this type of water wheel is the oldest type of horizontal axis wheel. They are known as free surface wheels because the water is not constrained by millraces or wheel pit. Stream wheels are cheaper and simpler to build, have less of an environmental impact, than other type of wheel, they do not constitute a major change of the river. Their disadvantages are their low efficiency, which means that they generate less power and can only be used where the flow rate is sufficient. A typical flat board undershot wheel uses about 20 percent of the energy in the flow of water striking the wheel as measured by English civil engineer John Smeaton in the 18th century.
More modern wheels have higher efficiencies. Stream wheels gain little or no advantage from head, a difference in water level. Stream wheels mounted on floating platforms are referred to as ship wheels and the mill as a ship mill; the earliest were constructed by the Byzantine general Belisarius during the siege of Rome in 537. They were sometimes mounted downstream from bridges where the flow restriction of the bridge piers increased the speed of the current, they were inefficient but major advances were made in the eighteenth century. An undershot wheel is a vertically mounted water wheel with a horizontal axle, rotated by the water from a low weir striking the wheel in the bottom quarter. Most of the energy gain comparatively little from the head, they are similar in design to stream wheels. The term undershot is sometimes used with related but different meanings: all wheels where the water passes under the wheel wheels where the water enters in the bottom quarter. Wheels where paddles are placed into the flow of a stream.
See stream above. This is the oldest type of vertical water wheel; the word breastshot is used in a variety o
Broadway (Los Angeles)
Broadway is a major thoroughfare in central Los Angeles and Los Angeles County, southern California. The Broadway Theater District in Downtown Los Angeles is the first and largest historic theater and cinema district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Broadway begins at Main Street just north of the San Diego Freeway. From there it runs 10 miles north from South Los Angeles to Downtown, connecting Carson and Athens. After entering Downtown, it passes through Broadway's historic commercial district and theatre district enters the Los Angeles Civic Center and passes through Grand Park. After crossing the Hollywood Freeway and Cesar Chavez Avenue, signs along the street change to read "North Broadway" as it enters Chinatown and passes through the Dragon Gate and Central Plaza, it curves northeast, passing through the old railyards north of Downtown Los Angeles. After crossing the Golden State Freeway it heads due east to its terminus at Mission Road in Lincoln Heights. Broadway is one of the oldest streets in the city, it was laid out as part of the 1849 plan of Los Angeles made by Lieutenant Edward Ord and named Fort Street.
Fort Street began at the south side of Fort Moore Hill at Sand Street. In 1890, the name of Fort Street, from 1st Street to 10th Street, was changed to Broadway; the rest of Fort Street, from California Street to 1st Street, was changed to North Broadway. Proposal for opening Broadway through to Buena Vista Street, extending the street south into what was part of Main Street, below Tenth Street, in order to give a continuous, wide thoroughfare from the southern city limits to the Eastside, was made as early as February 1891; the Broadway Tunnel under Fort Moore Hill was opened in 1901, extending North Broadway to Buena Vista Street at Bellevue Avenue. A section of Broadway in South Los Angeles was named Moneta Avenue until 1923. In 1909, construction on a bridge across the Los Angeles River was begun to connect Buena Vista Street to Downey Avenue, which ran from the river to Mission Road; the names of Buena Vista and Downey were changed to North Broadway, but not without significant objections from affected residents and landowners.
The bridge, which continued to be referred to as the Buena Vista Street Bridge for a good while, was opened to traffic in late September 1911. For more than 50 years, Broadway from 1st Street to Olympic Boulevard was the main commercial street of Los Angeles, one of its premier theater and movie palace districts as well, it contains a vast number of historic buildings and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Before World War II, Broadway was considered by many to be the center of the city, where residents went to ornate movie palaces and live theaters, shopped at major department stores and shops; some significant buildings include the Bradbury Building, Ace Hotel Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Examiner building designed by Julia Morgan. Some of the movie theaters on the street fell into disuse and disrepair, some were replaced with parking lots, but many have been repurposed and/or restored; the department stores closed in the 1970s and 1980s, but Broadway has been the premier shopping destination for working class Latinos for decades.
The Downtown's real estate revitalization, using the City's adaptive reuse ordinance that makes it easier for developers to convert outmoded and/or vacant office and commercial buildings into residential buildings, has reached the Broadway Historic District. It includes the transformation of the United Artists Theater office tower into the Ace Hotel Los Angeles, restoration of its movie palace; the Bringing Back Broadway commission is working on further reviving the landmark Los Angeles boulevard in the historic district. Led by City Councilman Jose Huizar, the commission has recommended widening sidewalks, eliminating traffic lanes, constructing new parking structures, bringing back streetcar service reminiscent of the street's past. A pedestrian-friendly project finished up in December 2014 that widened the sidewalks and replaced the parking lane with planters and round cafe tables with bright-red umbrellas; the Great Streets Initiative seeks to bolster the street-level health of the city by making several dozen boulevards more hospitable to pedestrians and small businesses.
Mayor Eric Garcetti said the effort represents "a shift from the way that our neighborhoods have been planned in Los Angeles," with a new focus on "walkability and transit." Between Third Street and Olympic Boulevard are a dozen historic theaters known as the Broadway Theater District—the largest surviving collection of pre-WWII movie palaces in the United States, including the 1918 Million Dollar Theater, the first Los Angeles movie palace built by Sid Grauman, the 1931 Los Angeles Theatre and the 1926 Orpheum Theatre. Million Dollar Theater Roxie Theatre Cameo Theatre Arcade Theatre Los Angeles Theatre Palace Theatre State Theatre Globe Theatre Tower Theatre Rialto Theatre Orpheum Theatre United Artists Theatre Bradbury Building Broadway Arcade Clifton's Cafeteria Eastern Columbia Building East Gate — of New Chinatown. Grand Park Little Joe's site — demolished. Los Angeles County Hall of Justice Los Angeles County Hall of Records Los Angeles Examiner building. Los Angeles Times building. Zanja Madre Historic Broadway station is an under-construction light rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system.
The station is located near the intersection of 2nd Street and Broadway The station is directly across the street from the Los Angeles Times Building, is a block
A presidio is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence. The term is derived from the Latin word praesidium meaning defense. In the Americas, the fortresses were built to protect against pirates and rival colonists, as well as against resistance from Native Americans. In the Mediterranean and the Philippines, the presidios were outposts of Christian defense against Islamic raids; the presidios of Spanish-Philippines in particular, were centers where the martial art of Arnis de Mano was developed, combining Filipino, Latin-American and Spanish fighting techniques. In western North America, with independence, the Mexicans garrisoned the Spanish presidios on the northern frontier and followed the same pattern in unsettled frontier regions like the Presidio de Sonoma, at Sonoma and the Presidio de Calabasas, in Arizona. In western North America, a rancho del rey or king's ranch would be established a short distance outside a presidio; this was a tract of land assigned to the presidio to furnish pasturage to the horses and other beasts of burden of the garrison.
Mexico called this facility "rancho nacional". Presidios were only accessible to Spanish military and soldiers. Italy: Estado de los PresidiosNorth Africa: Melilla Velez Oran Béjaïa TripoliGreece: Koroni Methoni South Carolina: The Presidio Santa Elena, founded in 1566 on Parris Island, destroyed by Native Americans in 1576, re-established in 1577, abandoned in 1587Georgia: The Presidio Guale, founded in 1566, abandoned three months The Presidio San Pedro de Tacatacuru, founded in 1569 on Cumberland Island, abandoned in 1573Florida: The Presidio San Augustin, founded in 1565, which developed into the city of St. Augustine, ceded to Great Britain in 1763 and regained 20 years The Presidio San Mateo, founded in 1565 on the ruins of Fort Caroline and destroyed by the French in 1568 The Presidio Ais, founded in 1565 on the Indian River Lagoon, abandoned after one month The Presidio Santa Lucia, founded in 1565 near Cape Canaveral, abandoned four months The Presidio San Antonio de Padua, founded in 1566 at Calos, capital of the Calusa, abandoned in 1569 The Presidio Tocobago, founded in 1567 on Tampa Bay, destroyed by the Tocobagos within ten months The Presidio Tequesta, founded in 1567 on the site of what is now Miami, abandoned in 1568 The Presidio Santa Maria de Galve, founded in 1696, near Fort Barrancas at present-day Naval Air Station Pensacola.
The Presidio Bahía San José de Valladares, founded in 1701 on St. Joseph Bay, captured by French in 1718; the Presidio San Marcos de Apalachee, founded in 1718 at the existing port of San Marcos, which developed into the town of St. Marks, ceded to Great Britain in 1763 and regained 20 years The Presidio Bahía San José de Nueva Asturias, founded in 1719 on St. Joseph Point, abandoned in 1722 The Presidio Isla Santa Rosa Punta de Siguenza, founded in 1722 on Santa Rosa Island, abandoned in 1755 The Presidio San Miguel de Panzacola, founded in 1755, which developed into the city of Pensacola, ceded to Great Britain in 1763 and regained 20 years laterLouisiana: The Presidio Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adaes, founded in 1721 near the present-day RobelineTexas: The Presidio Fuerte de Santa Cruz del Cibolo, founded in 1734 and re-established in 1771 near Cestohowa, Texas in Karnes County, Texas; the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, founded in 1718 in San Antonio The Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto, founded in 1721, near Lavaca Bay, now in Goliad The Presidio of San Carlos de Cerro Gordo, founded in 1772 in Big Bend Country The Presidio San Luis de las Amarillas San Saba, founded in 1772 near the present-day Menard The Presidio de la Junta de los Ríos Norte y Conchos, founded in 1760 just southwest of present-day PresidioNew Mexico: The Presidio Santa Cruz de la Cañada, in Santa CruzArizona: The Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac, founded in 1752 in Tubac The Presidio San Augustin del Tucson, founded in 1775 in Tucson The Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrenate, founded in 1775 near the present-day Tombstone The Presidio de Calabasas, founded in 1837 near the present-day TumacacoriCalifornia: The Presidio Real de San Carlos de Monterey, founded in 1770.
Its rancho del rey was. It is housing the Defense Language Institute, in Monterey The Presidio Real de San Diego, founded in 1769 in San Diego, its rancho del rey was what became Rancho de la Nación; the Presidio Real de San Francisco, founded in 1776 and now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco. Its rancho del rey was; the Presidio Real de Santa Bárbara, founded in 1782 in Santa Barbara. Its rancho del rey was; the Presidio de Sonoma, founded by Mexico in 1836 in Sonoma. Its rancho nacional was. Presidios were established in frontier regions in northern Mexico to control and confine rebellious indigenous tribes. Captured indigenous warriors were enslaved at the presidio. Sonora: The Presidio de San Felipe y Santiago de Janos, founded in 1685 in Janos, Sonora The Presidio del Pitic, founded in 1726 in Hermosillo, Sonora The Presidio Santa Gertrudis del Altar, founded in 1755 in Altar, Sonora The Presidio de Santa Rosa de Corodéguachi, founded in 1692, near the Sonora/Arizona border and moved to Fronteras, Sonora The Presidio de San Bernardino, founded in 1776 near the present-day Douglas Durango: Th
Alta California, known sometimes unofficially as Nueva California, California Septentrional, California del Norte or California Superior, began in 1804 as a province of New Spain. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804. Following the Mexican War of Independence, it became a territory of Mexico in April 1822 and was renamed "Alta California" in 1824; the claimed territory included all of the modern US states of California and Utah, parts of Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico. Neither Spain nor Mexico colonized the area beyond the southern and central coastal areas of present-day California, small areas of present-day Arizona, so they exerted no effective control in modern-day California north of the Sonoma area, or east of the California Coast Ranges. Most interior areas such as the Central Valley and the deserts of California remained in de facto possession of indigenous peoples until in the Mexican era when more inland land grants were made, after 1841 when overland immigrants from the United States began to settle inland areas.
Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges were claimed to be part of Alta California, but were never colonized. To the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. Alta California ceased to exist as an administrative division separate from Baja California in 1836, when the Siete Leyes constitutional reforms in Mexico re-established Las Californias as a unified department, granting it more autonomy. Most of the areas comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848. Two years California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the coastal area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century and prospected the area as a domain of the Spanish monarchy. During the following two centuries there were various plans to settle the area, including Sebastián Vizcaíno's expedition in 1602–03 preparatory to colonization planned for 1606–07, canceled in 1608.
Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of religious outposts from today's Baja California and Baja California Sur into present-day California. Father Eusebio Kino missionized the Pimería Alta from 1687 until his death in 1711. Plans in 1715 by Juan Manuel de Oliván Rebolledo resulted in a 1716 decree for extension of the conquest which came to nothing. Juan Bautista de Anssa proposed an expedition from Sonora in 1737 and the Council of the Indies planned settlements in 1744. Don Fernando Sánchez Salvador researched the earlier proposals and suggested the area of the Gila and Colorado Rivers as the locale for forts or presidios preventing the French or the English from "occupying Monterey and invading the neighboring coasts of California which are at the mouth of the Carmel River." Alta California was not accessible from New Spain: land routes were cut off by deserts and hostile Native populations and sea routes ran counter to the southerly currents of the distant northeastern Pacific.
New Spain did not have the economic resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. Spanish interest in colonizing Alta California was revived under the visita of José de Gálvez as part of his plans to reorganize the governance of the Interior Provinces and push Spanish settlement further north. In subsequent decades, news of Russian colonization and maritime fur trading in Alaska, the 1768 naval expedition of Pyotr Krenitsyn and Mikhail Levashev, in particular, alarmed the Spanish government and served to justify Gálvez's vision. To ascertain the Russian threat, a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched. In preparation for settlement of Alta California, the northern, mainland region of Las Californias was granted to Franciscan missionaries to convert the Native population to Catholicism, following a model, used for over a century in Baja California; the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule.
The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolá in San Diego in 1769. The following year, 1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu; the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781. By law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents; the Franciscans, prolonged their control over the missions after control of Alta California passed from Spain to independent Mexico, continued to run the missions until they were secularized, beginning in 1833.
The transfer of property never occurr
KCET, virtual and UHF digital channel 28, is a non-commercial educational, independent television station licensed to Los Angeles, United States. Owned by the Public Media Group of Southern California, it is the sister station to Huntington Beach, California-licensed Public Broadcasting Service member station KOCE-TV. KCET's studios are located at The Pointe in Burbank, its transmitter is located atop Mount Wilson in the San Gabriel Mountains. KCET was the second attempt at establishing an educational station in the Los Angeles area: KTHE, operated by the University of Southern California, had broadcast on channel 28, beginning on September 22, 1953, it was the second educational television station in the United States, signing on six months and four days after KUHT in Houston, but ceased broadcasting after only nine months on the air because its primary benefactor, the Hancock Foundation, determined that the station was too much of a financial drain on its resources. KCET—the call letters of which stand for either California Educational Television, Committee for Educational Television, Community Educational Television, or Cultural and Educational Television—first signed on the air on September 28, 1964, as an affiliate of National Educational Television.
The station was licensed to the non-profit group Community Television of Southern California. Part of the station's initial funding came from four of Los Angeles's commercial stations–KNXT, KNBC, KTTV and KCOP –along with grants from the Ford Foundation and the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare. KCET broadcast in black and white from Monday through Friday. James Loper, a co-founder of CTSC, served as the station's director of education from 1964 to 1966 and vice president and general manager from 1966 to 1971. Loper served as president of KCET from 1971 to 1983. Creative Person—John Burton a 30-minute film biography of Glass artist and Philosopher John Burton was the first color film commissioned by KCET-TV in 1965, it won the first two Los Angeles area Emmys for KCET for John Burton, for the production by George Van Valkenburg. Van Valkenburg produced a one-hour documentary film titled Paris Air Show 1967 for KCET. Prior to applying for and receiving a construction permit to build the new channel 28, CTSC attempted to acquire one of Los Angeles's seven existing VHF commercial stations.
In 1968, Community Television of Southern California emerged as a potential buyer of KTLA's channel 5 license from then-owner Gene Autry, but could not raise the cash needed to make a serious offer. If CTSC succeeded in moving KCET to channel 5, the move would have mirrored a similar occurrence seven years earlier in the New York City area, where local broadcasters assisted a non-profit group in purchasing commercial independent VHF station WNTA-TV and converting it into non-commercial, educational WNDT. On October 5, 1970, KCET became a charter member of the Public Broadcasting Service at the programming service's inception. For most of the next 40 years, it was the second most-watched PBS station in the country and produced programs distributed to PBS and to individual public television stations; the station served as Southern California's flagship PBS member station, with San Bernardino-licensed KVCR —which the San Bernardino Community College District signed on the air on September 11, 1962—as the service's original sole secondary outlet.
KCET gained additional competitors when the Coast Community College District signed on Huntington Beach-licensed KOCE-TV on November 20, 1972, the Los Angeles Unified School District signed on secondary Los Angeles member KLCS on November 5, 1973. In 1971, KCET purchased the former Monogram Pictures property at 1725 Fleming Street in a historic area of East Hollywood—which was used as a film and television studio from 1912 to 1970—to serve as the station's headquarters, an acquisition assisted in part by financial contributions from both the Ford Foundation and the Michael Connell Foundation; the building was renamed the Weingart Educational Telecommunications Center and housed KCET's master control, digital control rooms and editing stations on the first floor, engineering, new media operations, news and public affairs departments on the second floor. In 1994, KCET and Store of Knowledge Inc. a Carson-based company, launched the KCET Store of Knowledge in Glendale as the first of many partnership stores with PBS affiliates.
In 2004, as part of its image-reclaiming public relations after the Gulf oil spill, BP started granting KCET half the funding for preschool shows including A Place of Our Own and Los Ninos en Su Casa, a Spanish language version. The other half of the $50 million grants for the show and supporting outreach programs came from First 5 California plus additional funding from an anonymous donor; the show won Peabody and local Emmy awards and was shown nationally over PBS. KCET renamed its production studio to BP Studios in thanks. PBS included BP's and other grants for the two pre-school shows in its complex progressive dues structures though the grants came with the stipulation that they could not be used for administrative costs; the PBS dues for KCET had been $4.9 million but with the grants included the dues increased by 40% to close to $7 million. Other large funding sources, counted on were shrinking and thus could not be tapped to pay the dues. KCET's request that these specific grants, which were restricted to show production on
Heritage Documentation Programs
Heritage Documentation Programs is a division of the U. S. National Park Service responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey, Historic American Engineering Record, Historic American Landscapes Survey; these programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, written reports, are archived in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. In 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency, it was founded as a constructive make-work program for architects and photographers left jobless by the Great Depression. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of America's architectural heritage. By creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement.
Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, many contributors to which joined the HABS program. Notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher; the Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10, 1969, by NPS and the American Society of Civil Engineers. HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts. Since the advent of HAER, the combined program is called "HABS/HAER". Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, or as part of college-credit classwork. Eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, the Historic American Landscapes Survey, to systematically document historic American landscapes. A predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940; that project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, which supervised the collection of records.
The permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since been expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph and magazine. As a branch of the United States Government, its created works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures. Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places Notes Further reading "HAER: 30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 25. 1999. JSTOR i40043493. "Documenting Complexity: The Historic American Engineering Record and America's Technological History". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology.
23. 1997. JSTOR i4004348. Lindley, John; the Georgia Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0613-4. Witcher, T. R.. "Fifty Years of Preservation: The Historic American Engineering Record". Civil Engineering. National Park Service−NPS: official Heritage Documentation Programs website
Los Angeles State Historic Park
Los Angeles State Historic Park is a state park within the Chinatown neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Known as the Cornfield, the former brownfield consists of a long open space between Spring Street and the tracks of the Metro Gold Line. Located outside the main commercial and residential area in the northeast portion of Chinatown, the area is adjacent and southeast of Elysian Park neighborhood; this former site of the Southern Pacific Transportation Company's River Station is considered the "Ellis Island of Los Angeles" where new arrivals from the east first disembarked. Corn leaking from train cars and sprouting along the tracks gave rise to the nickname The Cornfield; the 32-acre site was established as a California state park in 2001. In 2001, a five-foot section of the historical Zanja Madre irrigation canal was uncovered. In 2005, the former industrial site was transformed into a productive cornfield for one season as an art project called "Not a Cornfield."In 2006, a contest was held in conjunction with the California State Parks Foundation to select a design for the park.
The preliminary park opened on September 23 of the same year. Hargreaves and Associates of San Francisco won the contest. Development of the park has been slow. California's budget deficit forced officials to scale back plans for the park in 2010, earmarking $18 million instead of the planned $55 million. Plans for a bridge/water fountain, theme gardens, an upscale restaurant, an ecology center with restored wetlands were tabled; the tabled features may be added if funding becomes available. As of 2018, the park is now open, the campfire circle and parking lot are available for public use. Numerous community fairs and gatherings have been held in the park, it contains several plaques that relate the history of the Cornfield and downtown Los Angeles. List of California state parks Los Angeles State Historic Park Los Angeles State Historic Park official blog